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President WALLACE—This Congress intended to get Hon. Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey to address us. He was unable to come, but has sent a representative, Mr. Edward A. Stevens, Commissioner of Public Roads, and he will be heard as soon as the secretary makes some announcements, which will close the program for this afternoon.
After announcements by Secretary Gipe, President WALLACE continued: We will now hear from the representative of Hon. Woodrow Wilson, Mr. Stevens. (Applause)
Mr. STEVENS-Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I did not come prepared to represent the Governor of New Jersey, or to make a speech. That had been entrusted, I believe, to somebody better fitted than myself. I find in the West the State of New Jersey is considered and known for its mitigation of corporations which do not meet the approval of the United States Supreme Court. But it is not that industry I wish to interest you in, or in fact any New Jersey industry. All I can do today is to give a slight enumeration of the work being done in one of the smallest and most densely populated states of the Union. We have commissions or officers in charge of the following branches of conservation work: Forestry; the oyster industry; the conservation of flowing water; the geological survey of the state (which is one of the most complete and most accurate yet carried out by any state of the Union); of agriculture; of public roads; of inland waterways; the regulation of public utilities; the watching over health by the State Board of Health, and also special institutions for the care of tuberculosis, of epileptic and feeble-minded children. We have a fish and game commission, because with us the ocean furnishes a vast source of wealth in its fisheries. We have besides that a commission for the regulation of factory labor, and especially for the regulation of child labor, for children in New Jersey cannot enter into work without passing an examination and without special permits. I am sorry that I cannot do much more than merely enumerate the branches of activity which the state is undertaking. I am only familiar with one of them, that is public road building. If I can be of any service in that technical line to this Congress I hope I will be considered at its disposal. (Applause)
President WALLACE–Prof. F. W. Rane, State Forester, will speak for the State of Massachusetts.
[Prof. Rane's paper is to be found in Supplementary Proceedings.]
President WALLACE—The Congress now stands adjourned until S o'clock, when the conference of the states will be resumed. We will meet tomorrow morning at 9:30 promptly.
In the absence of President Wallace, who was attending the dinner given to the President of the United States, Prof. Condra acted as chairman of the meeting.
Professor CoNDRA–Ladies and Gentlemen, your attention: We will continue the program this evening from 8 o'clock until the arrival of the President and his party. We will have reports from a number of the states. The states which are represented should send their representatives to the platform. If I understand it, we are now to hear from Michigan, Montana, New York and a number of other states, and in addition to that we will have a short talk which will please you I am sure. The first thing on the program is a flashlight picture.
After the flashlight picture was taken, the Congress continued as follows:
Professor CoNDRA—Are there any announcements to be made by the members of the different committees? Has the chairman of the Committee on resolutions an announcement to make?
I wish to announce that there are a good many scientific men present who are representing various bodies and they are going to hold a number of important meetings. One of these will be held in the Coates House, room 244, at 8:30 tomorrow morning. The question is, “What should be the relation of Conservation to Science, to the Discovery of Truth?” We must not divorce the two departments. They are identical when We understand the two. All chemists, geologists, agriculturists, and Others who are ready to assist in this work and wish to meet with the Scientists are invited to do so tomorrow morning. I understand Dr. Shinnick of Iowa is to preside at that meeting. He represents the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Another announcement: We have gathered here about one hundred State conservation commissioners. The conservation commissions of the various states are not political bodies, neither are they partisan, but they are men and women who are studying the truth underlying conservation. The conservation commissioners, together with the various scientists, namely, geologists, agriculturists, chemists and others, will hold meetings tomorrow. I ask you to take notice. And representing these various Scientific bodies, the meeting of the conservation commissioners and the friends of that kind of work; those who want to get at the details of state conserving, including what we should investigate and give to the people as the basis of conservation activity, how we shall do soil survey, geological survey, what kind of maps must be prepared, what is the truth of dry farming, what is true drainage, how shall we make up the various inventories, what kind of forest study should be made in the state—in Other words, in what manner are we to coöperate in the various states, and in what manner are we to coöperate with the Federal Government in getting at the conservation facts? We ask all of you interested in these subjects to join us in the white room at the Baltimore Hotel tomorrow. We will have talks by such men as Prof. Holden, Dr. Hawarth, W. J. Spillman, of the Department of Agriculture, and I might name a number of others, men practically engaged in this line of work. I would like to know whether there is anyone to speak for Michigan?
At the meeting of last year there was not full opportunity to hear from the men representing the states. We want these men to come forward and tell us what they are doing. Michigan has not responded. Is Montana represented 2 Is New York? New Mexico? We ask that you will come here to the platform. Will the representative of Pennsylvania please come to the platform * I ask those of you who are scattered here and there in this great building to be as quiet as you can, because there may be some who are not used to speaking before so many persons and it is rather difficult to speak from this position. Mr. Emil Gunther, representing Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia in particular.
Mr. GUNTHER—The chairman has just announced I may have five minutes. Realizing the importance of time, I wrote out my remarks so that I could not speak more than five minutes if I wanted to.
[Mr. Gunther's paper will be found in Supplementary Proceedings.]
Chairman CoNDRA—It is quite possible that the people throughout this Middle Western country and all of the western part of the United States may fail to realize the different phases of activity that are maintained in the great empire state of New York. That state has recently established a conservation commission, with three scientists as members, paying those men $10,000 a year for the difficult task of organizing the various lines of conservation activity in the state. I have the pleasure of introducing one of the state commissioners of New York, Mr. John D. Moore.
