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books that any cultured person would wish to include in a small library. Let us assume that you have now represented in your collection, six poets, six essayists, five novelists, and three books of reference. This leaves a margin of thirty volumes in which to follow your individual bent. ! you have a special interest in some branch of study, as history, for example, you will be able, by careful selection, to get a very satisfactory and useful, though not all-inclusive collection inside this margin. Thirty volumes of historical works, well-chosen, would make a worthy store-house of facts. So in science, philosophy, or sociology quite a thorough combination could be contrived. In reckoning on a fifty volume library, I do not, of course, count each of the separate volumes of your Skakespeare as one, but should put down his entire works as a single item, whether they are included in one volume or forty.

Little Boy Blue

(Page 102, Part 1) If one wants some real fun and is not afraid of a little noise it will be well to use this song with its exquisite melody. The words of course are familiar to all children and seem very simple, but they are such as will call up clear and pleasing pictures in the children's minds.

Let the desk space be the cornfield and the front part of the room the meadow. Choose a number of children for cows and some for sheep. Choose a Boy Blue and let him have a real horn of some sort. We first played this game in our kindergarten because a real Boy Blue brought a real horn to school one day.

Let a chair, desk, or anything else, be a hay-cock. Before the song is begun Boy Blue drives his cows and sheep into the dressing-room or hall, which is presumably the place where they belong. He sits down under the haycock to keep watch and falls asleep.

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HILDREN may turn them

selves into windmills in U various ways; by sitting

quietly in their seats and merely using their hands; by standing in the aisles and letting their arms represent the fans; or by a little group forming a circle, and, by the movement of the whols body, showing the movement of the

She mounts her throne, they form a little ring around her windmill. If the first method is chosen all the children can sing This is a much-modified " Ring Around the Rosy "game, the song. If the second is selected and should be played in a large open space.

The children some should sing and others make might learn the song in school with the object in view of the movement. If the third is pre- playing it out-of-doors, where it rightfully belongs, on soine ferred those children who remain gala day. It might prove a charming vacation gift to the in their seats will tell the story in children, for if they really learn it, really play it, and really song while chosen ones dramatize enjoy it they will in all probability use it among themselves it. The words of this song carry during their holidays. their own directions so plainly that The accessories are a chair, box, or something on which “ he who runs may read."

the queen can stand, and a wreath or other floral decoration.

Showing the movement of the


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There are many other songs and games in Miss Smith's book as desirable as these I have selected. Many of them will appeal more strongly to certain teachers' preferences and circumstances. But if these chapters have been in any way so helpful or suggestive as to give any teacher an idea of how to go to work to adapt any song or game to existing conditions their purpose will have been accomplished.

Alice's Supper

(Page 8o, Part 1) During the singing of the first verse of this song one chosen row of children, preferably an outside one, are the reapers, and to the rythm of the others' singing they make the movements of reapers swinging their scythes.

During the second verse all the children standing show how “ the miller is rubbing his dusty hands,” as well as “ the millstones grinding away,” which latter process is illustrated by a movement of the hands, one representing the upper and one the lower millstone.

During the third verse all are cooks, the desks are tables, and all sing as they busy themselves with “ the soft white dough.”

The children sing the last verse sitting in their seats.

The child chosen for the hollyhock goes into the ring and the game goes on, the hollyhock choosing the pansy, the pansy the lily, and the lily the rose. The child chosen for the rose is crowned by the others in the ring, she mounts her throne, they form a little ring around her and once more “Ring around the posy-bed.”

It will be wise to omit two of the lines as there is enough ringing around without them.


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The greater the number of different impressions received

of an object or word, the more difficult it is to form a definite MARGARET GRAHAM Wood

impression of it. Director Practice Department Normal School Arizona

Hence, the careless writing of a word presenting three or

four different impressions, and most of them wrong, is far OMEONE has asked, “ How shall we teach spelling? worse than not writing it at all.

Before we can decide upon a method for the teach- Another element to consider is the habit of mind formed ing of any subject, it is necessary to know definitely

by writing a word a number of times. A child told to write the object we have in presenting that subject. In a word ten times does not attempt to learn it at one writing. spelling it seems to be two-fold.

