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of the comforts and conveniences afforded by municipal service. Sewers usually unavailable in these more or less remote locations causes sewage disposal to become at once one of their most vexatious problems, so here comes a new demand for special skill in aiding our country gentlemen in establishing a satisfactory sanitary service that will tend to his comfort and respectability and prevent a menace to life and health. So all along the line the requirements for the sanitary uplift of home surroundings is widening, and the requirements in the daily living is enhancing, for modern sanitary methods of which sewage disposal is the most important are found to be most effective and therefore more necessary in the conservation of man’s most valuable asset—health. (Applause.)

President WHITE–While waiting for committee reports, we will hear from a gentleman from San Francisco, who asks a little time. I will introduce to you Mr. J. P. Baumgartner.

Mr. BAUMGARTNER—I just want to say to you that San Francisco will be in the field at the proper time with an invitation to this Congress to meet in that city in 1915—the year of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The State of California has raised twenty million dollars for this Exposition. There will be a million-dollar convention auditorium on the Exposition grounds, and we feel there are many reasons why it would be particularly fitting for this Congress to meet in that city that year. I do not want to press this matter unduly at this time, but I felt I had a duty to perform to tell you that we want you to come to San Francisco in 1915, and that we will extend to you a royal welcome. I thank you. (Applause.)

President WHITE–There is a committee to report at this time. The Chairman of the Executive Committee, Mr. E. L. Worsham, will report on some amendments to the Constitution.

Chairman WoRSHAM—Mr. President and Members of the Congress: The Executive Committee makes the following recommendations for changes in the Constitution of the National Conservation Congress:

That the following be added as Section 3, Article III:

“After a call of the Executive Committee by the Chairman, and after all members of the committee have been notified of the meeting in sufficient time to be present, three members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.”

That Article IV, Section 1, be amended as follows:

‘‘Section 1. The officers of the Congress shall consist of a President, to be elected by the Congress; a Vice-President, to be elected by the Congress; a Vice-President from each State, to be chosen by the respective State delegations; one from the National Conservation Association and one from the National Association of Conservation Commissioners; an Executive Secretary, a Recording Secretary, and a Treasurer, to be elected by the Congress.”

That in Article V, Section 1, the words “during each regular annual session” be stricken out.

That Article V of the Constitution be amended to read as follows:

“Section 4. The President shall appoint a Finance Committee of five, three from the members of the Executive Committee and two from the Advisory Board, whose duty it shall be to plan ways and means of increasing the revenue of the Congress, and to prepare a budget of expenditures. The Chairman shall be a member of the Executive Committee.

“Section 5. The Executive Committee shall appoint in consultation with the Vice-President from the State, a State Secretary whose duty shall be to work with the State organizations for the especial interests of the Congress. Such Secretary shall report progress to the Executive Committee.”

That the remaining sections of Article V be renumbered accordingly. That Section 2 be added to Article VII, to read as follows: “The membership in the National Conservation Congress shall be as follows: “Individual membership, one dollar a year, entitling the member to a copy of the Proceedings and an invitation to the next year's Congress, without further appointment from any organization. “Individual permanent, or life membership, twenty-five dollars, entitling the member to a certificate of membership and a copy of the Proceedings and invitations to all succeeding annual Congresses. “Individual supporting membership, one hundred dollars, or more, entitling the member to a certificate of membership, a copy of the Proceedings, and an invitation to all succeeding Congresses. “Organization membership, twenty-five dollars, entitling its delegates to the Proceedings and an invitation to the organization to appoint delegates to the next Congress. “Organization supporting membership, one hundred dollars or more, entitling the organization to appoint one delegate from each State, each of whom shall receive a copy of the Proceedings.”

Mr. WoRSHAM—We are proposing some radical changes regarding the membership of the Congress. Heretofore, the personnel of the Congress has varied from year to year, and we have had no way of keeping in touch with delegates who attend. We think it is necessary to place the Congress on a good financial basis, and also to keep in touch with the People who attend from year to year, and we have, therefore, recom"ended these changes. I move the adoption of this report.

The motion was seconded, put, and declared carried.

President WHITE–I will now call for the report of the Nominating Committee, which will be presented by the Chairman, Prof. George E. Condra.

Professor CONDRA-Your committee has been working very diligently, canvassing the situation. We have looked over the field, reviewed the work of various persons connected with Conservation, noted their efficiency. We have looked into the future, we have thought of the fitness of certain individuals for the work, and therefore report as follows:

For President, a man who can take up the work where Captain White leaves off—Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack, of Cleveland, Ohio. (Great applause.)

For Executive Secretary, one who has been with the work since its beginning, and has accomplished so much—Mr. Thomas R. Shipp, of Indianapolis. (Applause.)

For Recording Secretary, one who has also been valuable in the work, and has been associated with Mr. Pack and with Captain White—Mr. James C. Gipe, of Indianapolis. (Applause.)

For Treasurer, the man whom the Executive Committee at an earlier Congress gave an earnest invitation to take up this work, that it might be taken care of in a manner befitting this Congress—Mr. D. Austin Latchaw, of Kansas City. (Applause.)

