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A Monthly Journal for Primary Teachers

Volume VI

November 1898

Number 9









Published Monthly, September to Juno, laelusive

Subscription : $1.00 per year. Single eoples 10 cents Eniered at the Post Office, Boston, Mass., as Second Class Matter

Copyright, 1892, by Educational Publishing Co., Bosto


Contents for November, 1898


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Growth It is just as essential for the teacher to grow as for the children; indeed, the degree and quality of the children's growth is largely dependent upon the growth of the teacher.

What are some of the tests of growth in teaching power?

School Management: The teacher who has entered upon the work of the year with no larger knowledge of child-nature, of the child's feeling about school, of its unconscious rebellion against physical restraint, of its natural demand for exercise and variety of occupation, evidences no growth from past experience, and will have all of last year's troubles to battle over again with less patience to meet them.

Reading: How much growth has resulted from last year's experience in teaching the little ones to read? To take up, mechanically, the old stereotyped method, without thought, without a fresh study of the underlying principles in teaching children to read, without a query as to the significance of last year's obstacles, is to practically confess to a dead standstill,- if one ever can stand still.

Arithmetic: Any discoveries concerning the presentation of this subject to the little ones? Have the recent earnest discussions by the educational leaders, as to the science of teaching elementary arithmetic, meant anything to the primary teacher? Has she read them, followed the arguments of both sides, and reached any personal opinion? Have the terms “ratio” and “quantity ” been illumined with new meaning? The primary teacher who can relegate such important discussion to an uninteresting arena for the professional leaders to "fight it out by themselves," and who can go.calmly and contentedly back to her “ tables ” and to her “plus” aud “minus” vocabulary as “good enough for her,” should be alarmed at her own apathy.

Language: So long as the book-makers go on reproducing inane language books, and so long as teachers are willing to lean upon them and be guided by them, not much growth can be expecied in the teaching of elementary language. When the first year primary teacher believes that the child had a brain and expressed himself in full-grown pithy sentences long before he ever saw a school-room, she will cease to waste a year in the namby-pamby“ method ” of filling out the chopped-up sentences of grown-up authors. Growth in language teaching will begin when teachers begin to think out a common-sense course for real children, and not waste time on imaginary ones.

Nature Study: Does this still mean “ petals ” and “ stamens " and overdone “stories”? Hasn't the horizon widened at all. as to the use of nature study? Is there no glimmer of the meaning in nature for humanity? Is there no springing up of fresh impulse to clear dull eyes to see the divinity of beauty in the world of nature? Pity, a thousand pities, for the



365 PEDAGOGICAL: The Library and Little Children

May H. Prentice 367 LITERARY: Short Studies in Browning III

Annie W. Sanborn 367 SCHOOL-ROOM: A Lesson of Love

A Teacher 369 The Esthetic Element in Nature Study VII

Henry T Bailey

370 Time to Go. (Poem)

372 Honor for Puritans

A. H. Bradford DD.

372 Pilgrim Hall

From "Little Pilgrims at Plymouth" 373 • The National Monument (Illustrated

474 Language in Primary Grades

Celia F. Osgood 374 Birds and Animals in the Philippines

375 Games in the School-Room

375 An Old-Fashioned Kitchen (Illustration)

Olive M. Long

376 Special Days. I (Thanksgiving

F. Lilian Taylor The Children. Poem). A Number Game

379 What is Gained?

The Editor

379 Temperance Teaching in the Public Schools

Caroline H. Parker

380 Temperance Instruction in Schools

Amy C. Scammell 380 Teaching Temperance

M. B. 381 What a Book Said. Mary and Her Lamb

381 In Place of Scolding A Border of Fruit (Illustration)

Olive M Long

382 Another Appeal from Miss Worry

383 A Cattle Country School

Ida Marcia Manly 384 Down to Sleep

H. H. . 385 Our Naturalist's Study: Questions and Answers in Nature Study

Caroline Gray


November. Christmas Operetta. Browning
Clubs. Three Things to Remember. New
Books for Teachers

The Editor 389 HERE AND THERE:

Good Habit Society Sleepy Hollow. Teachers' College in Chicago. Exchange Offers

The Editor

390 STORIES: The Three Bears

391 Little Green Cows

Annie Hamilton Donnell



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teacher who has not grown in soul-sensibility with painful that her father never sang it again. When she was every effort she has made to make this a worthy part sixteen, Dr. Waldstein, without previous warning to her, of her school work. A that records no percep

caused the air of that song to be played upon a piano on year

which Helen's hands rested. tible growth in nature-love and nature-lore, is a year

The effect was startling : of great personal loss to the teacher.