He depends upon repeated impressions and is deprived of First, The teaching of a set of words so that the child

an incentive to that quick, strong, concentrated mental will know them thereafter; and

effort that is so productive of strength and development. Second, Through these particular words to strengthen and “ But," I hear some one say, “ My pupils do not do that. increase his observation and knowledge of language. They really concentrate their attention on the word they How shall this be accomplished ?

write.” Before answering, let us think of the psychology of learn- The reply is, “ Then you waste the time of your pupils, ing a word.

for if they concentrate their entire attention, they do not Psychologists tell us repetition strengthens an impression.

need to write a word ten times, or five either, in order to The recognition of this fact, c jupled with the appetite for learn it." busy work, is responsible for the prevailing method of to-day ; How, then, may spelling be taught? Personality or that is, the writing of the word over and over and over by

individuality has so much to do with method that one the pupil, a subsequent dictation of the words by the

always hesitates to offer his own particular method, but teacher, and a re-writing of the missed words a specified after trying to show why one method is wrong, it may be number of times by the pupil.

only right to offer one that seems to be right. One method Why is this method unsuccessful? It is certainly true pursued by the writer is as follows: that repetition strengthens an impression. Some other facts

A list of words having been selected, the pupils are sent must have been overlooked. Probably it is that element of to the blackboard, the teacher herself taking a place where concentration. Psychology teaches that an attitude of men- all can see. She writes a word in a full, clear hand. The tal unwillingness, or of mental indifference, may keep the

pupils are called upon to pronounce it; it is erased, and mind from receiving a clear impression which some other they turn to the board and write it. part of the body is trying to convey.

This obliges the pupils to form a perfect concept of the It is this fact, with the readiness of the hand to act

word with once seeing. This requires concentration, and mechanically, that enables the child to write a word over

forms habits of undivided attention, quick seeing and quick and over, scarcely thinking of it at all. However, as we

thinking. The pupils are taught that they should be able to all know, the undirected hand is likely to be inaccurate, and tell whether or not they have formed a correct concept, and we get such results as the following:

that it is much worse to write a word incorrectly than to ask smoke

to see it again. smok

If a mistake be made by a pupil in writing a word, the snoke

teacher says nothing about it, believing that to call attention snok

to it would serve to strengthen the wrong impression, but

simply orders the work erased as usual, and then herself This brings us to another fact of psychology.

writes the word again. When the class have written it correctly, she perhaps mentions to the child who erred in and were sent to their seats to write out the progressive the first writing that he made a mistake. He then will form, and also to search for similar words. make added effort to fix the correct form.

Another list was,
Quite often a word is discussed before the teacher erases
her copy. For instance, the word caught was given after


“ What is

fancied the class had written fought. The teacher asked,


cried the difference in the sound of these words ?" Thé class

The rule for changing y to i was thought out, and then a replied that the difference in sound was in the beginning list was changed, and other words looked for. letiers. The teacher then asked, “ In what other way do

Before closing, it might be well to consider the question they really differ?” The class, of course, replied that

that is so often asked, “Where shall the words of special fought had o where caught had a."

subjects be taught?” Surely with the subject in which they The questions might have been pressed further, as, “In

occur. When a new term occurs in arithmetic, the children what letters are they exactly alike?”

• What letters are

should be taught to spell it when they are taught to undersilent in both words?"

stand it. And if other new words are introduced into their After the lesson has been developed in this way, the entire

vocabulary by means of this subject, why not teach their list is pronounced by the teacher and written rapidly by the spelling at the time? It is not too much to say that in each pupils.

day's lesson in each subject, a few moment's attention should Another way, for variety, is to have the children hold

be given to the important words of that subject. their books between the thumb and finger, marking a page

This will leave the real spelling lesson of the day free for assigned by the teacher with the index finger. The teacher

a study of the language, which is what a real spelling lesson directs somewhat as follows: “First paragraph, third line, should be. If it were this, spelling would cease to be the fourth word.” The pupils open the book, find the word, bugbear it is usually considered. shut the book the instant they have seen the word, and write the word on the blackboard. Errors are corrected as above.

