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Account o the Atheneum at Liverpool.

431 we have spoken above, have all the dirt and from that time it has been conducted and all the molasses, to them; they are to its completion, with such cordiality more delicate to the eye, but neither more and spirit, as have leldom been witnefied powerful nor delicate to the taste than in this town on any similar occalion. the raw fugar as it comes from the West On the following day the committee enIndies. Nay, it is even suspected that tered' upon their funétions ; and


di. the grinders sometimes mix it with other 'rections to the architect to prepare a plan ingredients, not sweets, bit when puls of the building according to the resoluverized not to be detected by the eye. tions of the general meeting. As the en

There is a ipecies of ground lugar, larged plan was much more eligible in vulgariy called bastard sugar, much to be every respect than that originally proprefered to the ather ground fugar; it poled, the committee recommended it to goes through a refining procets, and al- the adoption of the subscribers; and in though it has muci molasies in it, has no order to detray the additional expence indirt, lo that, though a lels delicate fsveer curred by the extension of the plan, they than loaf-li:gar, it is as powerful a one. also recoininended that the number of the Of sweets derived from the sugar-cane, subscribers should be increased to 300. and to be purchased in this country, mo- The committee drew up a report, conJasses or treacle is the cheapest. The raw taining not only these recommendations, sugar, as it comes from ihe West Indies, is but a variety of regulations for the future cheaper and as good as the common dried management of the inftitution. This ground sugar, retaining all its dirt and oil, report was pretented on the 18th of De

Bastard ground tugar is cheaper and a cember 1 97, to a general meeting of the more power ul leis adulterated sweet than fubfcribers, who framed a series of regueither : loaf fugar, completely refined, is lations in conformity with the recomcertainly both a delicate and a powerful mendations or the committee; and amongst sweet, and if used with proper calculation uther resolutions, they determined, that cheaper, notwiihstanding its excessive as soon as 300 names were subscribed, price at present, than common ground each subscriber should pay his subscriplugar. I am, &c.

tion into one of the public banks, and Maidstone, MARY JACKSON. that no contract or engagement should be June 14, 1795.

entered into on behalt of the subscribers, until the whole of the money was paid,

To this measure may be ascribed the ra. ACCOUNT OF THE ATHENÆUM AT

pidity with which the business proceeded.

On the 5th of January 1798, the sub[With a copper-plate.]

fcription-list of names was filled, the sub"HE establishment of a new Library fcribers began to pay their fubscriptions deratum with many gentlemen, who had month, not less than 2,9711. 1os. were -experienced ibe disadvantages and de- paid. The ground for the intended fests of the old one ; and theie.disadvant- building had already been purchased, and ages having been very generally felt and prepárations made for tinking the foundaacknowledged, an attempt was made, in tion. Various alterations and improvethe latter end of the year 2797, to lay the ments were made in the plan, and as foundation of fuch a library ; as might these alterations added to the expence of not only be valuable to the subscribers, the erection, the subscribers, at a general but creditable to the town,

ineering on the 19th of January, resolved The plan was no sooner known, than that the number of subscribers should be it received the warmest support of many further increased to 350, and that as foon of the most respectable gentlemen of the as 325 had paid their subscriptions, the town, who determined to use all their in- committee should be empowered to carry Auence to carry it into effect. They held the plan into execution. On the 8th of their first meeting on the 27th of Novein- February, the plan of the building was ber 1.797, to take the plan into considera- finally adjusted: the architect was retion; and at once resolved to enlarge it, quested to draw up a specification of it; by abandoning altogether the original proposals were advertised for and the idea of having ihops on the ground floor, proposals received, were laid before the and by converting that floor into a com- committee on the 2 3d of February; when modious and elegant news-room. A those of Mr. John Foster junr. were committee of 21 gentlemen was appoint. approved of and accepted; and a contract ed to carry the scheme into execution ; was entered into with him for completing



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the whole. The foundation of the build- tea, coffee, or soup; but no liquor of any ing 'was laid on the 26th of February; kind is allowed *. and on the 17th of March it was erected The whole of the institution is under and covered in. The summer and the be- the direction of a committee of 21 genginning of the winter were employed in tlemen, each of whom is to serve the of the interior work of the building : and fice three years. Its annual revenue is the news-room was opened for the use of 700 guineas : the expenditure of which is the subscribers on the ist of January limited and arranged according to the 1799. Before the room was opened, mode pointed out in the outline of the the whole of the subscription was paid, plan t. amounting to 36751.