Feelings, associations, some of the words of the song, were Child Study: Do the teachers of little children feel

recalled to her by the felt vibrations of the instrument, and

expressed in signs of emotion and in spoken words more closely drawn to them this year than

must remember that she has learned to speak. before? Have they ceased to be “ pupils " to be run

Miracles are ; but they are not outside law; it is only through the grade mold? And, instead, do their that, as yet, the law is outside our knowledge. Aside from teachers see them as tender, wondering, pulsating bits the seeming miracle of the manner of the reproduction of humanity, needing the sympathy of the mother-. through a sense seemingly inactive in the first instance, of heart at every step of the new way? Growth in child the psychological condition produced through another sense, study does not mean a new skill in probing the child

the incident has a deep meaning. We are apt to discount with senseless questions; it does not mean collating carly associations and memories as likely to have been and averaging a thousand statistics; but it means an

deepened and retouched by recurrence and family conversaincreasing conviction that child nature is an unknown

tion. Here is an instance where such possibilities were

absolutely precluded - and yet, the right tune given to the mysterious realm, to be best observed, studied and

phonograph, not one tiny impression on the wind-cylinder trained, when lovingly enthroned in the child-heart.

fails to give forth a clear, full voice. How to find one's way to this little heart-kingdom,

Scott and Burns were sung to sleep with old songs and always waiting to be won; — how to hold one's place ballads, and almost before they could speak, listened with there worthily after it is found;— how to guide and eager ears to tales and traditions from the inexhaustible be led at the same time;

these are

some of the store of nurse or mother. Is it possible that these stories questions that urge themselves upon the growing and songs were the bits of glass, the tiny colored stories, primary teacher.

which formed the basis of those brilliant and beautiful kaleidoscopic figures,— the tales and songs with which they,

in their mature years, charmed the world? The Library and Little Children The library must be in many cases, the nurse, the foster

mother, who tells the old stories, sings the old songs. Into MAY H. PRENTICE Cleveland O.

many a home the school and the library — often the library (Read before the State Teachers' Association in Ohio.)

through the school, -. bring all that comes of the “sweetness HIS has been called the children's age. When it is and light” of culture.

compared with former ages the title may not seem • “I learned to read at my mother's knee; of course too flattering, though to the good time and the longer ago than I can remember,” said Horace Greeley.

happy generation coming, such may seem a strange That is the ideal way, but it is not for the children who so misnomer, remembering the thousands of children the learn that the work of school and library is most needed. nineteenth century allows to be reared in vice and poverty ; The school must, in most instances, teach the child to the thousands it allows to die. for lack of good food, fresh read. The library must furnish — best through the school — air and intelligent care ; remembering the wretched “ pound books which will make him wish to learn to read. It is of cure" of our reformatories, workhouses, and jails, with much easier and cheerfuller work to dig when you know that which we vainly try to make good the “ounce of preven- gold lies at the end of your digging. tion" of early training.

Measured by their difficulty, the books given to first-grade However, the present age admits the child's right to life children should be very tiny indeed, with large print and - and life more abundantly; liberty such as has never attractive pictures. Where the library is large enough and before been granted to childhood; and happiness, as far as rich enough there should be one for each child. Ten in a happiness may depend upon a decent and healthful environ- room will be vastly better than none, however. ment.

“ Better buy fewer copies of Mother Goose and more Not insignificant among the agencies which are bringing scientific books,” so a neighbor of mine said. He had breadth and fulness of life to the children is the library. failed to get from the library the book he wanted, whereas Marvellous are the changes the past ten years have made in his little daughter, aged five, had secured the book her heart the status of the children's department in the libraries. At desired, Dutton's beautifully illustrated Mother Goose. It the beginning of that time it consisted in most cases of a was a selfish grumble; and I cannot enter here into the small alcove or a few shelves, filled almost entirely with question of what the little ones' books shall be. But I children's stories, and issued only to boys and girls who had fancy that in this case and in the minds of many parents already reached the borderland of childhood on their way to and some teachers the “Mother Goose," typifies the whole manhood and womanhood. Now, in many cases the chil- range of books for little children. dren's department is one of the most important in the To furnish the books is the work of the library; to select library, while in place of an assistant listlessly handing out them for her own class, to use them and teach the use of books over the bar, is a clear-eyed, large-hearted woman, in them, is the work of the teacher. But devoted and skilful as the midst of the books and the children, and studying both she may be, her work must be sorely limited and hampered, very earnestly and very unostentatiously.