[Mr. Moore's address is in Supplementary Proceedings.]
Chairman CoNDRA–Is the representative of South Carolina, Dr. M. W. Twitchell, present?
A DELEGATE from Kansas—We have tried to hear two speakers from the East, but in Kansas City, half way across the continent, we have been unable to hear them. If you have any more Eastern speakers, California, perhaps, in the rear end of the hall, would like to hear some
thing they say.
Chairman CoNDRA–I would call attention to the fact that people are coming in. I know that those who are here are as quiet as you can be, and I ask that those in the rear on this first floor will call the attention of the ushers to this fact so they may request people to enter more
quietly. We realize that this is a very large building, and you ought not to require every man to speak to all of you. They haven't all got lungs strong enough to make everyone hear, but we hope Dr. Twitchell has.
[Dr. Twitchell's address is in Supplementary Proceedings.]
Chairman CoNDRA—We will postpone the reports from the states until tomorrow. The first speaker represents the National Soil Fertility League, who will speak for ten minutes. After that we will have a talk by Bernard Baker, our old conservation friend, the man who was the president of the Congress at St. Paul during its last Congress. If President Taft should enter during either one of these speeches, I ask that the band may start up “America.” I think it would be appropriate to sing “America” when the President of this great country enters such a great hall filled with such an audience. (Applause) I understand that the gentleman who is to speak is able to talk to the uttermost parts of the gallery. I now introduce Howard H. Gross, president of the National Soil Fertility League. Mr. Gross, of Chicago.
Mr. GROSS—Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I want to thank you kindly for the applause, for it may be the only occasion when it would be proper. (Applause) I want to say as president of the National Soil Fertility League that it is an organization formed to do a specific definite work, and to work with this great Congress, and all who are striving for a better agriculture. I have been doing considerable institute work, and I made this observation: that the farmer was very quick to See and demonstrate how some of these half-baked theories that he was asked to subscribe to did not appeal to him, or, in other words, that we are all from Missouri, and it was necessary to be shown. (Applause) We know that we are not getting out of our farms what we ought to get. We know that Europe is getting two or three times as much per acre as we are. So, in the organization of the National Soil Fertility League I felt that two or three things were necessary: First, we must have an organization that would command the respect of the people, and when I give you the names of the gentlemen who make up the advisory committee I believe you will agree with me that they have been wisely chosen, and we are under obligations to them, all of us, for joining in a great work of this kind. On the advisory committee are Mr. James J. Hill of St. Paul, whom I regard as one of the greatest men who it has ever been my privilege to meet; the next is our most distinguished, our first citizen, William Howard Taft (applause); Franklin MacVeigh; Missouri's great son, Champ Clark (applause)—gentlemen, this is not a political convention. Dr. James, of the University of Illinois; William Jennings Bryan (applause)—now, gentlemen, it would not do for me to read the other names if you are going to break over like this. It is against the rules. Mr. F. D. Coburn, Secretary of Agriculture of the State of Kansas (applause); Benjamin Franklin Yoakum; William George, banker and farmer; Samuel Gompers, president of the Federation of Labor (applause); Alvin H. Saunders of the Breeders' Gazette; J. M. Studebaker, of wagon fame; Samuel Allerton; Henry Wallace, you all know (applause), and W. D. Howard is no less distinguished. The speaker is the only cheap skate in the crowd. (Applause)
Now, gentlemen, the National Soil Fertility League was formed for a definite purpose. It will have a paid organization. We will be Johnny-on-the-spot every minute during the year, doing business. What we propose to do is this: to supplement the great work that is being done by the agricultural colleges, and insist that the state and the nation shall recognize these great institutions with adequate contributions, so that they may do extension work and reach every community in the land from Maine to California. (Applause) We mean to have Congress appropriate a million dollars to start with, and increase it to eight or nine or ten millions if necessary, and every man who has anything to say in Washington is committed to this proposition from top to bottom, and we are going to get the money. Then we propose to have bills introduced at the next meeting of the Legislature in forty-four states, and get the people back of those bills, to the end that the money will be forthcoming to enable the college of agriculture to take up this great work and carry it forward. The plan will be to take a soil chemist, a skilled agriculturist, and put one in every county in the state. That man is responsible to the state university of where the county is situated. He will help the farmer solve the problems of a larger field, coöperating with him, studying the local conditions, to the end that we may establish a permanent agricultural college, and get the largest returns possible and maintain soil fertility. In Europe where they have been farming for a thousand or fifteen hundred years they are raising two or three times what we get, and our land originally was better than theirs. Now there are several problems that are collateral to this. Let me know, Mr. Chairman, when my time is up—and one is farm labor, how to keep the boy on the farm. The new agriculture showing the boy that we can use his brain as well as his brawn, that farming is profitable, far more than he thinks, that he can make dollars out of dimes by proper manipulation, and so he will see that the largest field of opportunity for a man of brawn and brain is in treating with the soil. Show him also that it is a high and noble and splendid business avocation. Also we must have better schools in the country. (Applause)
There is no reason why the boy and the girl on the farm should not have as good educational advantages as those in the city schools. The greatest product that we have on our farm is not cattle, hogs and alfalfa, wheat and oats, but the boy and the girl in the farm home. (Applause) Upon them depends the future of this great country. So let us realize the personal equation and take care of the boys and the girls; give them the education that they want and let them get it at home instead of going to town. Home life is a great deal more pleasant. You must have good roads, consolidated schools, fill your homes with the best there is in the