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kinds on one stone even ! You should have a tin box and You are not likely to see what answers to the flowers fill it with different kinds of mosses. They come off easily unless you have a compound microscope, for these antheridia almost always, and a knife helps take them off in good and archegonia are in the axils of the leaves and very, very condition.
small. Some mosses will seem just little masses of tiny leaves. Children always -- as far as my experience goes - like Others will have threadlike stems surmounted by very tiny watching the mosses and seeing the capsules grow and capsules, which look like seeds perhaps.
change from week to week,- almost from day to day, and Don't stop to look at them now. It is too cold to exam- mosses are so easy to find ! Even in cities I have found ine mosses outdoors. Take them home and put them into a them on buildings and walls, and in towns they abound. plate, or a saucer, right side up of course, and then pour on Moreover they ripen their fruit — many of them in winter, water until it stands in the plate.
needing the melting snow to supply the water which is Give the mosses time to settle themselves a little, and essential to their fertilization. then use your magnifier !
Watch the tree-trunks and show the children how they You cannot really know mosses without a compound grow beautiful with green and orange mosses and lichens microscope, and such work is not suited to little chil- opened into beauty by rain and melting snow.
In dry dren. But you can get enough, and give them enough weather the mosses are all shut up and almost black, knowledge to make them interested.
hardly to be noticed and certainly not to be admired. Take a pin and separate one plant from the mass. It If you can go to rocks which have patches of moss and should be one with a capsule on it, something like one of the thick evergreen ferns, “ Christmas fern,” it is often these, but very small.
called, peel off a big piece of the moss and carry it home, Put it in a plate, wet it thoroughly, and keep it in light but not sun, in a warm school-room, and see how many different things will come up in response to the heat.
They will probably not all be plants.
You may have snails, beetles, spiders, even a sleepy bee or wasp! for many creatures spend their winter in the warm depths of the mosses.
Certainly winter offers a variety of interests for the children, if you know where to look for them.
MARY C. GOODING So much is being done these days in training the children in habits of concentration of mind, it would seem not untimely to suggest to the teacher to endeavor, herself, to acquire each day, some added force in the power of
concentration. If it is, as is quite likely, a brown, last year's capsule it will probably be somewhat shrivelled, and may have lost the
There is such a tendency in the teacher to waste her force little lid at its tip. If it is a fresh green, or brown one, it
in minutiæ about the children, all of which might be in
cluded, perhaps, in the various forms of fault-finding or may have a sort of husk on the tip of, or even almost cover
fretting. ing, the capsule. This outer husk is called the calyptra. The whole plant will look somewhat like this, though all
My own experience and observation is this : the fault lies these outlines are roughly drawn, and meant only to give an
in one's self, principally. The remedy lies also in one's self.
Not in fretting over the failure of our efforts, not in running idea of what you should look for.
hither or thither from this one to another, telling our seemThe capsule is full of spores ing grievance, but in introspection. Make a close and conwhen ripe. It is practically a seed-box with a cover. Under
tinued study of one's own self. Watch yourself as closely the cover or lid, there are usually
as you watch the children. Concentrate your thoughts more teeth set in the rim of the
on the way you do things. The way you present subjects capsule and all bent towards the
and suggest thoughts to the children. tip of the lid. When the capsule and so speedy you will never again be satisfied to do things
You will then find the improvement in them so manifest
impulsively or off-hand.
" What does the prism tell?”
The golden sunbeam's story:
It lets you read and spell
A little bit of glory. It is hardly likely to be powerful enough to give the spores clearly, but may show them as little green balls.
" How does the prism tell? ” Shake a ripe capsule over a piece of white paper, and
In “rainbows" is the writing :
Their seven colors fell show the children how much dust it looks like
From out the old sun's lighting. out. From this “ dust" grow the many, many little plants, needed to make up one patch of moss as big as a silver
" When does the prism tell?” dollar.
