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Translated by Mr. Cattle.
66 His name,'
our dwelling. The trembling hand of truth to answer my questions. Tell me old age would be but a fad inheritance for if his heart is engaged, if it is his intention her; but nobody knows whom she loves. to remain in the service ; or, if the love of She could find'admirers in abundance, but his native country calls him home? He the thuns them all."
is about your age, and I know that he has These words relieved the burden that my heart, and that I live for him alone.". weighed heavy on my heart. I inme- So far her fecret was fafe; I was not a diately requelted Annette to follow me to bit the wiser. I reflected a long time on a room above; I addressed her in the ten, what she had said, but in vain. At last I dereft manner I was able. I pressed her seized her two hands, and entreated her to to tell me in confidence, if she had already finish the confidence she had began to remade a choice; and assured her fincerely, pole in ine. “ I know," faid 1, " every that, in all iny travels, I had never met one belonging to these parts, wh.) have enwith any one who pleased me as the had tered into our regiment, and have deservdone.
ed well : so that if you tell me the name of Let us sit down,” said the," and lif- your favourite, it is not impollible but I ten attentively.' Do you understand how may recollect him." to keep a secret ? Can I confide myself to
said me, " my tongue you in perfect security? If you will swear, refuses to pronounce ;" then turning her I will tell you whom I love." “ Heaven head, added, --- modesty makes it expire knows, I shall fwear with a good heart! I on my lips. But do not blaine me! I have all your words graven deep in my have a heart like thine own, that would memory.'
rather die than be guilty of an indelicate "Do you remember the day that first action! But it is all the fame perhapsmade you a foldier, mit is about eight do you recollect his portrait? years ago ? Do you recollect also Sigri " At a fair, I accidentally found such with long hair, who stood by the officers; a one, the exact resemblance of my fathe same young maid who lamented so vourite. I bought it, with the determi. 'much when you were ordered to march as nation to sew it to no one; but by little a guard to Copenhagen? There was then and little, you have inspired me with such, among your comrades the handsomest man confidence that I must thew it
youl-perin the world!
haps,” said she, “s
you may recollect it.” “ In seeing Sigri weep, I wept too, but
She drew out a key and opened a great knew not why. The crowd had their eyes coffer, in which was a box, containing fixed on you, but this handsome man look, fomething carefully folled up: this the
Grieve not at his departure, presented to me with a trembling hand, dear girl," said he, you will see him re- "Judge,” said she, “ my feelings by your turn in a few years,'.
" It is not on his If I have done wrong, consider, account that I weep,” said I, : but on yourself as the cause ; for me, I thould alyour's.' My grandmother chid me. ways have kept the secret,” I began to
"I felt equally proud, both of having untold the little packet, impatient to been seen, and having spoken to this man. know what happy mortal the portrait reI was, however, a child, delicate, weak, presented; a mirror rifleted my own and pale as a winter's moon; but that image! which I had said was the truth. It is a In a transport of joy I seized Annette long time that I have loved him. Never in my arms, and pressed her to my heart, have I seen fo fine a man.
without the power to speak.
I felt a “ You began your march ; he went mingled fenfation of fear and joy. along with you :-when Sigri saw you go, it was for thee, dear Thor, that I wept. The fainted.' Sigri is fince dead. She lov. Ah! surely, now I am the happiest of ed you much, but, perhaps, you never women; and if I can please as much as I knew it. Her father was a man cruel love, my happiness will be complete." and inflexible, who wished to contradict At this moment my father entered : he her choice, and persecuted her as long as
found Annette in my arms, and tears of the lived. For me, I had neither father joy streaming from our eyes. He catches nor mother ; my handsome man went with us tenderly to his bofom, and we all three you; they tell me fince, he has gained remained mute for some minutes; at last reputation in the service, is much loved, the old man spoke. “ I see plainly how and with much reluctance given up by his the case stands ; the happy moment that I officers.
expe&ted is arrived."-With what joy did "Now speak freely, and promise with we then embrace our father!
ed at me.
