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States and the various State legislatures do enact appropriate legislation for a comprehensive plan providing for liberal appropriations for executing surveys and carrying on fundamental investigations of the streams, from source to mouth, to ascertain the amount and distribution of rainfall and variation of stream flow, for the purpose of determining at the earliest possible moment the various requirements and the most comprehensive and efficient methods of treatment.
Resolved, that we emphasize the necessity of good roads as fundamental to the improvement of all phases of country life; that we recommend the exercise of special care to effect thorough drainage not only of the surface, but also of the foundation of all roads; the enforced dragging of all roads at the proper time under intelligent supervision; the building of permanent bridges and culverts, and, whenever good material is accessible, the building of permanent roads. That we recommend the consolidation of rural schools for the purpose of economical and efficient instruction. That the school house and grounds be a social center for education, recreation and sports, by means of games, moving pictures, extension lectures, and that it become a center for political, economic, religious and social discussion and organization. That we recommend the making of a course of study in the rural schools, especially adapted to the needs of rural communities, including among other things, instruction in elementary agriculture. That we heartily approve the work of the Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Colleges in providing local demonstrations to assist farmers in the development of scientific agriculture, and that this work be completed and extended. That we recommend the encouragement of all attempts to extend the knowledge and practice of efficient intensive farming, that the soil may be preserved and improved, waste be eliminated, productivity increased, and opportunity be enlarged for the permanent employment of a greater amount of farm labor. That through the co-operation of the Commissioners of Immigration and the Commissioner of Agriculture, a systematic plan be formed to keep the immigrant farmer from settling in the city, and directing him to the farm. This will lessen poverty, save the man, and help to solve the problem of farm labor.
That we recommend the state or county supervision of the sanitary condition of farm dwellings, dairies, and school houses with special reference to light, heat, ventilation, water supply, milk and drainage.
That in order to encourage the development of forests and orchards, we recommend that the owners of wood lots, and orchards, be exempt from crop taxation within a fixed per cent of their total tax.
That in order to encourage agricultural development of raw lands or the improvement of old farms, wherever rates of interest are excessive, we recommend the establishment of farmers' co-operative banks and loan associations for the purpose of furnishing capital at a lower rate of interest.
That the preservation of the balance of powers between the Federal and the State Governments, confining each to its legitimate sphere in the disposition of the public interests in mineral and other deposits, is essential to the perpetuation of both and the preservation of the liberties and welfare of the people.
Since the natural gas supply of the United States is now largely monopolized by syndicates doing an interstate business and hence beyond the jurisdiction of state authorities, and as recognized authorities have estimated that not less than one billion cubic feet of natural gas is being wasted every day in the United States, which, if properly conserved, would be sufficient fuel to supply all cities in America of more than one hundred thousand population, we urge upon the Federal Congress to pass such laws as will result in the control of the transportation of all natural gas by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
We greatly deprecate the continued waste of human life in the mining industry as well as the unnecessary waste of natural gas and other fuels and minerals attendant on their careless and unscientific exploitation. In this connection we heartily commend the successful efforts of the Federal Government in the discovery and application of a cheap, simple and effective method of greatly lessening the waste of natural gas, as well as largely reducing the death lists from mine explosions through the studies and demonstrations often carried out before the miners themselves, and to the end that this great work for the conservation of human life and the prevention of unnecessary waste of our mineral resources may be vigorously continued under governmental authority, we urge upon the Congress the absolute necessity of providing ample means for the continuance of these investigations, not alone for the benefit of the mineral fuel industries, but also for the benefit of all other mining operations in many of which large wastes still continue which might be avoided with more adequate knowledge. That we recognize that all metallic minerals are dormant and useless until brought to the surface and reduced to metallic form, and that the resulting metals, especially gold and silver, are a permanent addition to the wealth of the world; and we therefore favor such proper construction of the mining laws of the United States as will stimulate and protect prospecting and mining on the Public Domain, with a view to the utilization of the mineral resources with which a good Providence has endowed our lands; and we deprecate all illegal interference by subordinate officials with such prospecting and mining under the laws of the United States, on the Public Domain of the forest reserves. That it is the sense of the National Conservation Congress that Federal aid should be extended to the state mining schools of the country in a manner similar to that in which it has been given to the state agricultural and mechanical schools.
