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Norman, 42 L. R. A. 343, which holds marriage on high seas by parties leaving land to evade laws of residence invalid; Jackson v. Jackson, 34 L. R. A. 773, which sustains marriage valid in state where it was contracted. Conflict of laws.

Cited in note (57 L. R. A. 168) on conflict of laws as to marriages as to members of different races. Removal of cause.

Cited in note (53 L. R. A. 573) on removal to protect Federal right.

7 L. R. A. 55, LAWTON v. COMER, 40 Fed. 480. Navigability.

Cited in Mills v. United States, 12 L. R. A. 680, 46 Fed. 745, to point that the Savannah is a navigable river.

Cited in notes (7 L. R. A. 673) on what are navigable rivers; (42 L. R. A. 325) on navigable waters. Limitation of liability.

Cited in notes (6 L. R. A. 850) on limiting liability of carrier; (10 L. R. A. 420) on contractual limitation of carrier's liability.

7 L. R. A. 67, GARDNER v. TERRY, 99 Mo. 523, 12 S. W. 888. Injunction to prevent cloud on title.

Cited in Verdin v. St. Louis, 131 Mo. 80, 33 S. W. 480, holding equity will enjoin or cancel void paving tax bills casting cloud on title; Clifton v. Anderson, 40 Mo. App. 623, holding chancery may prevent sale under invalid decree which would cast cloud on title to real estate; Skinker v. Heman, 64 Mo. App. 448, holding equity will restrain issuance of invalid special tax bill which would cast a cloud on title; Sneathen v. Sneathen, 104 Mo. 207, 24 Am. St. Rep. 326, 16 S. W. 497, holding equitable jurisdiction to remove cloud not only remedial but preventive. Adverse possession.

Cited in McRee v. Gardner, 131 Mo. 606, 33 S. W. 166, holding title through adverse possession sufficient to authorize suit to remove cloud from title; Comstock v. Eastwood, 108 Mo. 47, 18 S. W. 39, holding adverse possession for two years of military bounty land vests title in occupant who may maintain ejectment.

Distinguished in De Bernardi v. McElroy, 110 Mo. 659, 19 S. W. 626, holding intent to claim entire title to land necessary to put statute of limitations in operation. -As between mortgagee and mortgagor.

Cited in St. Louis v. Priest, 103 Mo. 655, 15 S. W. 988, holding foreclosure not barred by statute of limitations unless there has been adverse possession of mortgaged property for requisite period; Combs v. Goldsworthy, 109 Mo. 160, 18 S. W. 1130, holding although notes given to secure mortgage are barred by statute, there must be adverse possession of mortgaged premises to bar fore. closure; Sherwood v. Baker, 105 Mo. 477, 24 Am. St. Rep. 399, 16 S. W. 938, holding ten years' adverse possession by mortgagor necessary to bar foreclosure; Chouteau v. Riddle, 110 Mo. 372, 19 S. W. 814, holding mortgagor in possession does not hold adversely to mortgagee so long as relation of mortgagor and mortgagee exists; Ivy v. Yancey, 129 Mío. 507, 31 S. W. 937, holding grantor in trust deed does not hold adversely to trustee unless by acts and declarations he repudiates deed of trust.

Suit involving title.

Cited in Hanna v. South St. Joseph Land Co. 126 Mo. 10, 28 S. W. 652, holding suit to rescind contract to purchase land and cancel deed of trust involves title to real estate within jurisdiction of supreme court; Bryant v. Russell, 127 Mo. 426, 30 S. W. 107, holding title involved within jurisdiction of supreme court where one party claims by purchase at execution sale and other claims right to redeem; Kleimann v. Geiselmann, 45 Mo. App. 498, remanded on ground that suit to declare deed of trust a subsisting lien and for its foreclosure does not involve title.

Statute of limitations.

Cited in Menzel v. Hinton, 132 N. C. 665, 95 Am. St. Rep. 647, 44 S. E. 385, holding power of sale in mortgage not affected by statutory bar against foreclosure.

