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B. Structure. By this we mean the underground make-up of a region, the kind and arrangement of the materials of the land. Structure is directly related to mineral resources, topography, water supply, and soils. C. Surface Water and Drainage. This refers to the amount of runoff, to such as streams, lakes, marshes, and has importance in irrigation, navigation, fish culture, city water supplies, etc. Illinois is leading in this survey. D. Ground Water. This is water in the land. It is the source of crop water and the largest source for domestic and town supplies. The amount of water held by the soil is even more important than the quantity of rainfall. The depth to the water table, and the quantity, and quality of well water are of great importance in agricultural regions. E. Climate. The elements—temperature, sunshine, wind, humidity, and rainfall—are recognized as having importance and should be known for every part of our country. The latest movement is for facts in local climate, even that of the farm or certain parts of it, and of the soil. - F. Soils. The relation of soil to industry is generally known. The soil survey classifies and describes the soils as to origin and properties, and maps them accurately so that the farmer may know definitely the kinds and their distribution on his farm. Farm management demands intelligent comprehension of soil characteristics. G. Native Life. The native plants and animals of a country represent the natural selection of the fittest for the conditions encountered. The life of a region reflects the topography, soil, and climate under which it lives. In new territory the native plant life reveals to the keen student much concerning the soil and climatic conditions. In older communities undistrubed patches of vegetation tell the same story. By studying such life the qualities needed in cultivated crops may be fairly well determined and the losses incident to haphazard experimenting avoided. Native life then needs to be considered in a rural survey because: (1) It gives a summary history of soil and climatic influences; (2) it may lead to economic production of certain native types of plants and animals; (3) it presents concretely the problem of utilization of waste lands; (4) it will give emphasis to the need of utilizing our lakes and streams as a source of food supply. H. Social and Industrial Conditions. If a move into new territory is contemplated, the questions of vital interest are not only of the natural and industrial conditions but also in regard to social conditions. By this is meant the classes of people as to race and culture, and the opportunities offered for advance in social and intellectual lines. These characteristics of people are closely associated with their occupations. The pursuits of the people are largely dominated by the physical basis of

industry. Hence the social survey must recognize this influence if it is to correctly interpret conditions as they exist. Data of most vital interest in the social rural survey pertain to the following lines: (a) History of settlement. (b) Condition of agriculture. (c) Education. (d) Religion. (e) Recreation. (f) Sanitation. The industrial conditions of a region are practically determined by its physical features. The development is further related to the biological and social life. Hence the industrial survey must be based on these fundamentals if it is to be comprehensive. In closing this review of the fundamentals in surveys it should be understood that: 1. The physical and biological surveys should come first, since they are necessary for accurate work in other investigations. 2. The special surveys of industries, rural and urban life should be made from the common basis of physical and biological conditions and extended into their respective fields. It should be recognized that the broad controls affecting industry are structure, topography, drainage, climate, soils and native life, but that they do not have equal importance in any and every locality. Any one of them may be the controlling feature with the rest of minor importance. It is not a pleasing fact to know that most States have not yet accurately mapped their lands, waters and forests. The departments responsible for this work should receive adequate financial support and the people in turn should demand results. What progress has your State made in these lines?

RELATION OF EDUCATION TO CONSERVATION.

The State universities of the Middle West especially are meeting their obligation to the people by training students for real work—for . efficient service. Such institutions, by their instruction, surveys and extension departments further the development of practically every line of industrial activity in the State. From these centers are directed geological, soil, water, sanitary, social, farm management and other surveys. Consequently the professors and advanced students get a good work-out and the citizens are caused to look to the institution for assistance in practically every development problem that arises. The State universities that are giving the largest service in this line appear to be Wisconsin, Minnesota, Cornell Agricultural College, Illinois, and Nebraska. It is my great privilege to be connected with one of these.

Unmistakably, the present tendency is to associate the public service State departments and conservation activities more with higher education, taking them from the field of politics. This noticeable feature in the rearrangement of conservation activities of the past year is worthy of consideration by all States.

CONSERVATION OF BUSINESS.

The different lines of business are conserved in many ways. This applies to practical developments in improving the process involved in handling commodities all the way from manufacture to sale; to trade, in the direction of economy in buying, transportation and sales; to farming in improving methods of cultivation, the better care of stock, and in less buying on time; to more economic use of school and church buildings; to the building and maintenance of good roads and clean streets, and to the improvement of public service generally. So there is room for practical conservation in many lines. It prevents waste, increases efficiency, and thereby decreases the cost of commodities. A very general movement for good business is the feature of the year. It is promoting real business by demanding that it be done on the square and free from fraud. This is working a public good.

At another time, I will discuss the subject, “Land Frauds or GetRich-Quick Schemes,” with special reference to their effect upon real business.

CONCLUSIONS.