unless she is at liberty, either through direct assignment, or A number of the libraries have entirely abolished the age- because the heart of her superintendent safely trusteth in limit. In other words, they have adopted the theory that a her, to regularly use a certain carefully judged amount of child who is old enough to care for a book is old enough to school-time for this work. be granted the loan of one. This is true of the public Given a number of books equal to the number of children libraries of Cleveland, Milwaukee, Buffalo and Denver, and in the room, each child chooses his own book — to be kept of many smaller ones. The “ big brother” of eight leading a week two weeks - as long as the teacher thinks best. the tot of four or five, who hugs close the picture book he Only the last child of any choosing-time has absolutely no has drawn from the library, is to my mind a goodly sight. choice. The books chosen, there comes a time of silent There is a pleasant air of proprietorship noticeable in both reading or looking at pictures. The teacher is simply the children.

spmpathetic friend, the mother, who enjoys the pleasure of Before that marvellous girl, Helen Keller, was nineteen the children, who“ tells ” the hard words which they cannot months old, the time at which she entered the world of get by sounding or guess by the picture, who slips into one darkness and silence in which she has since dwelt, her father seat here and another there to encourage the faint hearted, was in the habit of singing her a certain song, and she of brighten the dull, and rejoice with the discoverer of hid acting out, in amusing baby fashion, some of the ideas sug- treasure. gested. After the illness which resulted in the loss of her In the first year the “silent reading" will be very little sight and hearing, the associations of this song were so a familiar word recognized here and there, new words


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guessed as a great triumph, a whole sentence read alone. the Pilgrim's Progress, the Arabian Nights, Robinson Even in the second and third years the teacher who looks Crusoe, a book of history, the Bible, or the weekly newsfor brilliant results will be deeply disappointed in all cut a few paper.” He “clung to his book like a wasp to a mellow

But there will be a growing love for, and ability in, apple.” Of Scott it is said that from his carilest childhood he reading, until at the end of the third year, the reading was “a ravenous and insatiable reader.” In fact omnivorous vocabulary, at first so far behind, will often have overtaken reading seems to be often characteristic of intellectually and overpassed the speaking vocabulary.

keen childhood. It maintains in some great men like Mr. It is not alone with their teachers that the children con- Gladstone, who retained to the last the ready receptivity of verse about their books,- at times they sit by twos, or gather childhood, and in weaklings who are willing to let the in groups about some especially attractive book, and talk shadows of other men's thoughts pass through their otherwise freely but quietly. Volunteers may be allowed and the empty minds. The latter who read good books are few. In timid assisted and encouraged to make selections from their the atmosphere of such books there is something tonic and own book — O, the charm of the ownness! — to read to the bracing. class. They may tell the stories they have read (in the The child who listens to the voices of good books will second and third year), or recite the poem or verse they

“Do noble deeds, not dream them all day long." have learned. Asked formally about his book the child becomes dumb.— “It's about Indians,” or “It's a nawful

Or, if this seems untrue, let us remember how often the good book" disposes of the topic.

dreams of childhood are the deeds of manhood. The child The teacher has to remember,

who reads widely is laying up, unconsciously, riches which his

manhood will discover with glad surprise.
“ The child-heart is so strange a little thing,

Mr. Cutter, in the third report of the Northampton,
So mild,— so timorously shy and small,
When grown-up hearts throb, it goes scampering

Mass., library, recommends the adoption of the following
Behind the wall, nor dares peep out at all!

Tyrary rule :
It is the veriest mouse

“ Books are not to be lent for use out of the building to That hides in any house.

children under 12 years of age, except by the written perSo wild a little thing is any child-heart, And softly and tenderly she must call :

mission of a parent (or person standing in the place of a Child heart! mild heart!

parent) who shall specify whether the books are to be lent Ho, my little wild heart !

at all times or under restrictions."
Come up here to me, out o' the dark
Or let me come to you!”