The one who has been nominated for second place, Vice-President, we named because of fitness to serve all phases of the work of Conservation, but especially the conservation of life and the home. Not chosen because she is such a womanly woman; not especially because she has done splendid work for us here, but chosen because she is a great leader and we want her for the work. A person known to most of you—Mrs. Philip N. Moore, of St. Louis. (Applause.)

I do not name the Vice-Presidents of the States, for reasons given in the report of the Executive Committee. I take great pleasure in moving the adoption of this report.

The motion was seconded by Mr. A. B. Farquhar, put, and declared carried.

President WHITE–I now wish to present to you your next President, Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack. (Applause.)

It is with great pleasure that I present to you the President of the next Congress. He is one who is thoroughly in love with Conservation. He is one of those who first studied Conservation. He spent years in its study, and he is, I know, the first American who ever received a fee for scientific forestry advice. He was paid one thousand dollars by the President of the Missouri Pacific Road for his expert opinion. When Mr. Pack returned from Germany, where he had been studying forestry for some time, he was sent for by Jay Gould, who asked him for his expert opinion on some forestry matters. Next morning Mr. Pack found in his box at the hotel a check for $1,000. This was the earliest record of such a fee being paid in the United States. So, if he was appreciated to this extent by a great railroad president then, we surely can trust him now. We are proud to have him as our President, and we feel he will be a great help to Conservation in the ensuing year. Mr. Charles Lathrop Pack, your new President, will now take the chair. (Applause.)

President PACK–Ladies and Gentlemen: You have a great work before you, not only for the ensuing year, but for all years. The Conservation movement is not one for today, but for all time, and it matters very little the name or the names of the workers in the cause. It matters that you, and every one of you, should have your hearts right and do the right work. Conservation makes for the best use of all resources, and is dead against their abuse. It is your duty and my duty not only to come to these Congresses and confer and talk, but when you go home to be a true advocate of the cause and to be against everything that is opposed to it. (Applause.) Conservation is for men and women, and for one I thank God we have the women with us. (Applause.) I do not intend to make a speech; I am not a speech-maker. You have plenty of orators. But with your help during the next year, I will try to do my part, and I ask every one of you to go to your homes and come back to the next Conservation Congress with three delegates in place of one. I thank you. (Applause.) Before we go any farther, I ask you to rise and join me in giving three cheers for that great Conservationist, Captain White. Three rousing cheers were given, led by Mr. Pack.

Mr. WHITE–Ladies and Gentlemen, Delegates to the Congress, Mr. President: This is glory enough for me. I feel paid for the work I have done in the past year in having the appreciation of such a good class of people. (Applause.)

President PACK–The next speaker on the program is Mr. George M. Lehman, representing the Mayor of Pittsburgh, who will speak to us on “The Investigations of the Flood Commission of Pittsburgh.”

Mr. LEHMAN–Mr. Chairman and Delegates of the Fourth National Conservation Congress: It has been the custom in this country to build dams and locks on lower reaches of rivers, for navigation; to build regulating works for forming and maintaining channel depth, etc., and to dredge deposits caused by erosion.

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Our country has received large benefit from this process, particularly in certain sections. It would have thrived, however, to a far greater extent and much suffering, involving general living and business conditions, would have been avoided and a better foundation provided for future generations, if, in addition to the above-named developments, attention had been promptly and thoroughly given to the control and conservation of flood water. We have been woefully thoughtless and backward in bringing about a comprehensive treatment of this matter which is of such great national importance.

HISTORICAL AND GENERAL () UT1 .INE, OF WORK.

Pittsburg having been seriously troubled by destructive floods for over a century, attention was finally directed toward means of alleviation and in 1908 the Chamber of Commerce organized a commission consisting of business men, engineers and other professional men, to ascertain the character and extent of flood damage and make investigations of methods for relief. Later, an enlargement of the commission was made by the addition of city and county officials and representatives of manufacturing and various business concerns affected by floods. The expense of carrying on the work has been borne by public-spirited citizens, including the interests affected by the floods, and by county and city contributions. To this date about $137,000 has been expended.

The work has involved detailed surveys and soundings, within the city limits, of the Ohio, Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, and a survey of the areas of overflow. The topography was fully developed, and streets, lines of transportation, buildings, etc., located. Extensive topographic surveys were made along the principal tributaries of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers for the purpose of determining the possibility of constructing storage reservoirs.

In conection with complete contour maps, diagrams, profiles, etc., made from the above work, studies have been made of the cost and effectiveness of a fiodd wall, in connection with dredging, in deepening, widening and straightening of the river channel at the city, and the cost and effectiveness of regulating the stream flow by storage reservoirs. located throughout the drainage basins. In addition to the collection of a vast amount of general data, including precipitation, taken from the records of the United States Weather 13ureau, the work involved many special studies, among which were forest conditions, geology and streamflow. For the stream-flow studies, gauging stations were established by the Flood Commission and also a number in co-operation with the Water Supply Commission of Pennsylvania. In the forest studies, the cooperation of the United States Forest Service and of the Forestry Department of Pennsylvania were secured. Valuable stream-flow data have been provided by the United States Geological Survey.

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