Still another way is to have them read an entire sentence, and write it, always having them feel that it is far worse to

A Prophecy write a word incorrectly than to refer to the book again. The words that require a second reference are usually

Ther's a small school'us' there where four roads meet,

The door-steps hollered out by little feet, underscored.

And side-posts carved with names whose owners grew So much for the presenting of words, which fulfils the To gret men, some on 'em, an' decons, tu; first part of our object in teaching spelling. How are we 't ain't used no longer, coz the town has gut to achieve the second part of our object? That is, how

A high-school, where they teach the Lord knows wut:

Three-story larnin''s pop'lar now; I guess shall we increase the child's ability to spell words he has not

We thriv' ez wal on jes' two stories less, studied ?

For it strikes me ther's sech a thing ez sinnin' It would seem that this might be accomplished by By overloadin' children's underpinnin'. judicious selection when arranging a list. It is quite pos

Lowell : Bigelow Papers sible to take a reading lesson, select a paragraph, and from it choose ten or twelve words that will be valuable to the child. But that is not enough.

They must give him added strength, or they have not done enough.

This added strength can only be gained by having each lesson, or set of lessons, illustrate some law of our language. Words must be chosen for this purpose. The

ees children must be taught to compare the words to find out the law or rule, and by a well arranged contrast, note the exception.

When the words fought and caught were presented, the teacher asked, "What is the sound of au? Of ou? Then when you have a word with this sound, will you feel sure how to spell it? What do you observe of gh?"

The class were sent to their seats to search specified lessons for words with ought and aught, and to look for any other word that has the same sound but is spelled differently. The result was two good lists of words --aught and ought, and the words awful, hawk and laughter, which last was

Pearlittle honey bee, Busy 2.tile honey bee, brought in because it had aught, but dif

Hlemming to the lovers; Is our bright cxample. fered in sound. The new words offered by

Sweets he sips

In his haste the children gave rise to a new discus

From off their lips, no tince he wastes, sion, and a new search for words.

Tugive to you and me But always full of ghee. Another day the following was placed on the board :

Frances Richards Pliestand. gun


"I am having a terrible time getting along with her,” said a gunning running scrubbing

young girl when asked how she liked her new teacher. When the rule for doubling the final consonant was fully thought out by the children, they were given some such list as tin plod

School superintendent (severely)—“ Bobbie, I didn't see you in cut

school yesterday.” spin


Bobbie (defiantly) -- "No, sir. I was out on my wheel.' win

School superintendent (interestedly)— “How were the roads?"




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Some Things I Have Found in

Visiting Primary Schools


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When pictures do not hang straight, and the blackboard curtains sag in the middle, and the children's up-hill and down-hill writing remains on the blackboard — what is the

matter with that teacher that she never sees it? Will not THE EDITOR

her disregard of these things show itself in her teaching? HE teacher (in a first primary) said something in a

low, conversational tone to her school, and instantly In one primary room the teacher was remarkable for her forty children bent forward with one motion, and

go.” Not a second was lost. “ This class may pass to were at work at their desks. It was as if they had the blackboard, the A second may take their spelling, and been gently swayed by a breeze. I turned to my guide

the B first may read on the thirty-second page, Mary may with a look of inquiry. “The principal of this school begin," said the teacher all in a single breath. The puppetbelieves that when children are to do anything they should children were used to it; every change was made, and Mary all do it together at once,” was her answer. I asked myself, began on schedule time. I breathed fast sympathetically to “Why didn't Mary want a pencil? Why hadn't Johnny save time, and sat very straight in a keyed-up tension. By lost his paper? Why didn't somebody have to fix her hair and by some mother will say, Mary comes home from or feet — or something — to prevent that happy unison in

school so tired. I am afraid I shall have to take her out." movement?" I also asked myself, “ Are not these children just as happy as if they were illustrating the freedom of “Ready for physical exercises," said one primary teacher individual rhythm, in a go-as-you-please response to that in a room heavy with bad air and uncomfortable at a temteacher's request? Is not the character of these children perature of 75 degrees. The children rose to 1, 2, 3,

and being molded in the right way, every time they give imme- went half-heartedly and unmethodically through the exerdiate attention and obedience to their teacher's direction? cises. No fresh air, and not a breath of relaxation. It was And, to myself, I answered an emphatic Yes.