7 L. R. A. 69, COUDERT v. COHN, 118 N. Y. 309, 16 Am. St. Rep. 761, 23

N. E. 298.
Tenancy under void lease.

Cited in Phelan v. Anderson, 118 Cal. 506, 50 Pac. 685, holding tenancy from year. to year implied where entry made on agricultural land under void parol lease providing for annual rent; Gilfoyle v. Cahill, 18 Misc. 70, 41 N. Y. Supp. 29, holding tenancy from month to month implied from possession under void oral lease for long term, rental payable monthly; Talamo v. Spitzmiller, 120 N. Y. 42, 8 L. R. A. 223, 17 Am. St. Rep. 607, 23 N. E. 980, holding party in possession making no payments or promise to pay under void lease liable only for use and occupation; Unglish v. Marvin, 128 N. Y. 385, 23 N. E. 634, holding party in possession under void agreement for joint occupancy with owner for term of years, not entitled to damages for dispossession; Adams v. Cohoes, 127 N. Y. 181, 28 N. E. 25, holding tenant from year to year under void lease under no duty to give notice of termination of tenancy; Butts v. Fox, 96 Mo. App. 441, 70 S. W. 515, holding tenant under lease void under statute of frauds not entitled to notice to quit at end of term ; Arbenz v. Exley, 52 W. Va. 479, 61 L. R. A. 958, 44 S. E. 149, holding written lease void under statute, admissible in evidence to show a tenancy, its terms, and conditions.

Cited in note (26 L. R. A. 800) on compensation for use of premises where lease invalid under statute of frauds.

Tenancy from year to year.

Cited in Johnson v. Doll, 11 Misc. 347, 32 N. Y. Supp. 132, and Garrick v. Menut, 41 N. Y. S. R. 470, 17 N. Y. Supp. 455, holding tenant holding over after expiration of year's lease, liable for full rent for ensuing year; Kernochan v. Wilkens, 3 App. Div. 600, 38 N. Y. Supp. 236, holding tenant holding over after expiration of year under void lease for longer term, liable for following year's rent.

7 L. R. A. 70, CHURCH OF ST. MONICA V. NEW YORK, 119 N. Y. 91, 23

N. E. 294.
Exemption from taxation.

Cited in People ex rel. Delta Kappa Epsilon Soc. v. Lawler, 74 App. Div. 557, 77 N. Y. Supp. 840, holding premises occupied by college society as boarding place, with exception of society room, not exempt from taxation.

Cited in footnotes to Ramsey County v. Macalaster College, 18 L. R. A. 278, which holds professors' residences on college grounds exempt but not unused land in college tract; State, Singer Mfg. Co., Prosecutor, v. Heppenheimer, 32 L. R. A. 643, which holds company exempt from taxation under exemption of its shares.

Cited in note (12 L. R. A. 852) exemption from taxation does not exempt from special assessment.

Distinguished in Shaarai Berocho v. New York, 28 Jones & S. 488, 46 N. Y. S. R. 235, 18 N. Y. Supp. 792, on ground that religious society was incorporated and holding its exemption not affected by fact that janitor resided on premises. Statutory construction.

Cited in People ex rel. Young Men's Asso. v. Sayles, 32 App. Div. 201, 53 N. Y. Supp. 67; People ex rel. Salvation Army v. Feitner, 33 Misc. 714, 68 N. Y. Supp. 338, to point that statutes exempting religious and charitable corporations from general taxation must be strictly construed.

7 L. R. A. 72, KRUEGER v. KRUEGER, 76 Tex. 178, 12 S. W. 1004. Acknowledgment to take debt out of statute of limitations.

Cited in Henry v. Roe, 83 Tex. 452, 18 S. W. 806, holding letter unqualifiedly acknowledging existence of and promising to pay debt removes bar of limitations ; Moline Plow Co. v. Webb, 141 U. S. 627, 35 L. ed. 882, 12 Sup. Ct. Rep. 100, raising, without deciding, question whether request to stay suit constitutes new promise; Liberman v. Gurensky, 27 Wash. 420, 67 Pac. 998, holding promise to pay at indefinite future time does not revive barred debt.

Cited in Slaughter's Succession, 108 La. 494, 58 L. R. A. 409, footnote, p. 408, , 32 So. 379, holding bar of limitation not removed by expression of ability to pay debt, followed by part payment.

