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savings system and our extension system for the schools, and after a full explanation they, with the superintendent, voted unanimously to place the same in our schools. Immediately after the opening of the schools I visited each one separately and presented the matter to the pupils and opened a penny savings bank, which was placed in charge of the teacher. I closed this feature of the work on Friday, September 15, and the results to date have been eminently satisfactory and very gratifying. I have arranged with the teachers to have them submit a weekly report during the two remaining weeks of this month showing, first the total number of depositors, second the total amount deposited, and third the average age of deposo After the close of this month these reports will be made monthly instead of weekly.
Chairman of the Delegation of the National Association of Manufacturers
of U. S. A.
Permit me to extend to you, in the name of the great organization which I
have the honor to represent, the good will, cooperation and support of thousands of progressive manufacturers from almost every state and city of the Union in every sane endeavor to preserve the natural resources of our nation. I have listened with keen interest to yesterday's and today's arguments for the conservation of coal and timber, soil and water. It seemed to me particularly significant to have a lumberman in the person of the honorable chairman of your executive committee urge the preservation of our forests, and it was equally fitting to hear our great farmer Governor of Missouri make a plea for the soil. Of course, both of these gentlemen spoke upon subjects nearest to their hearts. Unfortunately I am not a farmer, but their action gives me courage to devote a few minutes to a few phases of the conservation problem nearest my heart. . . Allow me, an employer of industrial labor, to plead for higher efficiency in the industries and especially for better opportunities for the millions of toilers, in the shops as well as upon the farm. The greatest nation of the future will be the nation that best understands how to economize and preserve human energy and happiness at home, and how to build up trade abroad. President Taft told us last night how, by mixing science and proper education, our crops per acre can be doubled and trebled. In the same way can the output of our mines and factories be increased tenfold in value by industrial education. Instead of selling steel billets to the nations of the world, we want to sell them sewing machines, dynamos and watch springs; and instead of exporting raw cotton we want to export high-grade cotton goods. This requires government support for industrial education, and I urge you, in return for our aid to secure agricultural schools and experimental stations, you give us vours to secure scientific industrial training. The National Association of Manufacturers is persistently and sys. tematically working to that end. And there is another phase of preservation even more important. Among the measures pointed out in vour handbook to which the association will give its vigorous support, both legislative and administrative, I find this: “Means wisely designed to diminish sickness, prevent accidents, and increase the welfare and comfort of American life, believing that human efficiency, health and happiness are natural resources quite as important as forests, water, land and minerals.” Now, I do know something of this feature of the preservation movement. and after the vigorous campaigning which the National Association of Manufacturers has carried on in the last two years for “human preservation” under my supervision, I feel that it is not only of equal importance to soil preservation, but more so. Authorities tell us that in comparison of the vital and physical assets of a nation, as measured by earning power, the former are from three to five times as valuable as the latter. These authorities assert that there is as great room for improvement of our vital resources as in our lands, waters, minerals and forests, and that this improvement is possible in respect to hoth the length of life and to freedom from disease and accidental injury during life.
Prof. Irving Fisher estimates (in Bulletin Number 30 of the committee of one hundred on national health) that $250,000,000,000 is a minimum estimate of the vital assets of the United States in 1907 and that of the estimated annual loss of three billions of dollars due to sickness, accident and death, one-half, or one and one-half billion dollars, is preventable. According to Dr. Tolman, the total number of work casualties suffered by our army of wage-workers is sufficient to carry on perpetually two such wars at the same time as the Russo-Japanese and our Civil war. According to the same authority, our railroads, during the year of 1906, killed and wounded more persons than were killed and wounded in the six bloodiest battles of the Civil War. In all these directions our losses are from five to ten times greater proportionately than those of the most progressive European nations, and what are we doing about it? The National Association of Manufacturers has carefully compiled facts and figures and has everlastingly spread the gospel of preventing these losses and compensating equitably the sufferers from unpreventable losses. Do not think for one moment that this is a subject that does not concern the farmer. I can prove by facts and figures that the percentage of injuries among farmers is greater than in the industries, and easier prevented. If you want to convince yourself go to the nearest insurance office. You will find the accident insurance rates for the farmer higher than for the carpenter or machinist. Some European countries have evolved compensation schemes by which $78 of every $100 paid for accident insurance is paid to the iniured wage worker. Under our liability laws, only about $30 out of every $100 reaches the injured worker. What would you think of your neighbor if he were trying to run a machine with 30 per cent efficiency in competition with yours of 78 per cent efficiency? He would not last very long. We ask your help in establishing sound, safe and efficient schemes in all the states of the Union. The first part of the problem will have to be solved by legislation, the second by coöperation, and it can be done only by a combination of all the progressive elements of society. It must be done as quickly as possible, bearing in mind all the time that he who starts out well prepared for a race is in better shape to win than he who hurries on without due preparation. . We must have facts and figures before us and we must select the best men in the various states to act as investigation commissioners. So-called reformers do not always appreciate this. A short time ago I addressed the governor and the legislature of one of our Middle Western states. The governor, a man of many fine qualities, asked me during the progress of my arguments why I had gathered such a mass of facts and figures from European sources. I asked him in return how he would settle it without statistics, and he replied, “We need no facts and figures, all we need is the right kind of a gizzard." Of course there is no sense in arguing with such a man. He misunderstands the issue. Americans do not need, and do not want charity; they want justice. We in the United States will eventually have the best system for preserving the best resources of our country, the health and well-being of our people, the self-respect and earning capacity of our wage workers, the lives and limbs of our toilers, but it will take the combined energy and wisdom of all of us to bring this about.