To tbe Editor of the Monthly Magazine: The area of the building contains a space of 50 feet in front to the stree: , and SIR, 31 feet in depth : and the whole of the N crossing Woburn Park last Saturday ground-floor is appropriated to the news- evening about 36 minutes past 10, Í room, except a portion on each fide, ex- saw a very brilliant Meteor-its apparent tending from the back 20 feet into the courie was nearly in a line from the north room, one of which portions is converted pole; in duration about 2 seconds: it inade into a bar, and in the other, is the stair its first appearance about a degree from case to the library and other apartments, Cygni and passing between a and y Delwhich leaves a large recess in the back of phini : leaving 0 Antinoi about jo to the room, separated frorn the main part the south, and became invisible about 40 of it by two handsome fluted Doric co- below x Antinoi : its light was remarklumns. The room is 18 feet in height, ably Splendid, very similar to the electri. and is lighted by three chandeliers. Over cal spark on the discharge of a large jar. one of the fire places is a clock, and over Its apparent diameter was s', or 6', its the other oppofite, is a wind dial. The whole course an arc of about 48°; at firtt ornamental finish of the room is plain and there was no vifible tail, but one began to Ample, but neat and elegant. In this appear about the middle of its course, and room are admitted all the reviews, fe- at the end it was very lucid, extending veral other periodical publications and about 30:--the latitude of the place 510 pamphlets : and arrangements are now 54' į long. 25' west from Greenwich.making for furnishing it with a collection From these observations compared with of the best maps that can be procured of similar made at another place, its mag. every country on the globe, to be at- nitude and distance may be known. tached to the walls on spring rollers. When

Your obedient Servant, the whole of these arrangements shall Woburn, June 26.

B. BEVAN. have been finished, there is realon to be

To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. lieve, that it will be the most complete institution of the kind, that is to be met

SIR, with in this island.


FEW subjects in the economy of naThe library, which is over the front of ture are less agreed on by naturalists, the news-room, will not be ready for the than the origin of springs, and I am strongly reception of books until the vft of July. inclined to think that, by a closer atten. The dimensions of the library are 50 feet tion to the fituation, appearances, &c. in front by 30 in depth, and 23 feet in of springs themfelves, a more fatisfacheight. It is lighted by a large sky-light, tory account might be given of the causes and galleried all round, at nearly an

which produced them. equal distance between the floor and the I hope fome of your correspondents cieling

will take this subjeét into consideration, Behind the library and over the recessed and communicate the result through the part of the news-room and the bar, is a

medium of your valuable publication, very commodious room intended as

which will oblige, museum for the reception of such speci

Your humble Servant, I. C. mens in natural history, as may be presented to the institution. And over the

* An architectural description of the ele.

vation of the building is here wanted; but museum are three good lodging rooms for the use of the librarian and the servants of The expence of the building, including the

Mr. Roscoe will perlaps supply the want. the house. A part of the cellar room

ground, will, when completed, amount to is converted into kitchens and properly 3,5801. 185. 6d. furnished ; from which, the subscribers + This outline will appear in our next may be at all times accommodated with number.



Lalande's History of Aftronomy, for 1798.

