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Geology in a Snow-storm


short e and u, as, feu, peu, etc. Short u is obtained in the

syllables ending with ihe letters er, or, ir, ur, and yr, the r There is a beautiful and fundamental geology in a snow- having no force as a consonant in such cases. These are a storm; we are admitted into Nature's oldest laboratory, and few illustrations out of one hundred thirty or more which see the working of the law by which the foundations of the could be given. For others and for rules for consonants material universe were laid — the law or mystery of crystal

the reader is referred to the introductory articles of any lization. The earth is built upon crystals; the granite rock large dictionary. One observation of importance should be

. is only a denser and more compact snow, or a kind of ice

noted here, as ortheopists have, until quite recently, overthat was vapor once and may be vapor again. “Every stone

looked it. The letter r, as a consonant, can never end a is nothing else but a congealed lump of frozen earth,” says syllable except by combining with other consonants, the Plutarch. By cold and pressure air can be liquified, per- words more, roar, door, and thousands of others, are prohaps solidified. A little more time, a little more heat, and

nounced as if written mo-u, ro-u, do-u, etc., giving two the hills are but April snow-banks. Nature has but forms, syllables. Some people pronounce some such words by rollthe cell and the crystal — the crystal first, the cell last. Ali ing or prolonging the first vowel sound, leaving off the short organic nature is built up of the cell; all inorganic of the u sound. When combining with other consonants r has not crystal. Cell upon cell rises the vegetable, rises the animal ; the same sound as at the beginning of syllables. It is more crystal wedded to and compacted with crystal stretches the nearly a vowel in the former than the latter. Besides w and earth beneath them. See in the falling snow the old cooling

r we have l, m, and n as the only consonants which generand precipitation, and the shooting, radiating forms that are ally demand position nearest the vowel, These three admit the architects of planet and globe. We love the sight of of only one exception at the end of syllables by taking a the brown and ruddy earth; it is the color of life, while a

preceding r. L always demands the nearest position in snow-covered plain is the face of death; yet snow is but beginning syllables while m and n will admit a consonant y the mask of the life-giving rain; it, too, is the friend of or an r to follow, as, myn, pronounced as mu in music, nyu man — the tender, sculpturesque, immaculate, warming,

or mra and nra, the latter never appearing in English. fertilizing snow.— John Burroughs, A Year in the Fields. Our alphabet requires twenty-six small type letters,

twenty-six small script, twenty-six capital type and twentysix capital script or one hundred four characters. Grammar

adds to the confusion of the student of English by adding Our Defective Alphabet

six hundred rules, exceptions, and special applications.

The formation of words pronounced alike, spelled differently Our vowels are named for their long sounds and are a, e.

perhaps, but with strangely contrasted meanings, and then,

the ideas with several words each are further complications i, o, and u, which last has a consonant y preceding the long sound. Our consonants are named be, se, de, ef, je, aitch,

of our tongue. To read a newspaper with accuracy we

must know about ten thousand facts which do not readily ja, ka, el, em, en, pe, kyu or cue, ar, es, te, ve, double-yu, eks wi, ze. The more unfortunate names are of h, 9, w, and y.

yield to classification. It takes child or man hours of study

to fix in mind the relations of each entirely new fact coming Call them he, kwe, we and ye then their force will be shown

under his observation.- Sel. in their names. Since the spelling books and school dictionaries do not give the names of the letters of the alphabet we see no reason why teachers should not rename at least those four consonants, and the fifth vowel, u should be named oo, as the continental languages have it. Call it yu or you, we add a consonant to it which sticks to it in so

A little child to-day sits on my knee, many places that reference to a huge dictionary is necessary,

And questions me of many things that be. too frequently, when we meet it. That some ignoramus,

A question and its answer make for him centuries ago, should attach y tou is no reason for our

A something definite of what was dim. doing so now. The names and uses of all the letters had

This little child, long slipped from off my knee, their origin in the dark ages when mysticism and superfluity

In life's to-morrow, facing things that bewere the proofs of wisdom. The result is that no spoken

Will his ideals be clear or sadly dimword can be spelled nor written word pronounced with any

Because of how, to-day, I answer him? degree of accuracy without consulting authority. Worcester

This little child here sitting on my knee gives one hundred forty-six observations on the use of the

Is greatest and most real of things that he; vowels and sixty-one on consonants. The latter includes a

My faith in truth and goodness is not dimvery small number of combinations which, were they all

I'll give my best and truest unto him.

