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that are seen in spring should always be destroyed. The larvæ puncture and suck the leaves of the cabbage, giving them the appearance of being scorched. Strange to say, while this insect is on the increase, and the damage it inflicts considerable, no birds, or insect enemies seem to prey upon it. Probably, in good time, these will both present themselves for the feast, when its conspicuous black, yellow, and reddish colorings will render it an easy prey. Hand-picking in the egg, larva, and perfect state, is the only remedy yet known.

Two of the true bugs are sometimes very destructive to the cabbages and turnips. The False Chinch-bug and the Tarnished Plant-bug.

The False Chinch-bug (Nysius destructor), much resembles the true Chinch-bug in general appearance, but that has a black head and thorax, and two conspicuous black spots on the front wings, while in this, the False-bug, the color is more uniform and of a paler tarnished brown.

Fig. 32.— FALSE CHINCH-BUG The two insects differ in their

(Nysius destructor.) habits; while the Chinch-bug b, Pupa ; C, Mature Insect. confines itself to the grains and grasses, this feeds on several garden plants and the grape. The engraving fig. 32, gives the larva at b, and the perfect insect at c. This, like related insects, feeds by sucking the juices of plants by means of its beak, causing them to wilt. Like the Chinch-bug, it passes the winter under weeds and rubbish, and clean culture with the burning of all trash at the approach or winter, will aid in keeping it in subjection.

The Tarnished Plant-bug (Capsus oblineatus), fig. 33, in its general color is dirty yellow, sometimes greenish, with markings of dark brown or black. It is a more

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general feeder than the preceding, and besides plants in the vegetable and flower garden, it attacks vari

ous fruit trees, especially when these
are young. The principal remedies
thus far recommended are tobacco
water and cresylic soap. The insect
is
very

fond of the cabbage, especially when it is in bloom, and it has been suggested to allow a patch of cabbages to run up to flower in order to attract the insects which can be more readily

destroyed, when thus assembled, than Fig. 33.–TARNISHED PLANT-BUG (Capsus when scattered over a wide area. oblineatus).

The Lady-birds or Lady-bugs, in their perfect state are well-known insects, and the brief description of the leading species here given will allow them to be recognized. The larval form, in which they are so useful is not so well known. The engraving fig. 34, gives their general appearance. The color is often blue, or lead color, with orange and black markings. They are remarkably active and run about with

Fig. 34. great rapidity, as they feed not only upon plant LARVA OF lice but upon other insects. The one repre- (Hippodasented in fig. 34, is the larva of Hippodamia mia converconvergens, and has done good service in keeping the Colorado Potato-bug in check, by feeding upon its soft larvæ.

CHAPTER XVI.

THE CAULIFLOWER (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis).

Choufleur, French; Blumenkohl, German; Bloenkool, Dutch; Cavoli

fiori, Italian; and Berza florida, Spanish.

The Cauliflower is the most curious, most delicate, and most valuable member of the genus Brassica. The part used, called the "curd,” consists of the undeveloped flower buds, with their stems, etc., forming, when not too much expanded, a firm, white, compact head.

PROFITS PER ACRE.

Of the various crops grown by the truck-farmer, this, when all the peculiar conditions for its successful culture are present, can be made the most profitable. Peter Henderson, in his valuable “Gardening for Profit,” assures us that his average proceeds from an acre, through several years, had been fifteen hundred dollars, and, that in one very favorable season, it reached nearly three thousand dollars (ten thousand to twelve thousand plants to the acre). Two years ago, the New York “Sun” reported as exceptionally high, the net sales of two barrels of cauliflower, in prime condition, from Cutchogue, L. I., at nineteen dollars each. Some of my own crop of last year, April 4th, 1882, brought, in the New York market, per bushel crate, containing an average of twentytwo heads of prime quality, but not very large, eight dollars and fifty cents gross, or seven dollars and sixty cents net. That portion of the crop shipped in crates to New York, averaged, for the first quality and “culls,” five dollars and sixty-five cents gross.

The first, shipped

in barrels, March 25th, containing forty-two No. 1, and forty-seven No. 2, netted twenty-four dollars and seventyfive cents per barrel. The average gross Gales per head of No. 1, in New York, were at thirty-seven and nine-tenths cents. The average gross sales per head of No. 1, in Boston, were at thirty-seven and five-tenths cents. The sales by another firm were not quite so satisfactory. What number of plants to the acre, under favorable conditions, he may be able to nurse up to the production of marketable heads, will, of course, depend upon the gardener himself. The Cauliflower is considered the queen among vegetables, and the supply has never been equal to the demand, though there are hundreds of acres devoted to it on Long Island, for the New York market. As seen from the prices quoted above, this vegetable is only within the command of persons of means. Fortunately for the market gardener, there are many who think as did Dr. Johnson: “Of all the flowers of the garden give me the cauliflower.” Besides large quantities used for pickling, etc., there were marketed from Long Island, in 1879, one hundred thousand pounds of cauliflower.

LOCATION AND SOIL.

The cauliflower can never become a vegetable of universal cultivation, for the reason, that it will not succeed if far removed from the moisture and the saline atmosphere of its native locality, the Sea coast, unless, indeed, the required moisture can be supplied by irrigation. Erfurt, in the interior of Germany, produces perhaps the finest cauliflowers of the European Continent. They are grown between open ditches, or small canals, on “lands” so narrow as to admit of water being thrown by hand from each marginal ditch to the middle of each

“land.” In watering, a scoop attached to a somewhat elastic handle, is used, thus drenching the whole crop. The culture is often impracticable at only a short distance from a favorable location. While the northern shore of Long Island is, par excellence, the caulislower garden of the United States; the southern shore is comparatively unfit for its growth. On the Peninsula of Florida, there must be many situations along either its west or east coast, where the soil being suitable, this vegetable may be grown with great success, and it is strange that the farmers of that State have not yet made it one of the favorite vegetables for shipment. It ought to do well near Norfolk, but the farmers there consider it a troublesome crop. Owing to the heat and dryness prevailing during the season of ripening, the seed of cauliflower is rarely grown in this country, but is imported from Europe. One American variety, the “Snow Ball,” has lately been highly recommended. I do not yet know it sufficiently to either condemn or praise it; but what little I have seen, leads me to consider it a small leaved “Dwarf Erfurt,” from American grown seed. It is necessary, even in a greater degree than with the common cabbage, to secure seed of good strain. Though all the other elements of success may be present, with Seed of poor quality, failure is certain. Instead of the beautiful, snow white “curd,” more like a flower in its delicate beauty than an edible vegetable, the green leaves push their way through the loose, deformed head, or the plant grows up into a stalk without heading, being perfectly unmarketable, and only fit for cattle feed.

VARIETIES.

As in the case of cabbage, a crop of cauliflower may be grown for winter, and one for heading in spring, and, as With cabbage, success with the winter crop is most uncer

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