Whenever light shines through it,
It makes the sunbeam spell Keep the mosses in the sunny window and give them
And never fails to do it. water every day, but not enough to stand in the plate all the time. In a few days you will probably find that the
" Where does the prism tell? patches without capsules begin to show light green points.
And who may do the reading?"
Why, everywhere and well, Watch them and you will see how the fruit comes up from
For anybody heeding. the sheathing-leaves,
-- Juniata Stafford
How We Observed Mother's This was accompanied with motions, and the last line
said more emphatically while they pointed to their mothers. Day
They gladly stayed after school to learn another song,
“Hark! My Mother's Voice I Hear.” L. MABEL FREEZE, Bangor
During our preparations the regular work had gone on, HALL I ever forget that Mothers' Day? No, never,
but better than ever before. I was surprised that we could for it is the “red letter day” of my teaching
make it a success with so little time spent upon it; if ever experience.
odd moments counted they did that week. This was the way it came about. I had been The Friday before the exercises were to occur Monday, wishing for a long time that I might have a Mothers' Day they delivered the invitations, and I told them if they and wondering how was best to go about it. One day I
wished to bring flowers on Monday they might do so. was at a stationers and saw some dainty note paper in colors
Saturday I decorated the boards with reference to the buff, green, blue, white, cream and violet with tiny envel- coming event and put the words “Mothers' Day" in colored opes to match. A happy thought came,, just the thing ! letters amid clusters of apple blossoms, and an
“ Honor buy it for the children to write invitations upon to their
List" just below. mothers for Mothers' Day.
Although it rained Monday, the children were on hand in No sooner thought than done and I went home to plan good season, with an abundance of beautiful flowers. for the day full of enthusiasm. When my plans were per
noon the room was decorated, aided by the children, who fected I said, “ Children, I want you to work better than begged so hard to help that to deny them would have ever before for a few days and if you
seemed almost cruel. secret." I did not think that the word secret would stimu- The chief feature of the decoration was the children's late them as much as it did. They were ready for the work arranged on tables. The drawing sheets, the number secret long before it was time to tell it, and eager with
papers, the mounted specimens of flowers, and best of all, delight listened to the plans which I unfolded, llttle by the nature books looked so pretty among the flowers. The little.
nature books were simply their nature and language stories As a part of the secret we had a morning talk on the tied with pretty ribbons into pale green covers. But it home followed by the finger plays relating to the family. seemed no picture book ever pleased them as did this All work for that day was to be done just as if mother were arrangement of their own work. We went right on with to see it.
our preparations as though it didn't rain, and were well The next day quotations were given out appropriate to
rewarded, for half an hour before time for the exercises to the season, one to each member of the class to be taken commence the sun came out beautifully and the mothers home and learned as another part of the secret.
began to come and continued until the room seemed full Then I taught them some words I had written about
and the children's faces seemed like little suns. Mothers' Day to be sung to the tune of “Sweet Marie.”
We had our little program. Then came an unexpected By this time they.were guessing the secret, so it seemed
part to the children and visitors; I had asked some soloists best to disclose it all.
to sing for us and their selections were much enjoyed. Words cannot describe their delight when they found
After this I told the parents why we had asked them to they were to write and invite their mothers to spend a part
come, – that each might see her child's work and compare of an afternoon with us. So I passed the dainty paper, not
with others, that they might know how much help they had without many misgivings, I own, for fear of blots or mis
been in the past and how they could still be more in the takes, and for the writing lesson we wrote:
future and that the children might realize the close con
nection between home and school.
POND ST. SCH., Room I. Then came the part which was most enjoyable to the Dear Mother :
children,- serving their parents with refreshments. It was We would like to have you come to our Exercises next Mon. P. M, from 3.30 to 4.30.
truly a pretty sight as the llttle ones moved to and fro. Your loving daughter (or son).