half-past ten. « Will these children have a recess?I

asked. “No, we have these exercises in place of a recess. Fifty right arms were moving slowly and significantly in

It saves time and trouble." Yes, it would save time in this the air and fifty pairs of eyes were dancing with enjoyment.

world if there were no eating, no sleeping, no recreation, no “What are they doing?” “Writing the word kitty," was laughing, no change of scene no “ let-up” in any directhe reply.

tion. It would be good work for the legislature to declare

against this no-recess craze. Those children were suffering A game was in progress in a first primary room

for change of air, change of scene, change of thought, and squirrel game. Two children ran, with outdoor freedom,

a child-like abandon to spontaneous movement. They had around the room, out into the hall, and back again to their

a right to it, and no teacher should dare interfere with this seats. I wondered at a possible result of such an unschool

right. There are psychological and physiological reasons like run. The teacher did not even turn her head to watch

for the old-fashioned recess. them and no disorder resulted. Why? That teacher had that school in her fingers, and she was sure of them. They could not “take advantage " under her influence.

In another room the children walked with heavy, clatter

ing, dragging feet. The teacher never winced and the In one room a large framed picture of The Esquimaux children didn't notice it. That teacher was not troubled was hung over the blackboard in front of the children.

with nerves or burdened with any apparent sense of “ That picture is changed every month," said the teacher. responsibility for the muscular control and “carriage" “ Next month it will be the portrait of Washington for

of her pupils. The ability to walk well may be made a February."

means of grace to every child. In my mind's eye I saw trees for April, birds for May, and roses for June.

A first grade primary teacher was talking of bravery and

hero-ideals to the children. She illustrated it by the Civil In a primary room I found a pretty picture upon the War! “ Let's play soldier,” she said, “and see who will blackboard in crayon and charcoal a deer, standing alert

be Lincoln's soldiers to go down South.” And that! thirtyand listening, at the foot of a waterfall in a beautiful forest.

four years after the last echo of the war-note had died Hidden behind a tree, a man with a gun knelt, taking aim away! A beautiful way to teach the next generation the at the deer. What will be the influence of that picture lessons of forgiveness and good-will, and the glory of uniupon the children, with its representation of man taking the

versal brotherhood ! There is a blessed comfort in the fact innocent life of that graceful creature just for the sport of that children can't remember one-half of all that is said to it?

them. Everywhere children are found writing on the blackboard to secure free arm movement. How much writing with the

One teacher was actually found who knew that “eyes uplifted arm will those children ever be called upon to do

front" was the secret of good marching. And she not when they are grown up?

only knew it, but trained her children to look steadily for

ward in all marching exercises. Hope dawned and flickered In one room a marvellous motor car (12 to 15 inches awhile, but no other has been discovered. long) and a locomotive were found, both made from drawing paper.

“ They were made by my children (third grade In preparing a reading lesson, one teacher questioned her primary) at home," said the teacher. But where was the class so skilfully that every phrase in the lesson was needed power of keen observation acquired that gave those children and used in the reply. No new words to stumble over the power to see how this car and engine were constructed ? when they began to read.


Leumin ster.

Grade TV

The Esthetic Element in Nature plumage and petal appear in my garments and my sitting

room, when the grace of grass and sedge adorns the least Study IV

work of my hand, then for me bas dawned the vision of the

King in his beauty. HENRY T. BAILEY State Supervisor of Drawing Massachusetts

The balloon-ascension carnivals of the fairies this month may be held in remembrance with continual satisfaction, if

the quaint forms and the perpetual laws are gracefully sugUNE

Dear June ! Now God be praised for gested by some designer of papers for book binders. If

our nature reader but had such paper lining its covers !
What does Mother Nature do Two little fellows in a Leominster primary school caught
this month? (Call attention something of the beauty of the
particularly to the fact that the bluet and transferred it to
seed babies, which at first were useful articles, in imagination, at
tenderly cared for, are now put least; one a towel (Fig. 3), and
upon their own resources and the other a book cover (Fig. 4).
have begun their work in the These drawings were made with
world.) Watch to find the most colored crayons upon tinted
beautiful thing she does this papers. Kittie Kyle of Andover,
month— the most curious thing. Grade I, saw how to reflect
Learn a June poem.

more of the beauty of a

humble little flower. (Fig. 5.) Grades I and II.