- Juniata Stafford counted, would increase the number of rules governing the use of the letters of the alphabet to over three hundred. He did not discover near all of their uses. His own name The greater the difficulty the more glory in surmounting illustrates his oversight, for orces in English names is pro- it. Skilful pilots gain their reputation from storms and nounced as oos.


- Epicurus The long i sound is obtained by no less than nine unnatural spellings, illustrated in the words, my, buy, rye, sigh, die, isle, climb, might, sign, also aisle and knight, but these latter modifications may be to distinguish words

Help One Another rather than the sound of i. Long a is represented by at

“ Help one another," the snowflakes said, least ten useless variations; aye, day, date, eight, sail, great,

As they cuddled down in their fleecy bed. bass, feign, veil and guage are words for illustration. Short

“One of us here would not be felt, e sound is had in nine useless variations as in fair, fare,

One of us here would quickly melt; pear, there, prayer, heir, bury, leopard and less. The words

But I'll help you, and you help me, with final r are pronounced as though spelled with both

And then what a splendid drift there'll be."

A Questioner

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The Editor's Page

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Cold Luncheons How many teachers are allowing themselves to eat cold luncheons in the school-room at the noon-hour? Don't do it. No matter what the seeming necessity may be for taking a cold hasty meal in the school-room, there is a more urgent need for you to abandon it.

You have talked all the morning, you are tired, keyed-up in a nerve tension, and in no condition to eat anything for a half-hour. Take that half-hour and give yourself a rest, and don't mark slates or papers, or clean blackboards while you are resting. You are alone in your school-room, (of course you do not do so inhuman a thing as to “keep in"

children at noon), and take some position to rest you. Miss Address the editor at 237 Langdon St., Madison, Wisconsin.

Call's “ Power Through Repose" will suggest many ways in which you can rest physically, by taking certain positions ; you know yourselves how to do many of these things. Now

if you are so situated that you cannot — absolutely cannot The New Year

- get a warm noon meal, you must learn how to manage to

get one in the school-room. May I suggest? A little oil If the proverbial “good resolution” is to be a part of the stove can be bought for seventy-five cents, and with this year's beginning, let it take the form of a determination to you are independent. With a utensil or two, tea, cocoa, or judge the motives of the children very slowly and with the cereal coffee, eggs, beef tea, warmed bread, oysters, and greatest care. How can we know why they do these exas

other similar things can be easily prepared and your health perating things “that wear the life out”? We look upon

be saved. Your health is your capital and you imperil it things from one point of view, with one pair of eyes. They every time you eat a cold, hasty luncheon at school with see everything from another focus and with other eyes. your mind full of school anxiety. Yo may go on for a while There is little chance to judge of their reasoning or conclu- and not become painfully aware of this fact, but nature is sions that result in seeming neglect and disobedience If it relentless and your reminder will come by and by in a is not a deliberate intention to disobey, but the result of broken-down, deranged nervous system that will make you some counter influence we do not see or feel, then it is not unfit for school or anything else. Indigestion is the foe to a wilful disobedience that need to surprise and irritate us. every virtue, every grace, and to Christianity itself. Keep in But whatever it is or is not, be very sure the offense is not mind the reflex influence of body on mind and mind on against the teacher, as teacher, as often as she may con

body. No wonder school boards are actually discussing clude. How it would “clear up" the whole situation when the advisability of protecting children from teachers with trouble arises, if we could be mind readers or see into the dyspepsia. The “pews" have rights. hearts of our children with an X ray accuracy and imparti- Pardon this little sermon, but it is preached from a perality. In place of impatience and resentment, the womanly sonal experience of half a life in school, and from a deadly teacher would feel her heart go out to these “ trying” chil- knowledge of the evils of cold, hasty meals in the schooldren with a great pity and kindliness. Judge slowly,

Judge slowly, room. teachers, judge kindly. If there is any real reason why these children are irritating -- and there generally is— try to find it, and try to understand them this coming year.

Miss Long has treated the subject of calendars this month in a way to stir all the inventive and ästhetic talent hidden

away in a tired teacher's brain. Have you tested the sight and hearing of your children this year? Don't neglect it. You may be doing injustice to some child every day.