7 L. R. A. 73, BURTON v. TUITE, 78 Mich. 363, 44 N. W. 282. What are public records.

Cited in Aitcheson v. Huebner, 90 Mich. 645, 51 N. W. 634, holding state tax land book public record; Burton v. Tuite, 80 Mich. 219, 7 L. R. A. 825, 45 N. W. 88, holding city treasurer's stub receipt books, from which data are transferred to record books, public records; Tryon v. Pingree, 112 Mich. 347, 37 L. R. A. 226, 67 Am. St. Rep. 398, 70 N. W. 905, raising, without deciding, question whether books of city fire commission public records.

Distinguished in Marriage License Docket, 4 Pa. Dist. R. 284, holding marriage license docket not public record. Right to examine public records.

Cited in Barber v. West Jersey Title & Guaranty Co. 53 N. J. Eq. 160, 32 Atl. 222, holding abstract maker has right of access to public records but not to make copies for purpose of setting up rival oflice; Day v. Button, 96 Mich. 602, 56 V. W. 3, holding abstract maker entitled to reasonable access to public records;

State ex rel. Colscott v. King, 154 Ind. 629, 57 N. E. 535, holding citizen and taxpayer has right to examine county auditor's records; Marriage License Docket, 4 Pa. Dist. R. 166, holding citizen may inspect marriage license docket without paying fee; Re Chambers, 44 Fed. 792, holding records of Federal courts open to public examination free of charge.

Cited in notes (10 L. R. A. 212; 27 L. R. A. 82) on common right to inspect public records; (64 L. R. A. 425, 426) on right of taxpayer to inspect books of municipality.

Distinguished in Burton v. Reynolds, 110 Mich. 355, 68 N. W. 217, holding examination by abstracter of files in action relating to land not compellable where not shown necessary to employee's interests; Belt v. Prince George's County Abstract Co. 73 Md. 294, 10 L. R. A. 214, 20 Atl. 982, holding title abstract company cannot copy public records without paying fees.


89 Ky. 340, 25 Am. St. Rep. 536, 12 S. W. 554, 13 S. W. 249. Liability of water companies for failure of fire protection.

Followed in Gorrell v. Greensboro Water Supply Co. 124 N. C. 334, 46 L. R. A. 516, 70 Am. St. Rep. 598, 32 S. E. 720; Planters' Oil Mill v. Monroe Waterworks & Light Co. 52 La. Ann. 1251, 27 So. 684; Graves County Water Co. v. Ligon, 112 Ky. 780, 66 S. W. 725,— holding water company liable to owner for burning of property through failure of water supply; Hieronynues Bros. v. Bienville Water Supply Co. 131 Ala. 454, 31 So. 31, assuming as unquestioned in case that damage by fire may be shown to have proximately resulted from breach of contract to supply water.

Cited in footnotes to Eaton v. Fairbury Waterworks Co. 21 L. R. A. 653, which denies water company's liability for destruction of property by failure of water supply; Mott v. Cherryvale Water a Mfg. Co. 15 L. R. A. 375, which holds water company not liable to citizen for burning of property through failure to supply water.

Cited in note (23 L. R. A. 150) on liability for loss by fire due to lack of adequate water supply.

Distinguished in Beston Safe Deposit & T. Co. v. Salem Water Co. 94 Fed. 240; Stone v. Uniontown Water Co. 16 Pa. Co. Ct. 330, 13 Lanc. L. Rev. 156, 4 Pa. Dist. R. 432; House v. Houston Waterworks Co. 88 Tex. 239, 28 L. R. A. 533, 31 S. W. 179; Fitch v. Seymour Water Co. 139 Ind. 220, 47 Am. St. Rep. 258, 37 N. E. 982; Eaton v. Fairbury Waterworks Co. 37 Neb. 552, 21 L. R. A. 655, 40 Am. St. Rep. 510, 56 N. W. 201; Bush v. Artesian Hot & Cold Water Co. 4 Idaho, 621, 95 Am. St. Rep. 161, 43 Pac. 69, — holding property owner cannot recover from water company for failure to furnish fire protection stipulated in contract or franchise; Ukiah City v. Ukiah Water & Improv. Co. 142 Cal. 179, 64 L. R. A. 235, 75 Pac. 773, holding water company not liable to town for loss by fire through failure of water supply.