As a summary conclusion, you will permit me to enumerate the things that stand out in the progress of the year. 1. The prominence of Conservation on many State and National programs. 2. The tendency to place State development on a survey and fact basis. 3. Development of co-operation between State and Federal agencies. 4. Demand by the public for reliable land classifications, soil, sanitary and agricultural surveys. 5. Interest in soil fertility as a basis for agricultural development. 6. The affiliation of Conservation organizations with educational departments and removal from politics. 7. Discussion of Lakes-to-the-Gulf Route and success attained in presenting the cause of drainage in the Mississippi delta region. 8. Modernizing of State universities, making them of greater value to the State. 9. The determined demand for vocational training in the public schools. 10. A demand for less extravagance in public service. 11. Taxation of cut-over lands. 12. Perfection of forest control. 13. The very general recognition that people are the most important natural resource subject to development. 14. Increased regard for sanitation throughout the country. 15. Massachusetts minimum wage law for women.

16. A determined and widespread movement on the part of social workers to eliminate the social evil. 17. Widespread movement against fraud and the assistance given to the movement by the Postoffice and National Reclamation departments. 18. More than usual discussion of co-operative enterprises and methods of distribution. 19. Rapid progress in the building and maintenance of good roads. 20. A growing tendency for the citizens in every part of the country to outgrow provincialism; to come into respect and appreciation for the people and institutions of every State; to recognize the fact that the home State is but a part of the Union and larger world in which

people live not to themselves alone but in helpful relationship with all others.

President WHITE–This was a very interesting address, which we allowed to extend beyond the time, because it is a summary of Conservation work during the past year in all the States. Heretofore, we have had a report from a representative of each State, but it was thought advisable this year to have these reports condensed into one paper, a work which Dr. Condra has done most admirably.

The next address, which is of the greatest interest, is on the subject of “ Human Life, Our Greatest Resource,” and the name of the gentleman who is to deliver it will be a sufficient guaranty that it will be replete with interest, and will be useful to every one of us who listens. I now introduce Dr. William A. Evans, of Chicago.

(Dr. Evans failed to return his manuscript for insertion in the Proceedings.)

President WHITE–We must hasten on, for we have some other addresses that will be very interesting to the children. There are a great many present that have come no doubt to see the wild life pictures. So we shall have to hasten in order to reach them.

Dr. Bessey, who was to have been next on our program, will be here at 3:30 o'clock.

We shall now call on Mr. E. T. Allen, of Portland, Oregon, whose

subject is “Conservation Redefined.”

Mr. ALLEN–On a hot afternoon, a bare-footed boy, on his way home from school, in western Washington, eager as any school boy for the swimming hole, or whatever waiting attraction had kept his eye on the clock since about 2:00 o’clock, stopped, hesitated, then clambered down a steep, brushy slope to the stream at its foot, filled his hat with water, climbed up the hill again laboriously so as not to spill his burden, and put it on a camp-fire some voting citizen had left burning by the roadside. It still smoked, so he went back twice, three times. About then, the man who told me this story came along and asked the boy why he made it his business to put out that fire. “Why, it told in a little book I got at school,” was the reply, “why every one should try to stop forest fires. It told what grown-up people can do by being careful and passing laws and such, but it said a boy may do as much as anybody by putting out some little fire with water or dirt before it gets big.” Now, the action of that school boy, and of the teacher who handed him the booklet, and of the State authorities who instructed her to do so, and of the man who wrote the booklet and enlisted the State's cooperation in its distribution to a hundred thousand children, and of the timber owners through whose protective association that man was hired and the cost of printing and distributing that booklet was paid, was Conservation. It was forest Conservation, definitely conceived, defi. nitely executed, and with an exceedingly definite result. About a month ago I was talking to an extremely intelligent man, a scientific man whose life is devoted to bettering humanity. He said, “Allen, do you believe in Conservation?” Rather astonished, I replied, “It’s my trade, isn’t it?” “Oh, I don’t mean forest protection, like putting out fires and making trees grow, but forest Conservation—Pinchotism, tying up everything for future generations.” Now that man's conception was the result of Conservation activity, certainly. Without our agitation there would have been no counter agitation. No doubt he has read of these congresses every fall and of countless other forms of our work. But, apparently, only one interpretation, and that a mistaken one, had ever reached him in a form definite enough to make an impression. How else can you account for getting effort and sacrifice from the irresponsible barefoot school boy, but no realization by a citizen of the highest type that Conservation wants his help in some way that he can give it? To what extent these remarks apply to your work along other Conservation lines, I am not competent to say. In forestry, there has been, I will not say too much debate, but certainly too little other use of our Conservation machinery in presenting clear-cut principles of forest economics in the specific local forms and with the specific local needs that are necessary to engage and direct accomplishment. This is true of what we do at these meetings and more true of what we do when We go home. What our forests need most is more patrolmen, more trails and telephones for them to use, more funds and organization to marshal fire-fighting crews when required, better fire laws and courts that will enforce them. public appreciation that forest fire departments are as

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