We are fortunate in securing the pen of Miss Caroline L. The January number of PRIMARY EDUCATION is always a Soule to tell us about moths and butterflies. Miss Soule is snow number.

a well-known entomologist whose statements are accurate, and we can rest our hearts in the consciousness that we are

getting bottom facts in a most interesting way. The author The following information is given for any teachers who of this series has kindly consented to lay off her technical have not been able to find the music to which Miss Allen mantle while she writes for us, and nobody can dare say has set her delightful motion songs.

they “can't understand” her. “Swinging 'Neath the Old Apple-Tree.” Page 67, Franklin Square Song Collection No I. (Per Biglow and Main, N. Y. City.)

“Comin' Thro' the Rye.” Page 51, The Song Budget. (C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y.) In this book, as in some others, this music is published under the title:

New Books for Primary Teachers “If a Body Finds a Lesson.”

“A Study of English Words." By Jessie McMillan Anderson.

(American Book Co., N. Y. City.) Encourage the children to feed the birds this winter. “ Life Histories of American Insects." By Clarence Moores Reed. Miss Mann's article in December number told you how.

(The Macmillan Co., N. Y. City.)

“ Our Industries. Fabrics.” By A. E. Winship. (New England Pub. Co., Boston.)

“ The Common School and the New Education." By Maximillian P. The Plan Book

E. Groszmann. (C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y.)

“Singing Verses for Children.” By Lydia Avery Coonley Ward.. Miss Minnie M. George (Oak Park Ill.) edits a new (Macmillan Co., N. Y. Çity.) monthly desk book. Its purpose is to give suitable material “Nature Study.” By Mrs. L. L. Wilson, Ph.D. (The Macmillan for each month's work, with suggestions for associating the

Co., N. Y. City.) different forms of work done in modern school-rooms. The "On Plymouth Rock.” By Samuel Adams Drake. (Lee & Shepard, contents consists mainly of stories, poems, and gems of

Boston.) literature work, programs for special days, songs new and

“ Familiar Features of the Roadside.” By F. Schuyler Matthews

(D. Appleton & Co, N. Y. City.) old, science or nature lessons, blackboard reading lessons,

“Nature's Diary." By Francis H. Allen. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., drawing lessons, blackboard illustrations, and seat work.





the little flakes clung closely together and did their very best to make the balls quickly.

Then how they laughed and how the boys laughed and shouted as they flew through the


" We won't hit hard, though,” said the snowflakes, "for we don't want to hurt any one."

The kind little snow-flakes!
The Snow-Flakes.

After a short game of snowballing, the boys

grew tired of this sport, and ran off to their e Hurrah!

We are going down to the homes to get their sleds. earth,” said a tiny snow-flake up in its cloud

So the little snow-flakes had a chance to home to its brothers. "I heard King Frost rest and watch their brothers, who were hurryand the north wind say last night that, if the ing down from their cloud home to join them east wind would come and help them, they on the earth. would make some more snow-flakes, and send

" You are too late for the fun," they said to us all down to the earth."

the newcomers; we have just had a fine game "Oh, what fun!” cried the rest; " won't we

of snowball with the boys." have a fine race down! I wish the east wind

Oh, we shall have sport enough," they would hurry and bring up his clouds."

answered, " before we go off.” "Here he comes now!” cried a little flake. Just then, hearing footsteps, they looked And sure enough, far out over the ocean

up and saw coming down the road a boy came the cast wind, driving the clouds filled somewhat larger than those who had been with tiny water-drops before him.

playing with them, and who was reading as he Instantly the water-drops in the clouds were

walked slowly along. changed into beautiful little feathery snow- "I would'nt give much for that boy,” said flakes, which leaped joyously from their cloud the snow-flakes; " he isn't going to take any home and began their journey to the earth. notice of us.” Faster and faster they came forth, chasing

But when he came a little nearer to them, each other merrily along, and laughing gaily they heard him say this: " Without the sun as the strong winds caught them and whirled there would be no vapor in the air; without the them about.

vapor there would be no clouds; and without " You can't catch me!” cried one.

the clouds there would be no snow; so really "Don't be too sure of that,” cried another. the sun makes the snow. That's queer, now, ee I'll be there first !” called out a third. he added, stopping his reading and looking

"Not if I get there before you,” laughed a down at the snow at his feet. e I never knew sourth, rushing along so quickly that he was that before." out of sight in an instant.