For the Monthly Magazine. it from the “Proceedings of the African AlINQUIRY WHETHER HERODOTUS WAS ciation," lately published, and from RenACQUAINTED WITH
nel's excellent new map of North Africa, JOLIBA.
annexed to that work. [By Profesor Heeren, of Göttingen.) “ What I have hithertó related,'' says TROM the general attention directed Herodotus (he had given an accurate de
in so many respects towards Africa, fcription of the course of the Nile, higher and from the many attempts undertaken up than Egypt, as far as Sennaal', and to explore that quarter of the globe, we even as far as Gojarn) “I learned from may confidently hope,'that, after the lapse men of Cyrene, who told me that they of a few years, it will no longer be to us a had been at the temple of Jupiter Ammon, terra ignota. The departing century de- and conversed with Etearchos, the king livers over to the succeeding at least the of the Ammonians. Among other topics key to the discovery, if it does not trans. of conversation, thy had likewise chanced mit the discovery itself. The present, then, to discourse of the Nile and the remarkis the proper point of time, to collect, put able circumkance that no one was acin order, and compare all the information quainted with its fources. Etearchos had we already posiels, for the purpose of fur. then said, that fome men belonging to the nishing a clue to, and facilitating future Nasamones had visited him (thelé Nafadiscoveries. And, indeed, the mass of mones are a nation of Libyan origin, and what we already know, or might know, dwell on the borders of the Syrtis, and in is very great, certainly greater than most the next adjoining region, to the east, but people imagine. Africa was never un- not far); and when he had inquired of known: in ancient times, and in the mid- them, whether they could not give him dle ages, its northern coasts were inhabit. fome information concerning the deserts of ed by polished and enlightened nations; the interior of Africa, they had commı?the Carthiginians, Egyptians, Greeks, nicated to him the following particuand Arabians, who, either as merchants lars : A:nong their countrymen some or conquerors, penetrated far into the bold young men, sons of their chiefs, continent, and one way or other brought who had executed many daring enterprises back with them a variety of knowledge, and had chosen twelve from among them, as itrikingly appears from the writings of by lot, who should undertake a journey of the Greek geographers. But what may in discovery into the desert part of Africa, an essential manner excite wonder, how rich and endeavour to explore more of it stian a treasure of accounts has not Herodotus,the those who had penetrated the farthest befather of history and geography,left us con. fore them. The young men then had set cerning this quarter of the globe! Many of out, abundantly provided with water, and
them, e. g. his description of the caravan- provisions; and first had travelled through 'tracks, by which the Carthaginians and the inhabited country (Coast of Barbary); Egyptians travelled through North Africa, after which, they had arrived at the part of have only become clearly intelligible fince Africa that abounds with wild beasts (Bithe most recent discoveries; almoit every one ledulgerid); but thence they had contiof which is likewise illustrated and confirm- nued their journey through the desert, proed by some passage in Herodotus. Another ceeding in a south west direction. After striking example of this is furnithed by they had, during many days, wandered the accounts of which Mungo Park, part through an extensive sandy region, they ly as eye-witness, partly from inquiries, has had, at last, tspied come trees in a field, lately brought back with him concerning had made towards them, and plucked the the river jcliba, which pows, in the very fruit from the trees. Men of a smaller heart of Africa, in a direction from west stature than common had then come to to eaft. Every reader who has a taste them, had received them kindly, and for such relearches, will be agreeably fur. became their guides. But they underliood prised to find, that Herodotus not only not their language, nor their conductors knew this most recent geographical disco- the language of the Nasamones. But they very; but that he likewile was able to had led them through very extenfive marshy give us very clear information concerning regions; and after they had travelled things, wbich the greatest geographers of through these, they had arrived in a city, the eighteenth century only conjecture, or whose inhabitants were all of the same which are even altogether unknown. I ftature as their conductors, and of a colour" fhall here translate the passage of his Hif- completely black. By the city flowed a large tory, book ii. chap. 32, 33, which relates river, and that river ran in a direction to this subject; and endeavour to illustrate from zvest towards the rising of the fun;
Herodotus and the River Joliba in Africa ? and in it there were likewise crocodiles.' who derived their subsistence from their Thus far I give the r arrative of Etearchos focks of theep. They dwelt on the coast the Ammonian: I shall only add, that he of the Mediterranean, in the eastern part moreover said, as the Cyreneans told me, of the Regio Syrtica, or the present king. that the Nafámones had returned ; and dom of Tripoli, about what was called that the men, into whose country they had the great Syrtis, or the present bay of Sidra, come, were all magicians. With regard nearly then in 30° north latitude, and 35" to the river, Etearchos conjec?pred that it longitude ealt from Ferro. The whole of was the Nile; and this is the most proba- this eyrtic land, from 289 to 35° eastern ble opinion concerning it."
