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merited meed of praise. In Lord one who has even an elementary Cromer, better known as Sir Evelyn grasp of the problem can deny that Baring, we had uncommon genius, the second task was as absolutely by a piece of good luck, to back indispensable as the first. It would

be absurd to insist upon a literal He has realized that the essence fulfilment of the pledges we had of our policy is to help the Egyptians given to Europe, in all good faith at to work out, as far as possible, their the time, when we undertook the own salvation. And not only has he first and much the most simple realized it himself, but he has taught operation. others to realize it. By a wise re- “If there is one thing absolutely serve, he has led his countrymen in certain, it is that the great majority Egypt to rely upon patience, upon of the Egyptian nation, and espersuasion, and upon personal in- pecially the peasantry, have benefited fluence, rather than rougher methods enormously by our presence in the to guide their native colleagues in country. For the few, the new systhe path of improved administration. tem has meant loss as well as gain ; Yet on the rare occasions when his for the many, it is all pure gain. intervention was absolutely neces- At no previous period of his history sary, he has intervened with an em- has the fellah lived under a governphasis which has broken down all ment so careful to promote his inresistance. The contrast between terests or protect his rights. Egypt to-day and Egypt as he found "The difference between Egypt it, the enhanced reputation of Eng. now and Egypt in the latter days of land in matters Egyptian, are the Ismail is as the difference between measure of the signal service he has light and darkness. Look where you rendered alike to his own country will, at the army, at finance, at agriand to the country were he has laid culture, at the administration of the foundation of a lasting fame." justice, at the everyday life of the

In describing how it was that we people, and their relations to their came into Egypt, Mr. Milner ex- rulers, it is always the same tale of presses his conviction very emphati- revival. And this in the place of cally as to its necessity. The emer- almost general ruin and depression, gency which compelled us to despatch of a total distrust in the possibility our expedition was the imminent re- of just government, and a rooted turn of the reign of barbarism. So belief in administrative corruption far from having been exaggerated, as the natural and invariable rule of the fears of massacre and the general human society. That seems a redissolution of society which immedi- markable revolution to have taken ately preceded our advent fall short place in ten years. It is doubtful of the danger which was actually whether in any part of the world impending. Nothing but our prompt the same period can show anything action saved Egypt from anarchy. like the same tale of progress. The Had England not intervened, every- most absurd experiment in human thing that was good in Egypt would government has been productive of have been smashed, and after a de- one of the most remarkable harvests structive reign of terror the revolu- of human improvement.' tion would have resulted in the es- Justice, justice, justice, Sir Edtablishment of a newer and severer ward Malet declared, was the great form of the old slavery.

need of Egypt when he left it. But “We went to Egypt imagining how can you get justice in a country that we had simply to put down a where every foreigner has almost a military mutiny. We found that the chartered right to commit crimes whole system of government, order, with impunity, owing to the extent and society had fallen to pieces, and to which the capitulations have been could only be slowly built up again, abused. piece by piece, and step by step. We have occupied the country We went to Egypt to do one thing, ever since we set foot in it, but our and stayed there to do another. No garrison is only three thousand men,

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and Mr. Milner is of opinion that soldiers. The opinion of Egypt was the presence of even one British shown at the time by its stock, which regiment gives a weight, which they went down to 45. would not otherwise possess, to the “Now, in 1893, all is changed. The counsels of the British Consul- finances of the country are in as General.

sound condition as those of any of English influence is not ex- the States of Europe. On all sides ercised to impose an uncongenial are to be seen signs of prosperity foreign system upon

a reluctant and content. Alexandria has been people. It is a force making for rebuilt in so magnificent a style that the triumph of the simplest ideas of its people begin to think that its honesty, humanity, and justice, to needless burning was not an unmitithe value of which Egyptians are gated evil; and the opinion of just as much alive as anybody else. Europe may be grasped by the fact It is a weight, and a decisive weight, that Egyptian stock is at par. cast into the right scale, in the strug

"The Gladstone Government came gle of the better elements of Egyp- into power in 1880 with the sincere tian society against the worse. determination to interfere as little as

The Egyptian army has been possible in such matters. They seAnglicized. The troops are properly lected excellent instruments. For fed, clothed, and housed, and are extricating a country or a ministry looked after when they are ill. The from difficulties, better men could devotion of the English officers in not be found than those selectedattending to their troops during the Lords Dufferin and Northbrook, cholera was a new idea to the Egyp- General Gordon and Sir Evelyn tian mind. When the army was Baring. Sir Evelyn Baring has had formed there were 27 British officers. the opportunity of showing what There are now 76 to 12,500 men, and he was made of. Facts have proved there are about 40 British non-com- that he is a man of great ability, inissioned officers besides.

a born administrator, with all the A late number of the Fortnightly guished so many that bear his name.

financial talents that have distinReview has the following statements

“In 1882 the deficit for the year on this subject, by W. T. Marriott :

was £632,368. In 1883 the deficit “ The progress that has been made on the year was £709,397, and in in Egypt during the last seven years 1884, £665,444. In 1885, there was is one of the most remarkable events a small surplus of £3,979. In 1886, in modern times, and reads more like 1887, 1888, and 1889, though the a transformation scene in a fairy-tale expenditure increased to more than than one of the hard realities of it was in 1884, the surpluses conhistory. Ten years ago-in 1882— tinued till they reached £653,939 in the condition of the country was 1890, and £1,100,000 in 1891. almcst desperate.