But the most touching part of all was when some one
said, “ Look at those children !” I turned and looked; they and on the envelopes we wrote “ Mothers' Day."
had served their parents and taken their seats and were Not one blotted or soiled invitation was written, and the sitting there with folded hands and faces radiantly happy, little individualities that crept into that writing must have utterly unconscious of themselves or that they were to have touched many a parent's heart. A word perhaps begun on any refreshment. I thought of the anxious misgivings I one line, strangely divided and finished on another line, a had as to their behavior, and a faith in childhood came then t much too tall or a comma upside down. For the drawing
that has never left me since. lesson that day the colored crayons were passed and they The parents carefully examined and expressed appreciwere told to draw some little forget-me-nots on the invita- ation of the work, and so ended a day that had not even tions.
" the little rift ” to mar its success. Then giving a few directions as to arrangement, I watched
Ended, oh, no, for I am reaping some of the results them as they carefully drew, doing far better than I expected. The gifts were finished but not to be taken home quite yet and the mothers were not to know until they received them. Their efforts to keep the secret that so possessed them
“ Winter day! frosty day!
God a cloak on all doth lay; were ludicrous in the extreme, and served to arouse the
On the earth the snow he sheddeth, parents' interest more than any other way I could have
O'er the lamb a fleece he spreadeth, devised.
Gives the bird a coat of feather As the day drew near a few recitations such as:
To protect it from the weather.” “ Trust Your Mother," “A Message to Mother." “Nobody Knows but Mother."
“ Mother's Helpers,” were given out to the best speakers and we learned that pretty memory gem :
“ Hundreds of stars in the pretty sky;
Hundreds of shells on the shore together;
Hundreds of bees in the sunny weather;
Hundreds of lambs in the crimson clover;
But only one mother the wide world over."
HEN the first snowflakes fall, there is always
Distributing the materials, the teacher begins, keeping in VV nature lesson, when they have seen the six-sided great enthusiasm among the children. After the mind the aim of the exercise ; namely, to teach exactness
in following directions, and to show with what wonderful shape of the crystals, shown on black cloth, they symmetry each crystal is constructed on the plan of six will enjoy a cutting exercise.
equal sides and angles. This may be taken in the recreation time on some Friday
Insist on the child doing his best, and do not hurry in afternoon, perhaps.
Give directions but once, and see that all follow.
If scissors are not provided for the school, they can be brought from home for the time, cautioning the children to
guard the points by placing them in a stopper from a bottle. m
Fig. 1. B
Materials The teacher may prepare from thin white paper, hexagonal shaped patterns of about an inch, or an inch and a half on a side, one for each child. If preferred, these papers may be bought by the quantity, at a reasonable rate. *
Before commencing the exercise there may be a little review of the causes of snow, and the fact of a snowflake being made up of several crystals noted. Then“ Who would like to make a snow crystal to-day?".
There will be a ready response to this, no doubt. * J. L. Hammett Co., 352 Washington St., Boston, Mass.
Folding Place the hexagon on the desk, the straight edge parallel with the edge of the front horizontal side of the desk.
Fold the front edge AB over to the back edge CD. Now fold the lower right hand corner F over to the upper left corner C, and the lower left corner under to meet the upper edges which were the sides of the hexagon, are parallel with right, D. (See Fig. 1.)
the front horizontal edge of the desk, or the drawing will This gives six equilateral triangles, folded one over not come right. another. (See Fig. 2.) This completes the folding.
Drawing the Pattern Be sure that the point of the triangle which represents The teacher has previously placed on the board in full the middle of the hexagon is placed on the desk, so that it sight a large equilateral triangle. Now with pencil let chilpoints to the top or back of the desk, and that the open dren divide their triangles into halves with dotted
Then draw (with the children) the patterns as shown by the diagrams, marking heavily with pencil.
The patterns here given are simple, but more complicated ones can be easily designed, if wished.
How Do You Teach Spelling?
Teach Spelling? board: They have not settled down to study yet," she
said “I must have patience — but, oh, dear !"