And what of the children of Jackson Court and Gundry

Alley, whose parents can scarcely read at all, and not at all The reading-habit when acquired at all is generally in English? What of children like the little girl who being acquired before the age of twelve and often before nine. told that she would find the twenty-third psalm in the Bible, No child acquires it unless he finds pleasure in reading, and said it wasn't in theirs, and in proof thereof brought me a he finds little pleasure in reading until he reads with ease. book called the “comic Bible " which gave in coarse burHence the need of care at the books supplied him in lesque the stories of the Old Testament, illustrated by his early attempts at early reading be not too difficult. A coarser caricatures in which the irreverent hand which drew

big book," or a book containing too hard words daunts them had not spared to place the Almighty himself. Is the him, as Motley's voluminousness or Hegel's abstruseness judgment of these parents to be final as to what and how does us.

much their children shall read? I think not. If he learns to love reading however, there will come a To these children the school, and through the school, time when the baby-books are given out, that he will come the library, come as saviours. And the vacation time, when to the desk with “ Please may I take the big red book on the school closes its work, is the time when the library has your desk?" and if she is wise she will say “Yes.” Tenny- need to labor most diligently. son or Fiske, as it happens,- is far beyond him. But Hamilton Mabie says most discerningly : “The mind is not like the feet, accurately measurable at any given moment; Short Studies in Browning III* it presents at given moments certain definite limits of ex

ANNIE W. SANBORN pression, but it never discloses its capacity for reception. And it is an open secret that it can receive, brood over, and

Colombe's Birthday find delight in ideas which it only dimly understands; more

HAVE chosen “Colombe's Birthday" as the best selecthan this, such ideas are often the most nutritious food for

tion with which to begin a study of Browning's dramas, the growing mind.”

not because it is the most striking or the most repreIn this fact lies the justification of giving the freedom of

sentative of them, but because, in its beauty and tenderthe library to our little boys and girls as soon as they care

ness it seemed well adapted to the purpose. for it ;— but see to it that the standard of the library is high.

It was published in 1844 and was presented at the The spirit of the book may touch the spirit of the child, and

Haymarket Theatre, London, in 1853, with Miss Helen touch it to deeds of high emprise — when its words are but half understood. “The brain," says Holmes, “may some

Faucit, afterwards Lady Martin, in the part of Colombe. It

has since been presented under the auspices, respectively, simes act wiihout our taking cognizance of it, as the heart

of the Browning societies of London and Boston. commonly does. ' Something goes on in the brain,' he

As an acting play “Colombe's Birthday" has strong pasquotes from Leibnitz, “ akin to the circulation of the blood. Thought, not perceived, may exist."" The body of what

sages, but it is pre-eminently adapted to reading and study. Leibnitz called “ the insensible perceptions ” Dr. Waldstein

Its action is important and its situations intense, but both

are of the inner rather than the outer life. The action is calls “the Sub-conscious self” — and his little book with

confined to one day, the birthday of Colombe, the five acts that title is full of interest to parents and teachers. On the cover of the book is a little corner-piece – two

representing morning, noon, afternoon, evening, and night.

The episode which forms the basis of the drama is purely heads, one clear and bold, the other a shadow, the conscious and the sub-conscious self, but it is the shadow-self which is

imaginary, the scene being laid in a German duchy of the

seventeenth century. Colombe, the young and beautiful winged and more beautiful. It is to the growth of the latter more than that of the former that the child's voluntary

Duchess of Juliers and Cleeves has held that position for one

year, since the death of her father. reading minirers. The dange

Morning of over-reading are not to be over-looked, neither are they to be over-estimated. People who read

In the first scene a group of perturbed courtiers wait for little have always shaken their heads over children who read

audience with the Duchess to greet her on her birthday. much. Horace Greeley, at five years, “devouring every

They are the same men who, a year before, had led her out dry twig as well as every green blade of print to which he

from the secluded castle where her youth had been spent, to

be their ruler. could get access ” would have been a subject of calamitous

The morning finds them at an unhappy crisis. A rival prophecy to them. “It mattered little," says his biographer, « whether it was the Confession of Faith, a stray almanac, Copyrighted 1898, by Annie W. Sanborn.