Deploring the lack of uniform state activity in forest work, we emphatically urge the crystallization of effort in the lagging states toward securing the creation of forest departments with definite and ample appropriations to enable the organization of forest fire work, publicity propaganda, surveys of forest resources, land classification and general investigations upon which to base the earliest possible development of perfected and liberally financed forest policies. We recommend in all states more liberal appropriations for forest fire prevention, especially for patrol to obviate expenditure for fighting neglected fires, and the expenditure of such effort in the closest possible co-operation with Federal and private protective agencies; and also urge such special legislation and appropriation as may be necessary to stamp out insect and fungus attacks which threaten to spread to other States. Since Federal co-operation under the Weeks Act is stimulating better forest protection by the states, we urge annual appropriations by Congress for its continuance. We recommend simplifying and shortening the process of purchasing land under the Weeks Act. We recommend that the Federal troops be made systematically available for controlling forest fires. We recommend the work of the Federal Forest Service in protecting and improving the forest resources under its control, also in developing better methods of forest utilization, and urge our constituent bodies and all citizens to insist upon adequate appropriations for such work and to combat any attempt to break down its efficiency. Holding that conservative forest management and reforestation by private owners are very generally discouraged or prevented by our methods of forest taxation, we recommend state legislation to secure the most moderate taxation of forest land consistent with justice and the taxation of the forest crop upon such land only when the crop is harvested and returns revenue wherewith to pay the tax. We call attention to the recent adoption of such systems by several states.
We appreciate the increasing support by lumbermen of forestry reforms and suggest particularly to forest owners the study and emulation of the many co-operative patrol associations which are doing extensive and efficient forest fire work and are securing closer relations between private State and Federal forest agencies. Believing that lumbermen and the public have a common object in perpetuating the use of forests, we endorse every means of bringing them together in mutual aid and confidence to this end.
Recognizing the practical constructive work which has been done by the Philippines Bureau of Forestry, we urge that no change be made in jurisdiction or policy which would result in any setback to forestry in the Philippines.
We recommend the holding of expositions in various parts of the country which demonstrate the vital importance of maintaining our forest resources and which will more fully educate the public to the manifold uses of forest products.
To the City of Washington, its local committee and public spirited citizens, to the newspapers which have given such full and fair reports of our meetings, to the management of the New Willard Hotel, who have furnished us such a beautiful and convenient audience hall and tireless care for our comfort, Mrs. J. W. Pinchot, and Mr. Gifford Pinchot, for their generous hospitality, and to the members of the Federal departments, who have contributed so much to the success of this convention, we express our grateful appreciation.
To President Charles Lathrop Pack and to Executive Secretary Thomas R. Shipp, we acknowledge our deep obligation for the successful conduct of the affairs of this Congress during the year past.
To Temporary Chairmen Walter L. Fisher and Dr. Henry S. Drinker, we express our appreciation of their ability, courtesy and impartiality as presiding officers and to Sergeant-atArms John I. Martin we are once more indebted for efficient organization and order in our sessions.
AMENDMENTS TO REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS
MR. J. F. TUFTs—Mr. Chairman' CHAIRMAN FowleR—Ladies and gentlemen, you have heard the report of the Committee on Resolutions. What is your pleasure? CAPTAIN J. B. WHITE—Mr. Chairman, as chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, I wish to move the adoption of that report. (Numerous cries of “I second the motion”) MR. J. F. TUFTs, of the District of Columbia—Mr. Chairman, it seems incredible that a committee could, in the time that committee has had, have done the work they have done, and I wish to add another second to the motion and to commend the committee in just three words, which should apply to the committee itself as well as to its report—“Fine, capable, splendid!” MR. GIFFORD PINcHot—Mr. Chairman, may I be recognized for one moment to move an amendment to the report? CHAIRMAN Fowler—I think that would be in order. MR. GIFFORD PINC Hot—Mr. Chairman, members of the Congress: It is not my purpose in what I am about to say to revive again the controversy of yesterday. You will all have noticed, as I did, that the critical question of division on the water power matter was not referred to in the report of the Committee on Resolutions. In my judgment it would be a serious mistake for a convention of this sort to fail to take sides one way or the other on the underlying fundamental question, as I see it, which separates the opinion of some of us from the opinions of others of us. That question is whether or not the water power monopoly, without proper regulation, constitutes a danger to the people of the United States. Yesterday, when Professor Swain spoke, he expressed himself as not believing that water power monopoly was a danger, and Mr. Stillwell, who was one of those who signed the majority report with him, used I believe at that time, and has often used to me at other times, the expression that “the water power monopoly is a ghost.” The report of the minority lays before you unmistakable and unchallenged figures which seem to me to prove beyond all question that the water power monopoly, unless it shall be properly and firmly and efficiently regulated, does comprise one of the largest threats that now stands before the people of the United States in economic matters, and especially this great fundamental question of the cost of living. (Applause.) We saw that the amount of concentration of water power