A few days after she asked them to write a letter telling how they spent Saturday and she read :
Is it any wonder that her heart sank within her as she looked over the first set of written papers from her new class of third grade children. She had read a short story to them and asked them to write it from memory, and this is a sample of the papers handed her:
A Gredy Dog A dog wonce stole a piece of meer as he was wocking across a streem he saw, he saw his shadow in the clear water he snaped at it and lost his own pice it was never saw again.
The Greede Dod Once a greede dog had a peice of meat in his mouth, and he cross: a stream and, his shadow shown in the water.
And be snaped at it and droped his meat and it sank to the botton, and he never got it again.
“But there," she said to herself, “those children have been running wild all summer long-chasing the birds and butterflies, and reading from the wonderful book of nature, and they have just forgotten how to spell — that's all. It will come back to them soon. I must be patient.”
Next day she gave them a list of common words to study and this is one of the best papers she found :
Saturday I play that we were ploice-man there wear robers to. Sunday we went to the lake and went fishing. We came home eat are supper.
Yours truly, Days lengthened into weeks and there was not much improvement. She could not tell what was the matter. The class was a bright one — well taught before they came to her - ready and willing to study, but alas ! only a few of the brightest improved at all.
At last, one evening, after looking over a very poor set of papers, she wrote the following letter : The Editor, PRIMARY EDUCATION :
Dear Madam,— Can you, or any of your contributors, suggest a good way to teach spelling? I do not remember having seen anything in your paper on that subject, and a little light is sorely needed.
Yours very truly,
O wonderful world of white !
And the rough winds chide,
And snowflakes hide
Spelling per phaps
cough (caught) wich
dose (does) know
great They had had fifteen minutes to study the words from the
My days are stairs that lead to life's great end,
- Helen E. Browon
Tommy Stringer, the Blind, Deaf Sunshine Scheme and Dumb Boy
K- New York City (This little boy, with only two senses, touch and smell, is
OWN among the tenements and fussy, fuming facaccomplishing marvellous things in the Jamaica Plain
tories of the East Side they built a new kindergar
ten home, as broad, as (Mass.) Kindergarten for the Blind. Tommy has been
generous as their own learning Sloyd, and we copy the result from the Boston
philanthropy, all filled and flooded with sunshine. Globe. He is eleven years of age.-ED.)
Those who lovingly work among the poor of great cities
know well the blessed lesson of such a room. For in the Professor Larsson required that his little pupil should homes where poverty and privation are heirlooms - aye! attend two lessons a week, cach lesson to be of two hours and pain — it might well sadden, if no longer surprise us, duration. His progress has been remarkable. It has been to find how darkly the mental and spiritual light is filtered very interesting and instructive to watch the great possibili- through the age-encrusted windows of the soul. ties he has demonstrated with touch and smell, the only two But the material sunshine to hide from it behind blind senses he possesses. He uses the ordinary wood-working brick walls in tottering rookeries, to screen it with ragged hand tools and is taught practically in the same manner as a remnants of curtains, to mutilate it with smoke and the seeing pupil. The only tools he uses which differ from the stains of time - hopeless and helpless the poor who live other pupils are the rule with raised numbers, and instead thus. In very love of heaven's light, then, we had strugof a lead pencil, he uses, in marking, an awl.
gled in our old kindergarten room“ to make sunshine in Tommy's sense of touch is so keen that he is not satisfied shady places "- walled in and warded by brick battlements until his work matches with the rule and square. If there though we were. should be a variation of an eighth of an inch aside from the Still in certain seasons, for a part of each day the sunmeasure, he is made more unhappy by the slip than the shine came to visit us, and the first golden arrow that shot ordinary boy is by a mistake of more than a quarter of an athwart the restless heads burst the bonds of childish joy. inch.
