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hers and through its committee on publicity, a most commendable campaign to impress the public with the significance of our fire waste. Numerous circulars have been distributed and printed in whole or in part in the newspapers.

Many commercial bodies and boards of trade of our cities have taken up the subject of the fire waste, appointed local committees on fire prevention and advocated and secured improvements tending to afford better fire protection, and lessen the great financial drain which the fire loss was causing in their communities.

The National Association of Credit Men, which has perhaps devoted more time to the study of insurance and the fire waste of the country than any other commercial body, has been very active in acquainting business men with the importance of the subject and in encouraging the adoption by municipality and state of such remedial measures as will tend to diminish the steadily and rapidly increasing fire losses. The states of Ohio, Montana, Nebraska and Iowa are instructing their school children as to the importance of observing greater care in the handling and use of the ordinary fire hazards. The Fire Insurance Commissioners in annual convention in August last adopted the following resolutions: “The appalling annual loss of life and property in the United States by fires, due to criminal carelessness, ignorance or dishonesty, commands the serious attention of the American people. From present indications over $300,000,000 in property values will be utterly wiped out during the current year—a sum so vast that it must have a serious economic effect on the prosperity of the country. The causes for this enormous drain on the savings of the Nation are well known and to a large extent preventable. “The destruction of property by fire is ten times as great per capita in the United States as it is in Germany, France, England, and other countries abroad; and in addition to this needless waste of property there are also thousands of men, women and children burned to death or crippled in the various local fires and conflagrations that constantly occur. The chief factor responsible for this situation is general carelessness and the utter lack of personal responsibility for the removal of causes productive of fires. “We recommend a campaign of education through the governors, insurance commissioners and fire marshals of the various states, for the purpose of bringing directly to the attention of the people the causes responsible for the national ash heap, and the adoption of legislation which will safeguard the lives and property of ; people by holding every individual responsible for carelessness resulting In fires. “We commend the suggestion unanimously adopted by the Association of Fire Marshals of North America, urging that the governors of the various states set aside one day each year to be known as “fire prevention day.’ By proclamation the governor can call the attention of the citizens to the enormous preventable fire waste of the country, and urge the taking of such precautions, individual, municipal and state, as will tend to reduce it. Appropriate exercises can be held in the public schools, instruction on the common fire hazards can be given the children, and the day can be made the occasion of the “clean-up' day, which is doing so much to remove hazardous conditions. “Resolved. That the individual members of the convention will use their influence to secure such action by the governors of their respective states, as an important, practical and educational assistance in the work of fire prevention.” The governors of a number of our commonwealths have already acted favorably on part of the foregoing suggestions and by proclamation have set aside a day to be known as “fire prevention day,” when the citizens will be called upon to clean up their several premises and provide better fire protection, as a part of a nation-wide study of fire waste, and the individual responsibility of property owners and householders. . The State Fire Marshals in annual session adopted somewhat similar resolutions. The awakening of our people on this subject affords encouragement, but as yet it is only partial, incomplete, and not in keeping with the national importance of the subject. A number of our states enacted fire marshal laws during their last legislative sessions, some of which were commendable in their provisions, but many of them embodied the false theory that such laws are more beneficial to the fire insurance companies than to the public, and impose on the former an additional tax for its support and enforcement. In contrast to this policy, the Legislature of New York State, recognizing that the state was collecting through its insurance department vastly more than the expenses of the department, enacted what may be taken as a model fire marshal law, the provisions of which are to be carried out and enforced by the state at its own expense. Probably two-thirds of our fire loss is from preventable causes. Based on this estimate, nearly two hundred million dollars of property values are unnecessarily destroyed annually, reducing the wealth of the Nation in like measure, since insurance does not restore but merely indemnifies out of remaining wealth. It has truly been said that this preventable fire waste is a national disgrace, and we have the humiliation of knowing that the United States is by far the leader in this discreditable condition. Publicity has been mentioned recently as a cure, or partial cure, for other evils. Likewise publicity will have an advantageous effect in preventing fires. A special lesson to be preached and reiterated is that those who cause, or have, avoidable fires, injure their neighbors, their municipalities, their states and their country. They have created a part of the two hundred million yearly “national scandal.” They have destroyed wealth and increased taxes. They have been bad citizens. If the distinguished persons who are in attendance here will interest themselves in their respective communities and states and advocate the cause of conservation of the fire waste and the elimination of preventable fires, they will help, and give an impetus to, the movement for lessened fire losses and the saving of lives from fire. While the members of the National Board of Fire Underwriters have an advantage of contact and outlook as to the fire situation, they have no more and no different interest in the subject than have other citizens. Good citizenship demands that all, individually and collectively, should do their full part in inculcating principles and bringing about practices which will stop the ravages of the tremendous fire waste that is scandalous because obviously pre