Well,” said a snow-flake, looking up saucily What fun it was, to be sure, and, when they don't you suppose there are a great many finally reached the ground, how they rolled other things you don't know?” over and over each other, and flew here and The boy stooped down without taking any there among the dead leaves and the bushes, notice of what the snow-flake said, and, taking till at last they were quite tired out and settled up some of the snow in his hand, he went on: down to rest for a while!

"How soft and white you are, you snow-flakes. They had been quiet but a few minutes, I wish I had a magnifying glass; then I could however, when they heard a shout, and down see your beautiful forms." the road came the schoolboys.

* This boy does take more notice of us than " Now for the fun!” joyfully cried the little the other ones did,” exclaimed a pleased little snow-flakes. "Here come the boys to play snow-flake, " only he doesn't wish to play with with us!”

I'll tell you how I look,” he added, kindly " A snowball match!” cried the boys. " Let's to the boy: "I look like a star, a six-pointed have a snowball match !”

star, and my brother here has the form of a " Yes,” laughed the snow-flakes, "we like hexagon, all covered with little sparkling that.”

dots." And so, when the boys took up the snow, The boy didn't seem to hear the snow-flakes,



or perhaps he heard them, but didn't understand But the Clouds said, “We must wait till Old Ocean sends snow language; so he made no reply to the “Please, Old Ocean, send more vapor to the little clouds,

us more vapor." So Mother Nature said to the Ocean, speech of the little flake, but went on talking that they may give some to Jack Frost, that he may change as if he had not spoken.

it into silvery powder, and give it to Mr. North Wind, that

he may make for me " Well,” he said, " if the sun makes the snow

A blanket pure and white, for us, he takes it away from us again. I

Soft as down, and sparkling bright,

To cover my little seed babies." should like to know why it is that we cannot

But the Ocean said, “The Sun must send us some heat see the vapor when the sun is drawing it up fairies first." So Mother Nature called to the Sun, “ Dear through the air.”

Old Father Sun, please send some of your heat fairies to " You do see it sometimes, you know,'

Old Ocean, that he may send vapor to the Clouds, that they

may give some to Jack Frost, that he may change it into answered a flake, and you call it fog. " and you call it fog. silvery powder, and give it to Mr. North Wind, that he may

make for me Generally you cannot see it, because the par

A blanket pure and white, ticles of water, which make vapor, are so very,

Soft as down, and sparkling bright,

To cover my little seed-babies." very small; so small that it takes many

many millions

And the Sun said, “ Gladly!” and sent forth a host of of them to make a drop of rain.”

little heat fairies that called the vapor from the Ocean of e And this vapor is rising all the time, too,” the little Clouds, and the Clouds gave some to Jack Frost, the boy continued, " from the ocean, from and Jack Frost changed it into silvery powder and gave it

to Mr. North Wind, and Mr. North Wind made for Mother
ponds and rivers, from the ground, from plants Nature
and trees, from animals, from almost everything

A blanket pure and white,
Soft as down, and sparkling bright,

And covered her little seed-babies. on the earth, and yet we know nothing about

- Mary Loomis Gaylord in The Outlook" it till we see it over our heads in clouds. It is very wonderful.” " Yes, it is wonderful,” replied the snow

New Year Exercise flakes; "and there are many other wonderful

(For eight children) things happening, which you will learn about

All.The New Year is coming, is coming, when you are older.”

He's here at the door, they say; As the snow-flake finished speaking, the boy

We'll give him a hearty greeting,

Oh, happy may be his stay !
walked away, and the little flake never saw
him again.— Short Stories, Ginn & Co.

And what shall we give to the New Year,
Who will stay with us many a day?


(By permission)


Let us give to him sweet, smiling faces,
Happy hearts in our work or our play.

The Seed-Babies' Blanket

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“Dear me !” said Mother Nature, as she tucked the last of her seed-babies in bed, and spread over them a blanket of leaves, “ King Winter will soon be here, and I fear this covering is not enough to keep my babies from his icy grasp. I must get them another blanket. What shall it be? Let me see.

It should be something soft and light. And for babies, of course, it must be white."

So she went to Mr. North Wind and said, “Oh, Mr.
North Wind, please bring to me

A blanket pure and white,
Soft as down, and sparkling bright,

To cover my little seed-babies."
But Mr. North Wind said, “I cannot, unless Jack Frost
will give me some of his silvery powder.”

