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study the question of dress; and the expenditure of time is often in inverse ratio to the power of spending money ; for if I must make the same appearance as my neighbour at half the cost, it must be by devoting my time and toil to the work of producing it. It would be well to measure by the watch the proportion of time devoted to the arrangement of the hair to that devoted to the arrangement of the thoughts; nay more,-the proportion of time given to decoration with that spent in private devotion. How quickly half an hour disappears in the one case; how slowly in the other !
V. Truth is the fifth mirror. The woman professing godliness must avoid all false pretences; all false ways concerning her age, her station, her fortune, she must utterly abhor. There are convenient and cheap imitations of costly things, which are perfectly harmless unless she who uses them tries to pass them off for what they are not; but she must never, for use or ornament, wear anything that makes her fear detection. It is one of her refined social duties, (none the less a duty because it is refined and of small dimensions,) not to offend the eye of taste, and to let herself be as pleasing as nature permits in the sight of those who care to observe her ; but she must scrupulously avoid everything that falsifies the reality.
VI. That part of Charity called almsgiving is a mirror which each must keep in her own chamber and study for herself alone; being a free offering, ('freely ye have received, freely give,') there are no rules laid down; each one must be convinced in her own mind that she gives according to her ability, and that not grudgingly, or of necessity. Now there are no circumstances in which self-denial may not be exercised with this object; in every class of society—from the lady who resigns her diamonds to endow a bishopric, down to the girl who gives up the superfluous knot of ribbon to spend the sixpence on a loaf for her hungry neighbour-every woman has the choice set before ber, what will she do with her own ? And as these free-will offerings ought, so far as may be, to be done in secret, it is not desirable that a shabby or neglected appearance should proclaim her almsdeeds ; and from the housewife who toils to make the auld claithes look amaist as weel's the new,' up to the lady who limits and regulates her orders on her tradespeople, every woman can consider the poor and exercise female ingenuity in "devising liberal things.' This mirror is for personal use, and is not to be turned into a tribunal, for one cannot judge justly the circumstances of another. There may be times and places, too, where the demands for almsgiving are not urgent; and there may be times when the circumstances of our Church or country are such as to make every act of self-indulgence a sin against Charity.
Modest, Honest, Consistent, Truthful, Redeemers of the Time, Charitable—would our fair daughters and our matrons be less lovely if their whole appearance bore these characteristics ? would they not thus adorn themselves ?
With the figure which these Six Mirrors present, let us carefully compare the Apostolic rule.
1 St. Timothy, ii. 9, 10.— Likewise that women also in modest guise, with shamefastness and sobermindedness, do adorn themselves; not with braided hair, and gold, or pearls, or costly array, but (which becometh women professing godliness) through good works.' This is the translation of Bishop Ellicott, who observes upon the words :6“ Likewise;" in public prayers the women were not mere supernumeraries, they also had their duties as well as the men; these were sobriety of deportment and simplicity of dress at all times, especial y at public prayers. “Seemly guise" is not simply dress, but deportment as exhibited externally, whether in look, manner, or dress,--external appearance. “Shamefastness and discretion ;” the inward feelings which accompany the outward bearing and deportment. “Not with plaitings,” &c. ;* special adornments both personal and put on the person, inconsistent with Christian simplicity.'
The Apostolic rule of St. Peter is very similar-Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel; but let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quict spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.' A few words may be selected from the exquisite commentary of Archbishop Leighton on the passage. “To a sincere and humble Christian
very little either of dispute or discourse concerning this will be needful. A tender conscience, and a heart purified from vanity and weaned from the world, will be sure to regulate this after the safest manner; and will be wary, first, of lightness and fantastic garb in apparel, which is the very bush and sign hanging out that tells a vain mind lodges within ; and second, of excessive costliness, which both argues and feeds the pride of the heart, and defrauds, if not others of their dues, yet the poor of thy charity, which in the sight of God is a debt due too. As conscientious Christians will not exceed in the thing itself, so, in as far as they use lawful ornament and comeliness, they will do it without bestowing much either of diligence or delight on the subject. Finally, the Apostle doth indeed expressly check and forbid vanity and excess in apparel, and excessive delight in lawful decoration, but his prime end is to recommend this other ornament, the hidden man of the heart; so here the Apostle pulls off from Christian women their vain outside ornaments; but is not this a wrong to spoil all their dressing and fineness ? no, he doth only send them to a better wardrobe, where there is much profit in the change-meekness and quietness of spirit.'