ventable. -
GEO. W. BABB, New York.
W. N. KREMER. New York.
F. W. WEST, Glens Falls, N. Y.
F. G. RICHARDs, New York.
R. M. Bissell. Hartford, Conn.
R. DALE BENSON, Philadelphia.
C. G. SMITH, New York.

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUDUBON
SOCIETIES.

BY WILLIAM P. W H ARTON.

To cultivate in the public mind a more lively appreciation of the value of preserving the wild bird and animal life of America, is the object of the National Association of Audubon Societies for the protection of wild birds and animals. Backed by thirty-eight state Audubon societies, the National Association is directing its endeavors along certain definite lines of activity. Coöperating with state forest, fish and game commissions and with local clubs, organized for game protection, the association is an important factor in aiding to secure legislation looking to the protection at all times of the valuable non-game birds, and the preservation from undue killing of the various game birds and game animals with which the country is blessed. In forty states the Audubon law for the protection of non-game birds has been enacted, and in many other states Audubon bills for the establishment of state game warden forces, the shortening of seasons for killing game, the creation of game protective funds by requiring hunter's licenses, limits on the number of game birds which may be killed in a day and other restrictive measures have been enacted. The association has always been active in advocating the passage of various federal laws looking to the conservation of our native wild life. Through its officers, agents and members large numbers of violators of the game laws are annually reported to the state authorities and in many instances prosecutions are begun and pushed by its representatives. Its continuous fight against the millinery traffic in the feathers of native birds is a well-known subject in contemporaneous history. To safeguard American water birds, the association has purchased, leased and in other ways secured control of numbers of islands, lakes and swamps where birds of this class are accustomed to congregate in great numbers for the purposes of laying their eggs and rearing their young. Today virtually all of the important breeding colonies of birds on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, as well as many of those along the Pacific coast, are guarded in the summer by wardens employed by the association. Through its efforts, the United States Government has been interested in establishing fifty-three bird sanctuaries by making islands and lakes frequented by breeding birds in summer federal reservations. The association cooperates with the Government in paying for the services of wardens who guard these birds from the inroads of hunters who may desire to kill them for food or to secure their plumage for the feather markets. The association conducts a wide educational campaign by means of lecturers and the annual distribution of hundreds of thousands of pages of literature and pictures of native birds. It is pushing the organization of bird study classes in the schools, and as an example during the past year, over ten thousand Southern school children received systematic instructions in bird study. The association in its various fields of endeavor coöperates with the officials of the United States Department of Education, with the United States Commissioner of Education and numerous scientific societies. Its growth during the past few years has been almost phenomenal and the results achieved in rehabilitating the bird life of many sections of the country is a source of great encouragement.

A LETTER.

From J. L. Van Ornum, Representing the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education and the Society for Testing Materials.

