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acquired action afford animal behaviour Animal Intelligence ants arise association bees biological end biological value caterpillars cells centres chick cinnabar co-ordination coalescence complex conation conative tendency congenital conscious situation consciousness course Darwin definite differentiated direct distinction effects eggs elements emotional evolution example experience fact factor female further germinal substance guidance habit hereditary heredity higher animals hypothesis ideal ideational imitation impulse individual infer influence inherited insects instinctive acts instinctive behaviour intelligent behaviour larvae male meaning mental development modes of behaviour modification movements natural selection nervous system nest object observation organic behaviour ovum Paramecia Paramecium pecking perceptual performance play pleasure present prey Prince Kropotkine probably Professor Groos psychological question rational reflex reflex action regarded response result seems seize sense sentience sexual selection social solitary wasps species spider spinal stage stimulus survival term tion variations W. H. Hudson young birds
Página 306 - The consciousness of brutes would appear to be related to the mechanism of their body simply as a collateral product of its working, and to be as completely without any power of modifying that working, as the steam-whistle which accompanies the work of a locomotive engine is without influence upon its machinery.
Página 61 - For my own part, I look upon it as upon the principle of gravitation in bodies, which is not to be explained by any known qualities inherent in the bodies themselves, nor from any laws of mechanism, but, according to the best notions of the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impression from the first mover, and the divine energy acting in the creatures.
Página 288 - In other words, those races of beings only can have survived in which, on the average, agreeable or desired feelings went along with activities conducive to the maintenance of life, while disagreeable and habitually-avoided feelings went along with activities directly or indirectly destructive of life...
Página 223 - When we see an ant-hill, tenanted by thousands of industrious inhabitants, excavating chambers, forming tunnels, making roads, guarding their home, gathering food, feeding the young, tending their domestic animals, — each one fulfilling its duties industriously, and without confusion, — it is difficult altogether to deny to them the gift of reason ; and the preceding observations tend to confirm the opinion that their mental powers differ from those of men, not so much in kind as in degree.
Página 308 - (if any such now exist), must admit that we have as much reason for regarding the mode of motion of the nervous system as the cause of the state of consciousness, as we have for regarding any event as the cause of another.
Página 317 - We see that the inferior animals, when the conditions of life are favorable, are subject to periodical fits of gladness, affecting them powerfully and standing out in vivid contrast to their ordinary temper. And we know what this feeling is — this periodic intense elation which even civilized man occasionally experiences when in perfect health, more especially when young.
Página 225 - Our reverence for the nobility of manhood will not be lessened by the knowledge, that Man is, in substance and in structure, one with the brutes ; for, he alone possesses the marvellous endowment of intelligible and rational speech, whereby, in the secular period of his existence, he has slowly accumulated and organized the experience which is almost wholly lost with the cessation of every individual life in other animals...
Página 149 - The cat that is clawing all over the box in her impulsive struggle will probably claw the string or loop or button so as to open the door. And gradually all the other non-successful impulses will be stamped out and the particular impulse leading to the successful act will be stamped in by the resulting pleasure, until, after many trials, the cat will, when put in the box, immediately claw the button or loop in a definite way.
Página 218 - They came to the edge and tried hard to get over, but it did not occur to them to. push the paper bridge, though the distance was only about onethird of an inch, and they might easily have done so. After trying for about a quarter of an hour they gave up the attempt, and returned home. This I repeated several times.
Página 287 - ... while pleasures are the correlatives of actions conducive to its welfare. We need not, however, rest satisfied with an induction from these instances yielded by the essential vital functions ; for it is an inevitable deduction from the hypothesis of Evolution, that races of sentient creatures could have come into existence under no other conditions.