So Mother Nature called to Jack Frost, “Oh, Jack Frost, please give Mr. North Wind some of your silvery powder, that he may make for me

A blanket pure and white,
Soft as down, and sparkling bright,

To cover my little seed-babies."
But Jack Frost said, “You must ask the Clouds to give
me some vapor, then.”

So Mother Nature called to the clouds and said, “ Oh, kind Clouds, please give Jack Frost some of your vapor, that he may change it into silvery powder, and give it to Mr. North Wind, that he may make for me

A blanket pure and white,
Soft as down, and sparkling bright,
To cover my little seed-babies."

8. Let us give him unselfishness, patience

And gentleness, these are his due.

All. And then, when his days have been numbered,

And another we see drawing near,
We can say, “We've been friends true and faithful.

A tender farewell, dear Old Year!"

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Song Air:-“ America.")
Now comes the glad New Year,
To be a friend most dear,

If true we prove,
As glides the time away,
We'll give him day by day,
In all we do or say,

Kindness and love.
-L. F. Armitage in American Teacher"

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Do you think that mamma's pretty fingers,
That sparkle and dance on the keys,
While the music is rippling below them,
Were ever as clumsy as these?
I would work — I would patiently practise,
How patiently ! day after day,
If I thought that my practise and patience,
Would end in such beautiful play.

Eliza Chester in St. Nicholas



Ring! Ring! Ring !
A welcome to the bright New Year !

Life, Hope, Joy,
On his radiant brow appear !

Hearts with love are thrilling,

Homes with bounty filling. Ho! ye wardens of the bells,

Ring! Ring! Ring ! Ring for winter's bracing hours, Ring for birth of spring and flowers, Ring for summer's fruitsul treasure, Ring for autumn's boundless measure, Ring for hands of generous giving, Ring for vows of nobler living, Ring for truths of tongue or pen, Ring, “Peace on earth, good will toward men.”

Ring! Ring! Ring ! Ring, that this glad year may see Earth's accomplished jubilee ! Ring! Ring! Ring!

A New Year's Chime

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Dance of the Months
The New Year comes in with shout and laughter,
And see, twelve months are following after !
First January all in white,
And February short and bright;
See breezy March go tearing round;
But tearful April makes no sound.
May brings a pole with flowers crowned,
And June strews roses on the ground.
A pop! A bang! July comes in;
Says August, “What a dreadful din!”
September brings her golden sheaves;
October waves her pretty leaves,
While pale November waits to see
December bring the Christmas tree.
They join their hands to make a ring,

And as they dance they merrily sing,
“Twelve months we are, you see us here,
We make the circle of the year.
We dance and sing, and children hear,
We wish you all a glad New Year!


Oh why and oh why has the jolly north wind come?
He makes the old world new, bringing winter, cold and

clear, 9 And it's oh, from my heart, that I wish you “ Glad New

Year !"

Motions I The first line of each stanza is sung twice. Sing first three stanzas slowly and sadly.

2 Put heads on right side; imitate bird song,

3 On last line of first three stanzas, put both hands over heart, shak. ing heads sadly.

4 Nod heads. 5 Bend over; rocking motion with both hands; sing sleepily. 6 Sing last three stanzas joyously. 7 Fluttering motion with both hands. 8 Look up; both hands raised, palms upward. 9 Step forward on right foot; hold out hands; smile. * This music can be found as follows: “ Blue Bells of Scotland," page 102, Franklin Square Song Collection, No. 1. Harper and Brothers, New York City); also page 55, " The School Singer," (Ginn & Co., Boston ; also, " The Song Century," page 37 (C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y.)

Practising Ten little troublesome fingers, Ten little finger nails Pattering on the piano Scattering over the scales, Clicking and clacking and clattering, Each in the other one's way What trying and sighing and crying, To teach little children to play !

To play? I call it working,
When ten little fingers like mine
Are bumping and clumping and thumping,
And never will fall into line-
They fumble and tumble and stumble,

Well begun ” may be “half done,”

But beginning is not ending ;
Great successes ne'er are won

By only wishing and intending. “ Start” is good, bur“stay” is better; “ Start and stick” is sure prize-getter! “Staying powers " take foremost place.- Sel.

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