Had there been time for me to extend the greetings of the Society for the Promotion of Engineerng Education to the Third Conservation Congress, I should have stated that:

At our annual convention of fifteen years ago a paper was presented on the subject of “The Conservation of Government Energy Through Education and Research,” in which the statement is made with reference to our natural reSources, “the Government must be possessed of large resources and a settled policy. Resources are not so easily commanded now as formerly. All sources must be guarded and everything realized must he successfully husbanded.”

In the work of the engineering colleges, which distinctively consists in educating young men in those fundamental principles which particularly concern the direction of the great resources of materials and power in nature to the use and convenience of mankind, the student is trained to regard wastefulness as serious a fault as he does otherwise defective design.

With this idea of the essential economy of their plans and works thus impressed, engineers have been filling their place in the development of the material resources of the Republic for more than half a century, until there exists a body of trained men to whom conservation is an ingrained trait.

Having this common ground of interest, it would seem that each organization may be of service to the other; that which I represent gaining an enlarged interest in those social, economic and moral questions which so vitally affect human welfare, and you, perhaps, utilizing the trained, experience available to most fully disclose the true conditions upon which conclusions must depend, so that the principles advocated may always be based upon ascertained facts.

As I listened to the reading of the resolutions on the last afternoon, it seemed to me that if the situation referred to in my last paragraph had been utilized, the statement with regard to the purity of rivers would have been materially modi. fied. I think that civil (sanitary) engineers are rapidly realizing that there is a practicable limit set by conditions of civilization to the absolute purity of rivers, in some cases, which has been theoretically deemed desirable. However, I wish to say in general, that it seems to me the resolutions passed by the Congress are excellent.

ADIDRESS.

By J. C. BAUMGARTNER of California.

I regret exceedingly that a gentleman from our state with whom many of you are well acquainted, a former governor, George C. Pardee, who is the chairman of our State Conservation commission, is not here. I feel wholly incompetent to represent California upon this occasion, but have been asked to say just a few words. When the governor of California asked me a few days ago to take a place upon the state Conservation commission I was very proud and glad to do so. I happened to be a newspaper man by profession, and quite a number of papers throughout the state had little items about my appointment, and the heading in many instances read something like this: “Baumgartner gets a fat plum.” “An editor recognized,” and so on down the line. I made a little reply to that in this way: I said that I was very glad indeed to be recognized as a man who was willing and perhaps in some little measure competent to have a part in the great work of conservation, without money and without price, as you all know, and as was expressed from this platform this morning, this work is a work in which no individual has any selfish interest. It is a public-spirited work. And it is certainly one of the biggest and best things that is going on in this country today. Nothing has been done in California by the state government by way of recognition of this work until within the past few months. So that we who are here from that state are here to learn, and not to attempt to instruct. If we can learn our A B Cs here, we shall feel that our time and money have been well spent in coming here. About five or six months ago—I haven't a recollection of the exact date— the Conservation commission of California was appointed and began its work. I have had the pleasure and the privilege of attending only one meeting which was held a week ago last Friday, and at that meeting I was prevailed upon to come to this Congress, because other members, more competent to represent the state, could not leave home. Accompanying me are other gentlemen from that state. The secretary of our state commission, and representatives of other phases of conservation are here. We have a great deal of rich agricultural land in California, and we are a little shy of water in some places. We have ideal conditions in many respects for manufacturing, but we are also a little shy on coal. So that we turn our attention naturahsy to water and power first. We have entered into coöperative agreements with federal employes, representatives of the various federal bureaudepartments, who are working in our state, especiallv the geological survey people, and the representatives of the department of agriculture, and we have men of our own in the field gathering data on those important phases of conservation in California—water resources and power resources. The work has only iust begun. but we feel that we were fortunate in securing this coöperation of the National Government. It is barely possible that this may be a suggestion to some other state. We entered into agreements with these people to gather the data that we need in order to give us the information necessary for intelligent recommendation to the legislature as to the necessary legislation in our state. This work has just begun, and we feel that we have saved a great deal of time in not having to organize a complete force of our own, and also a great deal of money has been saved in eliminating overhead charges. These gentlemen are gathering for us complete data as to the amount and character of lands that can be irrigated, and complete data as to the water that is available for irrigating those lands. We also in our last legislature, in addition to providing for this commission, provided for a board of control of water power, and under that law the state has absolute control and regulation of water power. In California there is sufficient water power to turn every wheel that is now turned in the United States. It is estimated by federal government experts that we have in California in use and operation 250,000 horsepower, and that we might easily develop five million. It is also estimated that this five million horsenower on the basis of the nrice of coal in California is a billion dollars a year. So vou can see how important that phase of the work is to us. We are accompanied here by the secretarv of our commission. Mr. Louis R. Glavis, and during the course of the convention if there is anything that any one wishes to ask about our work or plans. Mr. Glavis can no doubt answer the questions intelliorentlv. Very likely I could not if the questions were put to me. We wish to sav in this same connection that we would indeed be clad to have the representatives and the conservation commissions in other states and all conservation bodies and organizations, send us any information they have that may be of benefit to us, and we shall be glad, indeed, to reciprocate that courtesy. I do not think there is anything else that I can say, ladies and gentlemen. We merely wanted you to know that we were awake, or just beginning to get awake in California on this important subject, and that we shall give it our best efforts, and invite your hearty cooperation. I thank you. (Applause)