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claimant to the duchy, Prince Berthold, is approaching the “Cleves has wrongs? Apparent now and thus?" She
city. His claims have been hidden from the Duchess but demands the paper prepared by Valence to set forth the
the time has come when she must not only know of them, case oi his city.
but perhaps must acknowledge them and step down from Valence is thus reminded of the price of his audience and
her throne. The courtiers are, with one exception, selfishly hands her instead Berthold's requisition, of whose contents
occupied with the probabilities of their own future, should he is ignorant. Colonbe reads it. Her fears are confirmed.
the Prince become their Duke.

She turns on her courtiers with reproach for their conceal-
This exception is Guibert, whose personality is deftly ment of the matter from her and then renounces her rights
developed in the course of the play. He is a perfect exam- thus :
ple of bluff impulsiveness turned by the atmosphere of a “ Prince Berthold, who arı Juliers' Duke it seems,-
court into pitiable vacillation. His family motto, as

The King's choice, and the Emperor's, and the Pope's—

Be mine, too! Take this people? Tell me not Colombe ironically reminds him, is “Scorning to waver,”

Of receipts, precedents, authorities, but Guibert, as it proves, does nothing but waver between

-But take them, from a heart that yearns to give ! his better and worse natures.

Find out their love,-I could not; find their fear, Guibert supplies the comedy of the piece and is handled

I would not; find their like, I never shall, with delightful humor. He is so shrewd, yet so simple ; so

Among the flowers !

( Taking off her coronet.) bold, yet so timorous; so keen a wit, yet so blind to the

Colombe of Ravestein grotesqueness of his own position ; so weak, yet so fine in

Thanks God she is no longer Duchess here!” the ultimate triumph of his loyal heart over his craven head. In the scene which follows the courtiers oscillate between

The courtiers are wrangling over who shall give Colombe admiration of their lady and desire of the new Prince's favor. the paper containing Berthold's requisition when Valence, a Valence, in rage and scorn at their cowardice and adoration travel-stained messenger to the Duchess, enters. He comes of the lady whom he now recognizes as the mistress of his to plead the cause of his over-taxed city, Cleves, and appeals heart, offers her the arms and suffrages of Cleves. She to Guibert, to whom he has once done a service, to gain accepts him as her only loyal subject and withdraws. him an audience.

Immediately upon her going the Prince's approach is Valence appears in very nearly his true colors from the announced. first. He is the grave, steadfast, yet ardent man, deep of

Afternoon heart, clear of brain, and bearing the burden of other lives. The curtain rises on the third act with the Prince and his He is a simple, straightforward gentleman, strong enough confidant, Melchior, in the room where they are to receive for a leader, but a patriot rather than a statesman. He has the courtiers. Berthold's character unfolds distinctly and seen Colombe for the first time a year before, when she rapidly before the reader. He is a man who, having suftook possession of her duchy. It is the ideal of womanhood fered as we learn from certain allusions in his soliloquies, first presented to him by her that has been the inspiration through the unfaithfulness of a woman, has filled his life with of his work for Cleves.

the activities of ambition. The courtiers see in Valence their opportunity to shift a He is world-weary, yet the world is essential to him. Like painful duty. Without being informed of the contents of all successful souls, his aims expand with his progress. Berthold's note, he is told that he can purchase audience Once a duchy seemed beyond the summit of attainment, with the Duchess by laying this paper at her feet.

He con

now the prospect of an empire hardly quickens his pulse. sents, and the act closes with a last cynical explosion from He is self-centred, assured, doubts neither his own methods Guibert, who rallies Valence on his tense silence and nor his own prowess, is endowed with that serene and posiaccuses him of intending to supplant him, the Duchess' tive self-esteem which seems an element of all worldly sucpremier :

His friend Melchior, a scholar and philosopher, “ Isn't the grand harangue

serves as a graceful foil for the Prince's determined yet
You mean to make that thus engrosses you?

sagacious worldliness.
Which of her virtues you'll apostrophize?
Or is't the fashion you aspire to start,

In Berthold's conversation with the courtiers something
of that close-curled, not unbecoming hair?

of the impressiveness of Colombe's personality is unfolded Or what else ponder you?”

to him. He perceives that one who could so impress her“My townsmen's wrongs,”

self on a group of men of the world as almost to secure their replies Valence, and with these words bitten into the back- allegiance in the face of their interests, must be “a mind to ground of Guibert's uneasy flippancy throws into bold relief match one's mind with.” He even begins to fancy in the contrast of their two natures.