Or, in an old English translation, 'writhings of the hair,' anticipating the fashions of 1869,
TRADITIONS OF TIROL.
NORTH TIROL—THE INNTHAL.
(LEFT INN-BANK.) EXCURSIONS ROUND INNSBRUCK-MÜHLAU, NEW CHURCH, BARONIN STERN
BACH-JUDGEMENT OF FRAU HÜTT-BÜCHSENHAUSEN-WEIERBURGMARIÄ-BRÜNN-HOTTINGEN, MONUMENTS IN THE FRIEDHOF-SCHLOSS LICHTENTHURM - THE
HÖTTINGERBILD, THE STUDENT'S MADONNA, STALACTITES-EXCURSION TO ZIRL-GROSSEN HERR-GOTT STRASSE KRANEBITTEN—THESCHWEFELLOCH-THE HUNDSKAPELLE-THE ZIRLERCHRISTEN-GROSS-SOLSTEIN -THE MARTINSWAND,
DANGER OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN, COLLIN'S BALLAD, WHO LED THE KAISER ASTRAY? HIS IMPORTANCE IN EUROPE, EFFORTS TO RESCUE HIM, THE BLESSED SACRAMENT VISITS HIM, UNKNOWN DELIVERER—MARTINSBÜHL—TRADITIONS OF KAISER MAX-ZIRL-FRAGENSTEIN, ITS HIDDEN TREASURELEITEN-REIT-SEEFELD-THE HEILIGE BLUTSKAPELLE—THE SEEKAPELLE-SCHARNITZ-ISARTHAL-PORTA KLAUDIA- - DIRSTENÖHLTHE BEGGAR-WOMAN'S PRAYER, VISION OF THE PEASANT OF DORF,
"I taught the heart of the boy to revel
Aubrey de Vere.
THOSE who wish to visit the sanctuaries of Tirol without any great measure of 'roughing,' will doubtless find Innsbruck the most convenient base of operations for many excursions of various lengths to places which the pedestrian would take on his onward routes. Those on the north and east, which have been already described in Chapters VII. and IX., may also be treated thus. It remains to mention those to be found on the west, north-west, and south. A fine avenue of poplars running between the right bank of the Inn and the railway leads to Mühlau, where the river is crossed by a suspension bridge. There are baths in Mühlau which are much visited by the Innsbruckers, and many visitors prefer staying there to Innsbruck itself. A pretty little new Gothic church adorns the height; the altar is bright with marbles of the country, and has a very creditable altar-piece by a Tirolean artist. Mühlau was celebrated in the Befreiungskämpfe through the courage of Baronin Sternbach, its chief resident; everywhere where the patriots gathered she might be found in their midst, fully armed and on her bold charger, inspiring all with courage. Arrested in her château at Mühlau during the Bavarian occupation, no threats or insult could wring from her any admission prejudicial to the interests of her country, or compromising to her son ; she was sent to Munich and kept a close prisoner there, as also were Graf Sarnthein and Baron Schneeburg, till the Peace of Vienna.