433 For the Monthly Magazine. DELAMBRE; obfervations of Mercury by HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY, for the year 6, VIDAL, the great and astonishing oba

(1798] read at the commencement of the fit- server of Mercury, to whose labours we ting of the College of FRANCE, the 29th are indebted for observations of that planet, Brumaire, year seven, by JEROME LA- (fo rare and difficult before him) now as LANDE, Inspector and Dean of the College, cominon as those of the other planets, and and ancient Director of the observatory. in fact leaving little more to be delived ; [Concludid from p. 206.]

he himlelf has done more towards perfect TH

HE 11th Floreal, (April 30th) I ing our knowledge on this subject, than

requested of General BUONAPARTE, all the other altronomers in the world, 10,000 francs, to place the mural and the ancient and modern put together; and we meridian telescope of the observatory, and may all dispense with our taking a part to make observations at Paçis correspond- in this employment : citizen VIDAL, in ing to his own. He set out 100 foon to this respect, muft excite despair in all effect this object, but the minister FRAN. others. cors (DE NEUFCHATEAU) is the belt ca- An interesting memoir has appeared, pable to remedy this inconvenience, and accompanied with a large trigonometrical he has given us reason to hope for the aid chart, having for its object, to reduce the we stand in need of. Citizen LE FRAN- apparent distance of the moon from the sun, cois has observed the folitices of this or a itar, to the true distance, and to reyear, by the entire circle, and I have re- folve other questions of pilotage, by J. R. marked with pleasure the obliquity of the MAINGON, lieutenant de fregate. ecliptic agreeing, to one or two feconds, This ingenious chart, useful for marine with the table which I inserted in my Astro-operations, has been engraved by order of nomy,

for 1792, and which most aftro- the minister, and publithed au depôt: it nomers make use of.

may be substituted for the large charts of The 12th Meslidor (June 200h) the Margetts, and furnishes pilots with the institute decreed the prize for the marine means of abridging or Iparing calculations, watches, proper to find the longitude at by substituting for them the operation of fea, to two chronometers of citizen Louis the compass. BERTHOUD ; citizen MESSIER, and I The geographical ephemerides, underhad observed their going for about fix taken by M. de Zach, at Gutha, in the months. I took one with me to Gotha, beginning of the year, is a very remarkand I had the fatisfaction to observe that able and useful work. It appears every 200 leagues travelling in a carriage dit month, and contains curious observations, not affedt the motion a second per day. announcements of books and charts, new The institute will propose, on the 15th yoyages, geographical charts, as those of Nivôle, for the subject of a prize to be Ireland, Africa, and the Black Sea, when given at the end of two years, the theory the public attention was directed that way: of the comet of 1770, which the academy portraits, as those of HERSCHEL, DEhad already propoled in 1792. This LAMBRE, BANKS, &c. in a word, whatcomet has only been calculated hitherto, ever can interest astronomers, geographers, in an orbit of 5 years, and a revolution fo and navigators. A most extensive correlvery short appears scarcely probable. pondence in foreign countries enables M.

The memoirs of the Inititute for the DE ZACH to concentrate the communicayear 6, have appeared ; they contain my tions of learned men, the most distant from lait Theory of Mercury, the result of 40 each other. The only inconvenience is, years researches ; this was the first memoir that the German language is not cultiread at the first sitting of the first class of vated enough in the fouth; but many the Institute, January 1, 1796.

astronomers are already beginning to learn The bureau des longitudes has published it: they could scarcely dilpente with the , two volumes of the “ Connoissance iles Temswork of M. DE ZACH, and consequently for the years 8 and 9, the additions to with a language the most fertile of all which I was the compiler of. It has been others in important scientific treatises. determined that for the future, this work I have solicited the establihment of a prohall contain 500 pages, that there may fessor of German in the college of France, be more room in it for our observations from a conviction of the utility of that and calculations. These two volumes language in all kinds of instruction. abound with a variety of interesting arti- Astronomy and geography had no journal, cles, new catalogues of the stars, tables and we had no reason to expect one. of the horary movement of the moon, by ADELBURNER and BERNOUILLi, had MONTHLY MAG. No, XLVI.



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