longitude is a land-land, which was thereThus far Herodotus. According to his fore always inhabited by noniadical tribes, own account, he had his information from who were tributary to the Carthaginians. the third hand, viz. from Cyrenean Greeks, And of them principally were the caravans who hard heard it in Ammonium from Ete- composed, which traversed the deserts, and archos, the king of the Ammonians, to were the means of keeping up the interwhom it was related by some Nalamones, course of the Carthaginians with the councountrymen of the adventurers. To give 'tries in the interior of Africa. For this to theie authorities their due value, it is reason the expedition of the Nalamones is necessary to be previoully acquainted with not described as a journey into a country the following particulars. The Oracle of altogether unknown: They had, says HeJupiter Animon was not merely the tem- 'rodotus, before undertaken many other bold ple: there was there likewise a small state,' enterprises; the object of their journey was whose constitution was hiereucratical, af. only to try whether they might not peneter the form of the ancient Egyptian states, trate farther than had hitherto been done by and at the head of the government was a preceding travellers. And, although the king. The fame place was likewise the real adventurers amounted to no more than centre of inland commerce, becaufe through five, yet it is very probable that their re. it the caravan road passed from Egypt to tinue was more numerous, fo that they Carthage and Cyrene, and likewise from formed a small caravan; for they were fons Egypt to Nigritia, both which have been de- of the chief men of the nation, and they fcribed by Herodotus. Temples and fanctu- carried along with them a great quantity aries have, in the southern part of the world, of water and provisions. been in all ages the centre of commerce, They traversed, says Herodotus, first as the Kaaba of the prophet at Mecca fill the inhabited part of Africa, and then the is; for where could this friendly conflux region abounding with wild beatts: after of different nations take place with greater which, they came into the fandy desert. fecurity, than under immediate protection For Herodotus divides North Africa into of the gods, and near their sanctuaries? three regions ; the most northern, on the The Grecian commercial republic, Cyrene, Mediterranean, which we now call the Coast on the northern coast of Africa, was cer- of Barbary; the region abounding with wild tainly fo intimately connected, and carried beasts, or the middle region, by the Arabs on so greata commercial intercourse, with called Biiedulgerid, or the land of dates; the Ainmonians, that the head of Jupiter and the southern region, or the defert. Ammon was the common impress on their To arrive at the last, they were obliged coin. Hence it is evident, that the tem- to cross the two former obliquely fron ple of Jupiter Ainmon was the place where north to south. There was the greatest probability of ac- On reaching the desert, they proceed. quiring information concerning the inte- ed in a fouth-west direction; for so I rior of Africa; and certainly Herodotus translate the 78 pos se pupoy of Herodotus.-could not apply to fitter persons for intel: Among later writers, indeed, who ligence, than to the Cyreneans, who came press themselves with scientific precision, fiom that place ; probably merchants, with the zephyr is properly the west wind; buc whom he conversed in Egypt.