Emerging from “This result has not been produced liquidation by the help of France by an increase of taxation or by an and England, it appeared again to undue lowering of expenditure. On be on the verge of bankruptcy. Dis- the contrary, there has been a large content permeated the whole popu- increase in the expenditure of money lation, and a spirit of revolt was upon useful objects, such as educarampant in the army. The finest tion, the improvement of the prisons, portion of the chief commercial city, and the furtherance of public works, Alexandria, had been burnt to the and with it there has been a large ground, and the European population remission of taxation. that carried on its trade and com- “ Irrigation is the one thing needmerce had fled or been given over to ful to make Egypt a productive and outrage and massacre. Trade and flourishing country, and to the imcommerce were for a time completely provement in the irrigation works, paralyzed. The Khedive Tewlik was which were completed in 1891, is due a fugitive, and the government, such more than to any other single cause as it was, was in the hands of rebel its present prosperous condition.

“Ten years ago wise prophets become a commodity to be purchased would tell you that there were three by the rich, and quite out of the things that were impossible in Egypt reach of those who most require it. -1st, to make it solvent ; 2nd, to “Not merely have the works as collect the taxes without the free use they stand added enormously to the of the kourbash ; 3rd, to execute material prosperity of the country, public works without that forced and which would be injuriously affected cruel labour which went under the by any neglect of maintenance, but name of the corvée. Now, not only they are capable of almost unlimited is Egypt solvent, but the use of the expansion. kourbash and the corvée have both ** France and Turkey are the only been abolished. The taxes are now powers that in any way are jealous more easily collected than they ever of British intervention in Egypt. were in the days when the kourbash The other powers of Europe are conwas systematically applied to the feet tent that matters should remain as of the wretched fellaheen, and more they are. That they should prefer public works have been executed by British control to French is only labourers who are paid a fair day's natural. So long as Egypt is under wage, and are voluntary workers, British control, every power has than ever were in the same time exactly the same rights and facilities under the remorseless system of for trading and manufacturing as we corvée. In addition, slavery has have ourselves. been practically abolished.

“ As for Egypt, it would be the “It is no exaggeration to say that, height of cruelty to arrest in any at no period of their known history way the beneficial treatment she is have the Egyptian people enjoyed now undergoing. The last seven anything like the advantages they do years of good government have imat the present time. Their national proved and benefited her condition prosperity has been greatlyincreased, far beyond the anticipations of even and they now enjoy rights and privi- those who have the strongest faith leges to which they have been stran- in the effects of good government. gers for thousand of years. Were Another seven years of similar gor. Egypt left to herself, if that be possi- ernment will vastly increase and ble, or were it again to pass under place on a firm basis those improvethe control of Turkish pashas, the ments, and Europe and great Britain, kourbash and the corvée would be as well as Egypt, will reap the great quickly revived. Justice would again benefit.”



PRIMITIVE Christianity was emi- of the Gospel. The Old Testament nently congenial to religious sym- sparkles with mysterious imagery. bolism. Born in the east, and in In the sublime visions of Isaiah, the . bosom of Judaism, which had Ezekiel and Daniel, move strange long been familiar with this univer- creatures of wondrous form and sal oriental language, it adopted prophetic significance. In the New types and figures as its natural mode Testament, the Divine Teacher conof expression. These formed the veys the loftiest lessons in parables warp and woof of the symbolic dra- of inimitable beauty. pery of the tabernacle and temple calyptic visions of St. John, the service, pre-figuring the great truths language of imagery is exhausted

In the apo

* The History and Principle and Practice of Symbolism in Christian Art. By F. ED. HULME, F.L.S., F.S.A. New York: Macmillan & Co. Toronto: Wm. Briggs. Pp. 234. Price, $1.25 ; 113 illustrations.



to represent the overthrow of Satan, tic representation by the fear which the triumph of Christ and the pervaded the Primitive Church of glories of the New Jerusalem. the least approach to idolatry.

The Primitive Christians, there- Great care must be observed, fore, naturally adopted a similar however, in the interpretation of mode of art expression for convey- this religious symbolism, not to ing religious instruction. They strain it beyond its capacity or inalso, as a necessary precaution, in tention. It should be withdrawn the times of persecution, concealed from the sphere of theological confrom the profane gaze of their ene- troversy, often the battlemies the mysteries of the faith ground of religious rancour and under a veil of symbolism, which bitterness, and relegated to that of yet revealed their profoundest truths scientific archæology and dispassionto the hearts of the initiated. That ate criticism. An allegorizing mind, such disguise was not superfluous, is if it has any theological dogma to shown by the discovery of a pagan maintain, will discover symbolical caricature of the crucifixion on evidence in its support where it can wall beneath the Palatine, and by be detected by no one else. the recorded desecration of the The use of pictorial representa: eucharistic vessels by the apostate tions appears often to have been a Julian. To those who possessed matter of necessity. Many of the the key to the “Christian hierogly. Christians could understand no other phics," as Raoul-Rochette has called written language. But by far the them, they spoke a language that larger proportion of these symbols the most unlettered, as well as the have a religious significance, and learned, could understand. What refer to the peace and joy of the to the haughty heathen was an un- Christian, and to the holy hopes of meaning scrawl, to the lowly be- a life beyond the grave; and many liever was eloquent of loftiest truths of them were derived directly from and tenderest consolation. Indeed, the language of Scripture. They that old Christian life under repres- were often of a very simple and sion and persecution created a more rudimentary character, such as could imperious necessity for the expres- be easily scratched with a trowel on sion of its deepest emotions and the moist plaster, or traced upon most sacred feelings in religious art. the stone. They were sometimes,