Disapproved in Howsmon v. Trenton Water Co. 119 Mo. 315, 23 L. R. A. 152, 41 Am. St. Rep. 654, 24 S. W. 784, holding citizen carnot recover on water company's agreement with town to be liable for failure to supply sufficient fire protection; Britton v. Green Bay & F. H. Waterworks Co. 81 Wis. 58, 29 Am. St. Rep. 856, 51 N. W. 84, and Nichol v. Huntington Water Co. 53 W. Va. 356, 44 S. C. 290, holding failure to supply sufficient water to extinguish fires does not rendera company liable to individuals. Right of third person to sue on contract made for his benefit.

Cited in Hall v. Alford, J05 Ky. 666, 49 S. W. 444, holding action maintainable by subcontractor upon contract of contractor for his benefit with owner; Louisville & N. R. Co. v. Schmidt, 112 Ky. 723, 66 S. W. 629, holding lessee liable to mortgage bondholders for breach of conditions of lease to return road in good repair; Blakeley v. Adams, 113 Ky. 396, 68 S. W. 393, holding lien reserved in conveyance of land for benefit of surety of grantee, enforceable by such surety; Peters v. Jackson, 50 W. Va. 650, 57 L. R. A. 431, 88 Am. St. Rep. 909, 41 S. E. 190, holding druggist liable to third person for injuries resulting from druggist's mistake in selling poisonous drug for harmless medicine.

Cited in notes (25 L. R. A. 267) on right of third person to sue on contract made for his benefit; (64 L. R. A. 596) on third person for whose benefit contract is made as real party in interest within the meaning of statutes defining the party by whom an action may be brought.

Distinguished in Mott v. Cherryville Water & Mfg. Co. 48 Kan. 16, 15 L. R. A. 376, 30 Am. St. Rep. 267, 28 Pac. 989, holding citizen cannot maintain action on water company's contract with city to pay damages to any citizen through failure to supply fire protection; Peters v. Johnson, 50 W. Va. 650, 57 L. R. A. 431, 88 Am. St. Rep. 909, 41 S. E. 190, holding only parties to sale of medicine can sue for damages for breach of contract.

Limited in Weatherly v. Capital City Water Co. 115 Ala. 174, 22 So. 140, holding citizen cannot have receiver appointed to carry out corporation's contract to supply city and its inhabitants with water.

Criticized in Lancaster use of Penn Iron Co. v. Frescoln, 16 Lanc. L. Rev. 76, 22 Pa. Co. Ct. 229, holding material men may recover on contractor's bond to city to pay for materials.

7 L. R. A. 81, KENTON INS. CO. v. WIGGINTON, 89 Ky. 330, 12 S. W. 668. Insurance Proof of loss.

Cited in Caledonian Ins. Co. v. Cooke, 101 Ky. 416, 41 S. W. 279, holding proof of loss waived by insurance company's admission of some liability, and arbitration as to amount of loss; German-American Ins. Co. v. Norris, 100 Ky. 36, 66 Am. St. Rep. 324, 37 S. W. 267, holding insured not required to furnish proofs of loss where general agent denies liability.

Cited in notes (8 L. R. A. 78) on waiver of proofs of loss; (11 L. R. A. 599) on waiver of conditions by refusal to pay loss; (18 L. R. A. 85) on forfeiture of insurance by failure to furnish proofs of loss within stipulated time; (8 L. R. A. 76) on objections to statement of loss. - What are material misrepresentations.

Cited in Carrollton Furniture Mfg. Co. v. American Credit Indemnity Co. 52 C. C. A. 673, 115 Fed. 79, holding misstatement of past losses in application for insurance against losses on sales, material misrepresentations avoiding policy; Lancashire Ins. Co. v. Monroe, 101 Ky. 20, 39 S. W. 434, holding existence of mortgage does not contradict representation of sole and unconditional owner. ship. Parol eritience of mistake.

Cited in note (6 L. R. A. 838) on parol evidence in case of mistake.

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