Herodotus, who knows only the four prinBut the authority of these accounts ac- cipal winds, denotes by it a weltern dia, quires additional strength, when we be- rection in general. That he could not come acquainted with the people, to whom here mean the west properly so called, is the travellers belong d, who had met with evident from the lightest inivection of the the above adventures, and from whom the map of the country; becaule they soul
orginaret, The Nafainones otherwise bave remained on the northern wire, as Herodotus informs us in ano- border of the desert, and never could have ir place*, a numerous nomadical nation, traversed it. The great caravan road * Plerod. iv. 172.
from the country of the Nalamones, as XCÖTALY MAG, NO.Lill,
Herodotus elsewhere informs us, went in the close of the eighteenth century, again a direction exac?ly south: it would seem rendered intelligible ? then, that they purposely took another, Herodotus does not name the river, and namely a western, direction, with a view thus far every thing reniains mere conof thus penetrating through the great de jecture. But this coajecture from so many jert of Western Africa, through which, quarters gains confirmation, that, at last, probably at that time no caravan road it is almost impossible to doubt. passed.
Firstly, if we attend to the direction of They travelled, says Herodotus, through the route of our travellers, the question a great desert during many days journeys, is, whither must they necessarily have (unfortunately lie does not tell us their come ? If from their native land, on the number, and certainly it had not been told bay of Sydra, or the great Syrtis, they him). On the other side of the desert, traversed the desert in a south-welt directhey again reached a cultivated country, tion, and thus reached the country of the where fruit-trees grew, and black men negroes; this must have happened between dwelt, who were of a stature smaller than 15 and 35° east longitude, which is about common; not dwarfs, however, for that the length of the course of the Joliba, as our author certainly does not affert. These will appear from a single glance at Major negroes gave the Natamones an hospitable Rennel's map. Proceeding as they did, reception, and became their conductors. they could not fail to arrive at the Joliba. They led them through great marfly regions, It will however be perhaps objected, that to a city, by which flowed a large river in there may possibly be fome other river; for a direction from west to eaft. The in- who knows how many such rivers exist habitants of the city all resembled their in those regions of the interior of Africa? guides, and were much addicted to magic. But with a person who, from the relations
The question now is, whither had these of travellers, has acquired a knowledge adventurers come? It is evident, me- of those parts, this objection can have no thinks, that they were arrived in the coun- weight. Herodotus expressly says, that try of the negroes, and among a negroe it was a great river, running from west to nation, who received them with the fame east. According to the belt accounts we hospitality which yet so honourably dil possess of the weitern half of North Africa, tinguishes this race of men from their bar- not only is there in those regions no such barous neighbours, the Moors. This we river flowing in that direction ; but from learn not only from their black colour and the very nature of the country, as far as their whole exterior appearance, by which we are acquainted with it, there cannot they at first sight immediately presented well exist any. To the north of the Joliba themselves to the eyes of the North Afri. is the sandy desert, which contains no ri
a quite different race of men ; ver ; to the south, a chain of mountains, but likewise particularly from the circum- at the foot of which the Joliba flows, and stance, that they were all magicians ; which must, therefore, have been the first when we recolleét what Mungo Park, who, large river the Nafamones met with. as it were, conjured his way, through there Besides, Herodotus gives us likewise the peoples with the aid of his amulets, says following indications: Firstly, they were concerni the belief in magic generally obliged to pals through large marshy reprevalent among them. Concerning their gions, before they reached the river ; fediminutive ftature, I cannot immediately condly, a city stood on its banks : and adduce any farther corroborating teiti- lastly, crocodiles were found in the river. mony: but to maintain that, in that burn- The firit-mentioned of these three ciring clime, in the vicinity of the equator, cumstances is highly important. Accord. no luch people may be discovered, would, ing to Major Rennel's newest investiga. surely be hazarding a very precipitate de- tions, the laney region of Africa has a cilion.