Although occasionally fantastic however, elaborately represented in and far-fetched, this symbolism is excellent frescoes or sculpture. generally of a profoundly religious The beautiful allusion of St. Paul significance, and often of extreme to the Christian's hope as the anpoetic beauty. In perpetual can- chor of the soul, both sure and steadticle of love, it finds resemblances fast, is frequently represented in the of the divine object of its devotion catacombs by the outline of an anthroughout all nature. It beholds chor, often rudely drawn, but elobeyond the shadows of time the quent with profoundest meaning to eternal verities of the world to the mind of the believer. It assured come. It is not of the earth, earthy, him that, while the anchor of his but is entirely supersensual in its hope was cast " within the veil,” his character, and employs material lifebark would outride the fiercest forms only as suggestions of the blasts and wildest waves of persecuunseen and spiritual. It addresses tion, and at last glide safely into the the inner vision of the soul, and not haven of everlasting rest. This alluthe mere outer sense. Its merit sion is made more apparent when it consists, therefore, not in artistic is observed how often it is found on beauty of execution, but in appo- the tombstone of those who bear the siteness of religious significance-a name Hope, in its Greek or Latin test lying far too deep for the ap- form, as EATIE, EANIAINE, SPES, prehension of the uninitiated. It is, etc. perhaps, also influenced, as Kugler Of kindred significance with this remarks, in the avoidance of realis- is the symbol of a ship, which may



also refer to the soul seeking a sheep more appropriately symbolize country out of sight, as the ship those who, still in the flesh, go in steers to a land beyond the horizon. and out and find pasture. SuggestSometimes it may be regarded as a ing the thought of that sweet Hetype of the church ; and in later brew idyl of which the world will times it is represented as steered by never grow tired, the twenty-third St. Peter and St. Paul. The sym- Psalm, which, lisped by the pallid bol of “the heaven-bound ship is lips of the dying throughout the mentioned by Clement of Alexan- ages, has strengthened their hearts dria as being in vogue in the second as they entered the dark valley ; and century.

to which our Lord lent a deeper The palm and crown are symbols pathos by the tender parable of the that frequently occur,

often in a lost sheep-small wonder that it very rude form. They call to mind a favourite type of that unthat great multitude whom no man wearying love that sought the erring can number, with whom faith sees

and the outcast and brought them the dear departed walk in white, to His fuld again. With reiterated bearing palnis in their hands. The and manifold treatment, the tender crown is not the wreath of ivy or of story is repeated over and over laurel, of parsley or of bay, the again, making the gloomy crypts coveted reward of the ancient bright with scenes of idyllic beauty, games; nor the chaplet of earthly and hallowed with sacred associarevelry, which, placed upon the tions. Many other sacred symbols heated brow, soon fell in withered might also be enumerated.

Mr. Hulme's volume is a very garlands to the feet; but the crown of life, starry and unwithering, the comprehensive treatise on this subimmortal wreath of glory which the ject, throughout the entire period saints shall wear forever at the mar

of Christian art, as symbolism in riage supper of the Lamb. They colours, symbolism of the Trinity, are the emblems of victory over the

the sacred monogram and cross, of latest foe, the assurance that

the Passion, of angels, saints, and

martyrs, of the apostles and pro“The struggle and grief are all past; phets, and the like. Indeed, no one The glory and worth live on.

can understand the meaning of sa

cred and legendary art who cannot One of the most beautiful symbols interpret the symbolism through of the catacombs is the dove, the which it speaks. We know no comperpetual synonym of peace. An- pendious treatise which furnishes other of the most striking and beau- such a satisfactory interpretation tiful of these symbols is that which as Mr. Hulme's. For those who represents Christ as the Good Shep- wish to study it more fully, we reherd, and believers as the sheep of commend Mrs. Jameson's and Lady His fold. While the doves may be Eastlake's Sacred and Legendary regarded as emblematic of the beat- Art, Lübke's History of Art, and ified spirits of the departed, the Didron's Iconographie Chretienne.

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'Tis weary watching wave by wave,

And yet the tide heaves onward;
We climb like corals, grave by grave,

But pave a path that's sunward.
We're beaten back in many a fray,

But newer strength we borrow,
And where the vanguard camps to day,
The rear shall rest to-morrow.

-Gerald Massey.

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