REPORT OF THE AMERICAN HUMANE ASSOCIATION.
By W.M. O. STILLMAN, President.
The American Humane Association, during the past year, has been actively engaged in promoting the development of humanitarian work in the United States, and has also been useful in promoting a similar work in many foreign lands. During October. 1910, there was held under the auspices of this association, in the city of Washington, D. C., and under the Honorary Presidency of William H. Taft, the President of our country, the first American International Humane Conference. There were present representatives from thirty foreign countries. The addresses. papers and topics which were heard were of great value. There was also held, in connection with the International Conference, the first international exhibit of ob
jects of humane interest. This was shown in the New United States National Museum building, where the conference was also held. The exhibition, which lasted a week, proved phenomenal in extent and interest. As a direct and acknowledged result of the Washington conference, there is to be held, during June, 1912, in London, England, a similar international congress, which it is believed will greatly assist the spread of work which we represent. The result of international meetings of this description is to promote the spread of humanitarian doctrines everywhere. Representatives were present at Washington from Japan, China, India, Persia, Turkey, Russia, Australia, and almost every section of the globe. We believe that the choicest asset which any nation possesse, is its childhood. Our anti-cruelty societies are seeking all over the world to protect childhood from influences which are prejudicial to health or morals. This means a better standard and average in childhood. and the elimination of great masses of the youth which, under present conditions, inevitably become recruits of the armies of vagrancy and crime. The other great field of humane endeavor is to promote the conservation and protection of animal life. The livestock of a country constitutes one of the most valuable assets, in an intrinsic sense, which a country like ours can possess. As pointed out in our report last year, efforts which may readily be made would result in the saving of hundreds of thousands of horses and cattle for longer and more useful service. The American Humane Association intends to ask Congress for relief of transportation conditions which are responsible for great injury and loss of livestock, by requesting that a minimum speed bill be enacted. This proposition has been heartily endorsed by the Department of Agriculture in Washington and by humanitarians generally. Various other reforms are contemplated and will be pushed to a conclusion in the near future. We feel that our work is a thoroughly practical one, and that in its largest sense it stands for better citizenship and the promotion of the moral interests of the commonwealth as well as its commercial ones. We trust that the Third National Conservation Congress will approve of the work in which we are engaged, which represents a membership of much over one hundred thousand persons and an expenditure of more than a million and a half dollars annually.
CONSERVATION OF PIRD LIFE.
By Dr. GEORGE W. FIELD.
I want to call your attention to one phase which has hardly been touched upon— importance of the conservation of our bird life. When you realize that the insect places a tax upon every one of us twice as great as we are called upon to pay to our towns, cities and states, a tax of at least five per cent on every agriculturist and consumer of food in this nation, we realize the work of the National Audubon Society, which is organized for the purpose of protecting the wild insectivorous birds. The resources of this association last year were about $35,000. Over against that was this damage to our agricultural interests of over one million dollars. So you can see therefore that we have been able to do but very little relatively. When we compare the condition in this country with that of Germany, where they have one hundred times as many birds to the square mile as we have in this country, we realize the importance of the work which this association is carrying on. We ask your support, every one, in every way, to assist the activities of this National Audubon Society. (Applause)
I also represent the National Shell Fish Association. Now, the purpose of this association is to issue, so to speak, a sanitary insurance to every person who consumes oysters, clams, lobsters and that type of sea food. In other words, we want to make it possible that when you in Kansas, Missouri, and in the interior of the country, eat from your table, or in your hotels, oysters brought from the seacoast of both sides of this nation, to be certain that there is no chance of infection, of typhoid fever, or other disease. To do that we are asking every state in the Nation to realize the enormous waste of material in the form of sewage and manufacturing waste which is pouring into our streams and into our coastal waters. To take one concrete illustration, the city of Boston, in Massachusetts, spent five or six millions of dollars for the purpose of putting the sewage into the ocean. It did that, but when it did it destroyed annually the potential capacity of that water to develop shell fish food. In other words. it was precisely the same as if so many thousands of acres in your farming country were utterly destroyed forever for all farming purposes. It was reduced merely to a desert, whereas, if that material had been placed on the land, where it belonged, there would have been enormous benefits arising to the farm, and it would have been possible to cultivate that land under water for raising food. Now, we are demonstrating, acre for acre, that the land under water can raise more food–nitrogenous food, the most expensive type of food for man—at a less expense in time, in capital, and in labor, than the very best acres in your boasted river bottoms, a type of food material which can be raised o: else than on the coasts of our country, on both the Atlantic and Pacific and the Gulf.