Noping declination towards the fouth ; fo But the phenomenon' most worthy of at- that to it fucceeds a low marshy tract, tention unioubtedly is the river which bounded to the north by the fandy defert, fowed by the city in an eastern direction. but to the south by a chain of mountains. Is this river the Foliba? Were there bold here the Juliba flows, receiving in its adventurers the first discoveries of it? And course a number of smaller mountain ridid the tradition concerning it, though its vers from the south; but not even one name was lost in the deserts, neverthelets from the north, Like other tropical rity a series of the most lingular accidents, vers, it has its annual inundations, when reach the ears of the farther of history, jt, more or lefs, fills the valley through that he mighi record it, to be one day, at which it palles, The Joliba is at lait luii,
975 as far as our information yet reaches, in however, is merely a supposition), that inland lakes and marshes, which Major the river he had been treating of was the Rennel looks for in the districts of Wan- Nile, is connected with his hypothesis of gara and Ghana (or Cashna). We are the course of the latter. , It is, namely, told of one such lake in Ghana, and of one of the most singular of phenomena, three in Wangara. These observations that Herodotus describes the course and throw a clear light on the circumstance re- ftate of the Nile above Egypt to near its lated by Herodotus, that the Nafamones sources, with an accuracy which has hardhad been conducted through great marshy ly been attained by any fucceeding writer: traits (έλη μεγισα). Without passing only that he is mistaken with respect to through lich tracts, they could not pofli: the direction of this river ; as he believes, bly reach the Joliba. Major Rennel has, that, until its entrance into Egypt, it therefore, marked Wangara and Ghana Aows obliquely through Libya from west as marshy countries : they lie, however, to east. This error cannot be otherwise too far to the east, for us, with any de- well accounted for, except by fuppofing gree of probability, to suppose that the that Herodotus had confounded the (either adventurous Nasamones had come thither. jeally, or only in imagination existing) But then we are yet wholly ignorant how western branch of the Nile, or the Nile of far these marshes extend to the west: the Negioes, with the main stream flowfrom the nature and situation of the coun- ing from the fouth. The belief of the try we may reasonably conclude, that they existence of such a western branch, as apstrérch along the greater part of the river. pears from the narrative of Herodotus, All that Major Rennel has said concern- was then already generally prevalent in ing the lower or eastern half of the Joliba, Africa. That the Joliba, however, is not whither no European has yet penetrated, is this river, and that consequently Herodono more than conjecture drawn from in- tus was mistaken in his conjecture, seems, genious combinations; and it certainly is at present, no longer to admit of a doubt. à surprising phenomenon, that whiát the But the non-existence of such a stream is greatest geographer at the end of the eigh- yet far from being proved: on the conteenth century so happily conjectures, the trary, the belief of its existence has fo conearliest of historians and geographers was ftantly and invariably prevailed throughalready enabled to describe in express out all antiquity and the middle ages, that terms and to relate on good authority. here too we must wait for further discove.
It cannot now be determined with cer- ries, before we can venture to give a final tainty which was the city to which the decision.. Nafamones came : however, we probably ought to look for it between Tombuetu and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Cafona. That, besides these cities, there
SIR, are at present others on the banks of the Polibe, flich as Huja, Tocrur,cA of provifions, particularly corn, has
T a the such , we know : the existence, therefore, of a city led to the adoption of several plans for here, even in those ancient times, would relieving the distresses of the poor, it may not seem to be any thing strange or in- be of use to communicate such as have obcredible.
tained the sanction of experience, and been A third indication given by Herodotus, found productive of very important advanis, that the river contains crocodiles. Here tages. A moderate fund, judiciously ap-, the father of history knows more than even plied, will furnith much more extensive our latest travellers, in none of whose and durable relief, than double the amount works I recollect to have seen any inform- inconsiderately disposed of or distributed. ation relative to this circumstance. It is If you are of opinion that a publication probable that these creatures infest only of the following details will be of any use, the lower part of the Joliba ; and the nar- you will give them a place in the next rations of Herodotus, which have to often number of your
valuable miscellany. and so strikingly been illustrated and con
I am, Sir, firmed by new discoveries, will, without
Your humble Servant, doubt, be found true with relpect to the Shrewsbury, Dec. 17, 1799. J. Wood. existence of crocodiles in the Joliba, when
In the year 1783, a subscription amountever another traveller Mall be able to pe. ing to upwards of two thousand pounds netrale into those distant regions.
was raised at Shrewsbury for the purpose The conjecture which Herodotus adds of purchafing corn in the sea.ports, in at the end, and in which he coincides with order to check the baneful spirit of monothe king of the Ammonians, (but which, poly, and reduce the very exorbitant price
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