REPORT FROM IDAHO.
By Mrs. Holland C. DAY.

While I am not a native of Idaho, I must say that I claim allegiance to the state of Missouri, and Governor Hadley is my governor. (Applause) But, as I spent many months in Idaho, I was appointed by the newspapers to speak a word for Idaho in case there was no one else here to represent her. Therefore that is my excuse for appearing before you.

Through the Carey act Idaho has had more opportunity to be settled than through the general homestead act, as there is not so much time required to stay on the land before beginning to cultivate. Of course, you all know that is a sage brush country, and there is lots of grubbing to be done there. A few years ago I helped to plant an orchard of 167 acres. Eight thousand fruit trees were planted there. It is called Pasadena valley. From my little hut we counted sixteen settlements of school teachers and their wives, and young people settling in that valley, making a new start in life. That valley blossoms, I was going to say, like a rose, but I mean like an apple tree. For two years now these apple trees have been growing and putting out fine new shoots and they have been obliged to cut these twigs away in order to have the best kind of apples two years from now. Dr. Morrison's orchard is situated in Pasadena valley; he has 167 acres there. He is a man well known in the State of Washington, and he took up this land for the sake of inducing others to come. Now, as far as the irrigation problem is concerned, you all know about it. I am confined to five minutes, but I want to say that the sooner the people of the United States, especially of the East, will not think so much about the productiveness of the soil as they will of the locality, and they think more of the locality I would say, than the productiveness, then the whole western country will be a Mecca for some of the hidebound people of the East. (Applause)

. Now, I am a New Yorker myself, originally. I was a New York girl up to

thirty years ago, and now I am a Missourian, and once a Missourian always a Missourian. And when I went out West they did not have to show me, either. (Applause) But I see the people of the East do not understand the conservation theory as well as they might. I have talked with many, and vou take up the New York papers, and vou will find that they are very provincial. There is nothing outside of New York. You have to come West and get the western. papers to find out what is going on all over the world, and conservation is the touch-word nowadays. I want to say that Idaho is heart and soul in this movement. I represent a paper that goes all over Idaho and is looking forward to some report from this Congress with a great deal of interest, and I shall be pleased to report, it as well and effectively as only a woman can. I thank you very much, and if you want to plant any orchards and have them grow and make monev. and send your apples to Europe and all over the world, come to slaho, to King's Hill or Glenn's Ferry. I thank you. (Applause)

REPORT FROM ILLINOIS.

By Colon EL Is HAM RANDOLPH.

Col. RANDolph–I bring you God speed and the good will of our Governor who cannot be here himself He is lying upon a bed of pain with a broken le

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