President American Association of Refrigeration.
I desire to thank the Congress in the name of the members of the American Association of Refrigeration for the invitation to be represented here by official delegates. We consider it especially fitting that our association should participate in the deliberations of this Congress, because it stands for the conservation of the perishable foods of the people in the broadest sense. In order that those who are not already familiar with the objects of our Association and with the methods it employs in carrying these into effect, and to illustrate how well our work meshes with the purposes of this National Congress, I will call your attention to several statements taken from the statutes by which our organization is governed. Among our objects are: “To institute investigations, experiments and tests for the purpose of demonstrating correct solutions of scientific, technical and industrial problems pertaining to the art of refrigeration. “To inspire confidence in the public mind, and appreciation of the beneficial effects of refrigeration upon perishable food products, both in transit and when stored for the purpose of conservation, by collecting and disseminating authentic information on the subject. “To encourage the expansion of American trade, commerce and transportation of perishable agricultural products, and to assist the commercial and industrial interests affected by mechanical refrigeration, both at home and abroad. “To further its purposes and extend its influence by publications, meetings, conferences and courses of lectures, and by encouraging the introduction in educational institutions of regular courses in refrigeration. “To cooperate with the International Association of Refrigeration in the organization of international commissions for the discussion of questions of international import, and in the determination of correct basic data pertaining to the art of refrigeration.” The conservation of the natural resources of the country is now recognized by all thinking persons as a vital factor in our national life, both as an obligation to posterity and because of its immediate influence on the material welfare and the health of the people. The influence of this Congress, as it is felt more generally over the country, must result in strongly stimulating thrift and economy as well as respect for law among the people. The exercise of these qualities is essential to the conservation of the waters, the forests, the lands and the minerals, as well as all of the vital resources of the country. Our people—in fact, the people of all the civilized countries of the world—are now confronted with serious problems due to the high prices of the necessaries of life, principally their food supplies.
It is believed that these conditions largely grow out of neglect to properly conserve and market perishable foods and to lack of adequate means for promptly collecting and transporting them in sound condition from regions capable of ample production to the thickly populated centers; also to insufficient means for preserving such supplies from seasons of over-production to periods of scarcity. It is certainly a very necessary and laudable mission, to concentrate the intelligence and energy of a body of men such as compose this Congress for the conservation of the forests, lands, waters, minerals and vital resources of the country. Our association is very much interested in all of this, because lumber, minerals and water are very necessary to the refrigerating industry, while the conservation of the soil is of paramount importance as the source of the fuel of the great human engine through the operation of which all of the other resources are harnessed to the world's work. We are, therefore, here particularly to emphasize the necessity of conserving the perishable foods of the people by refrigeration, that much misunderstood and often misrepresented natural mode of preservation. However productive the soil may be made, and however ample the supply of highly nutritious food may be, unless such food is made available for use when and where it is needed. and where it must be supplied at prices the people can afford to pay, the conservation of the soil will have failed of extending the fullest measure of its possible benefits to the people. Our organization has made an especial study of the subject of the production, the transportation and the conservation of perishable foods, and of the laws and proposed laws applying to the subject. The hearings before the Senate committees on manufactures of the Sixty-first and Sixty-second Congresses, the reports of which are published by the National Government, abound in evidences of the activity of our committes and individual members. Therefore, if it is in order and otherwise agreeable. I would like to propose that, in furtherance of the purposes of this Congress, and in order that its opportunities for doing good may be realized in the fullest measure, a standing committee on food be added to the present standing committees. Such committee to be composed of persons best qualified to render the most efficient service in the study of the questions involved in the production, collection, transportation, preservation and marketing of perishable foods, and to report to the Fourth Congress. Such report to be made the basis of measures to conserve the perishable foods of the people, to improve their quality, increase their production, and to promote such relations between the producer and consumer as will bring about lower and more nearly uniform prices throughout each year.
WILD LIFE PROTECTION.
Vice-President Camp Fire Club of America, Chairman Committee on Game Protective Legislation and Preserves.
The Camp Fire Club of America was founded as an organization of big game §unters, with the protection of wild life and forests, as its great objects. Dan eard once characterized the club as a “Society of Criminals for the Suppression of Crime.” Big game hunters have always been active in game protection, indeed R n all conservation measures, and that because their touch with the woods keeps Whe problem alive. - - - - \ To the sportsmen of America are due nearly all the existing game protective aws. Among the Camp Fire Club's members are Dr. W. T. Hornaday, whom all Thonor as the Washington of wild life protection; Ernest Thompson Seton and Dan Board, who by their work with the boys are doing more for the future, of conserjon than any men living with but two exceptions: Irving Bacheller, A. W. Dimock, Dillon Wallace. Gifford Pinchot—God bless him—and many others, who with pen, time and money are laboring ceaselessly for the great cause of conservation which is so near your hearts and mine. » *h ob" may fairly claim for less than two years' work: Yeoman service