This was drawn freehand with “ Hark! a new comer!

colored crayons. Lo! it is summer!” etc.- Lydia A. Coonley

All such pretty applications Grades III and IV.

of the things discovered through “ The flowers are fringing the swift meadow brooks," etc.

nature study may be secured Emma C. Dowd by an appeal to the imitative

instinct in children. The boy Keep a list of the flowers that waken in June. Classify who likes to play engineer and them as in May. Study at least two of them for their soldier and storekeeper, the girl personality.

who likes to play housekeeper Grades I and II.

and mother and teacher, will Daisy and clover.

like to play artist and designer and manufacturer, if under

the influence of a skilful child-guider. When they beg for a “ Miss Daisy wears a bodice of gold-colored silk,” etc. - Lydia Hoyt Farmer

“ true story " the next time,

they shall hear how a little “ The daisy grows by the dusty road,” etc. “Daisies and clover the wide land over,” etc.

buttercup lived forever. “Out in the meadows so fresh and so dewy,” etc.

There was once a dear little plant

born close beside an old gray stone. Grades III and IV.

She first opened her eyes a morning Blue-eyed grass and pitch

in May upon a world full of suner plant.

shine and birds. How beautiful “ Low among the daisies

everything was! Little Buttercup lying,” etc. Elaine

that was the plant's name— saw the Glodale

white clouds sailing along like great

ships in the blue sky, she heard the Use one of the June

bobolinks singing to their mates in flowers a unit of

the meadow, and the bumblebees design.

bumming to themselves as they (See Fig. 2.)

went about gathering the golden

pollen.' She saw the grasses and Grades I and II.

sedges what crowds there were !

and she heard them whispering Make a design for a bor

secrets to one another almost all der fur a towel. Use

day. Only the old stone kept still. a four-parted flower.

At last she began to feel sleepy. Color the units.

“O, I am too happy to sleep!” she said. But the breezes kept Grades III and IV.

rocking and rocking, and the grasses whispered softly and more

softly, and before she knew it, Little Buttercup was fast asleep Make a design for a bor- - and dreaming! She dreamed she was in a very dark place. The

der to be used on a white clouds had gone, the birds and bees were still, the grasses and
cover for the nature sedges were all sound asleep. Only the old stone was awake and he was
poems. Use a six-parted talking with a star. Little Buttercup listened. “ Hello," shouted the
flower. Color the back-


Fig. 3



Fig. 4

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What do the birds do in June?

Fig. 2

Grades I and II.
Where do robins build their houses? Cf what? What do

their babies eat? Where do cat-birds build their houses ?
Learn “ The Secret.”

Fig. 5

Grades III and IV.

star way up in the sky; “I see you have a new neighbor, Uncle Stone; Where do orioles build their houses? Of what? What do

is she Good to you?” The voice of the star came like the soft voice of they look like? Where do red-winged blackbirds build ! 2. little silver bell, it came from so far away; but the old stone heard it, Do all birds build their houses on trees? Where else do and answered slowly, without opening bis eyes, “I don't know, little you find them? Why? etc., etc.

star; she'll be here so short a time I thought it wouldn't pay to be very

neighborly. You and 1, now, have known each other for a million As we think of “ the most beautiful thing nature does chis years, but this foolish little thing who has been laughing all day at her month," why not ask ourselves, “What is the most beautiful neighbors' doings, won't live but a day or two longer, you know.” thing I can do this month?” The beauty of the world has Little Buttercup was so frightened she came awake, but she didn't dare not touched me unless it beautifies my deeds. When the

to open her eyes for fear the dream might be true. How sad it would

be to find it all dark and no clouds and birds and bees? Then she şunrise is reflected in my face, when the harmonies of thought and thought and thought about what the old stone had said,

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