From either Mühlau or Innsbruck may be made the excursion to Frau Hütt, a curious natural formation which by a freak of nature presents somewhat the appearance of a gigantic petrifaction of a woman with a child in her arms. Of it one of the most celebrated of Tirolean traditions is told. In the time of Noe, says the legend, there was a queen of the giants living in these mountains, and her name was Frau Hütt. Nork makes out a seemingly rather far-fetched derivation for it out of the wife der Behütete, (i.e. the be-hatted, or covered, one,) otherwise Odin, with the sky for his head-covering. However that may be, the legend says Frau Hütt had a son, a young giant, who wanted to cut down a pine tree to make a stalking-horse, but as the pine grew on the borders of a morass, he fell with his burden into the swamp. Covered over head and ears with mud, lie came home to his mother crying, who ordered the nurse to wipe off the mud with fine crumb of white bread. This filled up the measure of Frau Hütt's life-long extravagance. As the servant approached, to put the holy gift of God to this profane use, a fearful storin came on, and the light of Heaven was veiled by angry clouds; the earth rocked with fear, then opened a yawning mouth, and swallowed up the splendid marble palace of Frau Hütt, and the rich gardens surrounding it. When the sky became again serene, of all the former verdant beauty nothing remained, all was wild and barren as at present. Frau Hütt, who had run for refuge with her son in her arms to a neighbouring eminence, was turned into a rock. In place of our Wilful waste makes woeful want,' children in the neighbourhood are warned from waste by the saying, 'Spart eure Brosamen für die Armen, damit es euch nicht ergehe wie der Frau Hütt.'* Frau Hütt also serves as the popular barometer of Innsbruck, and when the old giantess appears with her 'night-cap'on, no one undertakes a journey. This excursion will take four or five hours; on the way Buchsenhausen is passed, where, as I have already mentioned, Gregory Löffler cast the statues of the Hofkirche. I have also given above † the legend of the Bienerweible. As a consequence of the state execution which occasioned her melancholy aberrations, the castle was forfeited to the crown. Ferdinand Karl, however, restored it to the family ; it was subsequently sold, and became one of the most esteemed breweries of the country, the cellars being hewn in the living rock, and its · Bier-garten' is much frequented by holiday-makers. Remains of the old castle are still kept up, among them the chapel, in which are some paintings worth attention. On one of the walls is a portrait of the Chancellor's son, who died in the Franciscan Order in Innsbruck in his ninety-first year.
If time allows, the Weierburg and the Maria-Brünn may be taken in the way home, as it makes but a slight digression; or it may be ascended * Spare your bread for the poor, and escape the fate of Frau Hütt.
† Part V., p. 501-2.
from Müllau. It affords a most delightful view of the picturesque capital, and the surrounding heights and valleys mapped out around. Schloss Weierburg was once the gay summer residence of the Emperor Maximilian, and some relics of him are still preserved there.
Hottingen, which might be either taken on the way when visiting Frau Hütt or the Weierburg, is a sheltered spot, and one of the few in the Innthal where the vine flourishes. It is reached by continuing the road past the little Church of Mariähilf across the Inn; it had considerable importance in mediæval times, and has consequently some interesting remains, which, as well as the bathing establishment, make it a rival to Mühlau. In the church (dedicated to S. Nicholas) is Gregory Löffler's monument crected to him by his two sons. The Counts of Trautinannsdorf and other noble families of Tirol have monuments in the Friedhof; the tower of the church is said to be a remnant of a Roman temple to Diana. To the right of the church is Schloss Lichtenthurm, well kept up, and often inhabited by the Schneeburg family. On the woody heights to the north is a little pilgrimage chapel difficult of access, and called the Höttingerbilde. It is built over an image of our Lady found on the spot by a student of Innsbruck in 1764, and who ascribed his rapid advance in the schools to his devotion to it. On the east side of the Höttinger stream are some remains of lateral mining shafts, which afford the opportunity of a curious and difficult, though not dangerous exploration ; there are some very pretty stalactitic formations, but on a restricted scale.
There is enough of interest in a visit to Zirl to make it the object of a day's outing, but if time presses it may be reached hence, by pursuing the main street of this suburb, called, I know not why, zum grossen HerrGott, which continues in a path along an almost direct line of about seven miles through field and forest, and for the last four or five following the bank of the Inn. Or the whole route may be taken in a carriage from Innsbruck, driving past the rille-butt under Mariähilf. At a distance of two miles you pass Kranebitten, or Kranewitten, not far from which at a little distance on the right of the road is a remarkable ravine in the heights, which approach nearer and nearer the bank of the river. It is well worth while to turn aside and visit this ravine, which goes by the name of the Schwefelloch. It is an accessible introduction on a small scale to the wild and fearful natural solitudes we read of with interest in more distant regions. The uneven path is closed in by steep and rugged mountain sides, which spontaneously recall many a poet's description of a visit to the nether world. At some distance down the gorge, a flight of eight or nine rough and precarious steps cut in the rock, and then one or two still more precarious ladders, lead to the so-called Hundskirche, or Hundskappelle,* which is said to derive its name from having been the last resort of Pagan mysteries when heathendom was retreating before the advance of Christianity in Tirol. Further on, the rocks bear the name
* The dog's church or chapel.