Quick would come the response of delight - the smiling In the art of nail driving Tommy has been a veritable salute, and then the ripple of some "good-morning" song conqueror. The accuracy with which he gauges his strokes swelling blithely from table to table until the remotest and and the skill he displays in the handling of the wood might darkest corner gave answer. Small wonder, then, that soon put to shame many a more advanced pupil. This little deaf we materialized our happiness; that sunshines blazed from and dumb lad is not dismayed by the task of driving a nail blackboards and brightened the room in mimic semblance; through a piece of wood scarcely thicker than a piece of cut and pasted, sewn and woven, drawn and painted and veneer. So skilfully does he manipulate his tools that the twisted - until finally it gleamed steadily from the wall, a entering stroke is effected without severing the wood. He great pictured word - and we had “ found ourselves." never allows his nail to sling to one side or the other, as many seeing pupils do. His sensitive fingers at once
Out of the darkness and gloom came a tiny voice calling detect the imperfection.
“Up, sisters, wake and be doing, the sunshine is falling;
Warm is his breath as the clinging embrace of our mother; The wonderful results which can be developed from an
Up and still up, till the meaning of life we discover.” acute sense of touch and smell have had wide demonstration in the case of this unusual child. During his year's But at last we stood upon the threshold of our new home, instruction at the sloyd school Tommy has learned to recog- having struggled through the darkness and found our nize eight different kinds of woods by his sense of smell. sweet reward. This is very rare in the case of an ordinary boy.
Three bright and bonny rooms in what spirit shall we It is very interesting to examine different specimen's of answer their cheer and make them homes? We had evolved Tommy's handicraft. In the making of these different after patient months this axiom from childish lips : articles the child exhibits the keenest delight. It a study
“To be a sunshine child is to be happy and good to others.” in psychology to watch the play of emotions that will light up his little face as his sensitive touch reveals to the alert Lo, behold! one of our rooms soon smiling in heaven's brain the progress that he is making in the creation of a
- frames and borders for helpful pictures growing new object.
under eager little fingers — the tiniest feeling the thrill of Not satisfied with the making of an article, Tommy has love and sympathy for “our beauty room." Then from the kept an account of the process of its manufacture and the wall came the answering motto, “ Love ” in true blue —
pression it has given him. Thus, by means of the square the essence of love. And beneath a dainty conceit
ting which the blind employ, the child has made a a bas-relief of a tiny Love scattering flowers as benedicrecord, in abstract form, of the work he has accomplished tions; and for further joy eame one day and perched upon through the year. These brief compositions are a delight
a shelf a fat little Cupid with one dimpled leg crossed upon ful contrast to some of the literary work that comes from his knee, as he played a mandolin. So each and all gave of the hands of many a pupil who enjoys sight. In the course their best, in love, and made in other lives a little joy. of a dozen large sheets of paper which form Tommy's sloyd Then we discovered our second name --- in glorious robes diary, there does not appear an error or a blurred letter to of red it spoke to us “ Joy!” For who would take joy mar the cleanliness or correctness of the copy.
into his life must first know the love of his brother-man This comprehensive little diary narrates that its youthful then maybe feel the flame, the fire, the enthusiasm, of noble compiler has completed ten useful articles during the year. living. The articles have been chosen with reference to Tommy's
This leads to our own Sunshine room — is it too fanciful apparent advance in overcoming difficulties in the a thought? The fiery blood of very life — the physical joy exercises.
of being — soothed and sustained by the spiritual calm of The first article which he finished was a little stool made love giving out of its bounty true blessing of light and sunby saw, hammer and nails. But the masterpiece of work- shine to all men. It is not too fanciful for us to try to live. manship that has given the young carpenter his greatest Our Sunshine room shall then be all glowing in yellow. delight is a bird house, in the construction of which he used A great room it is — forty-five feet square – two stiff and twelve different tools.
stern square pillars running up to support the center beam. Parallel lines from every point of view, save where, through four great double windows, the gracious sunbeams entered and danced all day!
So we set the helpful little fingers to work “making paper “The mind impressible and soft, with ease
chains ” (I can hear some proper kindergartner say, “ Paper
into eight converging arches - a golden semi-canopy, from