Colombe a possible compensation for his lost love, and,

more, a possible sharer of the imperial throne to be. The The second act introduces Colombe. She has recently ensuing scene, in which he meets her for the first time, awakened to more than a vague suspicion of danger to her

strengthens this half-formed purpose. rule and to a partial realization of the uncertain allegiance At the close of this scene the Prince gives his credentials of her court.

for inspection into the hands of Valence who is now In soliloquy she reproaches those who brought her forth Colombe's spokesman and adviser. Valence is to pronounce from the old castle of Ravestein only to let her be driven upon their validity and to meet the Prince and Colombe at back to it so soon. She rebels against being thus doubly night. After Berthold goes out, a scene takes place between robbed, first of her care-free girl-life, now of that which had Colombe and Valence, in which with the impetuosity of her been given in its place.

girlhood and the imperiousness of her rank, she lets him At moments she would willingly let the cares and dignities know by thinly veiled phrases, that he has touched her

heart. of her duchy slip from her and go back to

“ This is indeed my birthday, soul and body," she says, “The old place again, perhaps,

and again : The water-breeze again, the birds again.”

“ Believe in your own nature and its force But she is passing rapidly from the light-hearted child to

Of renovating mine! I take my stand the woman with cares and rights and duties. She who has

Only as under me the earth is firm;

So, prove the first step stable, all will prove. led hitherto a sheltered yet wilful life, is now confronted with

That first, I choose :—the next to take, choose you!" realities; she feels herself pitted for the first time against her world. It is a pathetic situation. Courage and self-asser

Her meaning seems unmistakable, yet Valence, after a tion are not lacking, yet how inadequate they seem in their few moments of bewildered rapture, attempts to explain her effort to inform and shape the life of an untrained and words on other grounds than the real. His heart is too unguarded girl.

strong, however, and he ends with Yet she faces her courtiers bravely and they are stirred to

“I cannot so disclaim a new enthusiasm for her. Valence's opportunity arrives

Heaven's gift, nor call it other than it is!

She loves me!” and a few impetuous words tell the story of Cleves. Colombe's heart is touched. “ Wrongs? she cries — He reminds himself, however, that for Cleves' sake he


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must prove her Duchess if he can, even though to do this is only read his books" to better purpose ” but has also watched to keep her high above him :

Colombe throughout the scene with a clearer eye. It is he “Cleves, help me! Teach me, every haggard face

who is permitted to develop this last situation; to bring out To sorrow and endure! I will do right

by hint and suggestion, the latent forces; and to throw into Whatever be the issue. Help me, Cleves!”

high relief the nobility of Valence's nature. Evening

Berthold, though blinded by custom, is yet capable of Two important scenes are contained in the fourth act.

seeing and believing. His last address to the lovers is as One is that in which Berthold comes, in advance of the intelligent and sympathetic as it is magnanimous. You feel appointed hour, to Valence, to suspend his claims to the

his sincerity in it : duchy and present instead a request for Colombe's hand in

“ I could not imitate — I hardly envy --marriage. He speaks of love only when Valence brings it

I do admire you. All is for the best.

Too costly a flower were this, I see it now, to his attention as an item commonly included in transac

To pluck and set upon my barren helm tions of this character, and he by no means belittles the

To wither — any garish plume will do. advantages to be gained by an alliance with him.

I'll not insult you to refuse your duchy.Valence's hopes, raised by the discovery he has just made

You can so well afford to yield it to me, that Berthold's claims are valid and the Duchess no more a

And I were left, without it, sadly lorn." Duchess, are thus dashed to the ground and it becomes

As for Colombe, we found her a thoughtless girl, we leave his heart-breaking duty to acquaint Colombe with the her a woman, with a new-born soul. Every step of her Prince's offer. The scene in which he does this calls the development is as carefully outlined before us as the evoludramatist's most delicate art into play.

tionists' study of stardust and its progress. With a native In this most marvellous love-scene, it is the attitude of inheritance of noble qualities such as truth, honor and Colombe which is so wonderfully portrayed. A lesser courage, she might yet have gone on to the end of life master not only would have made her sure of her own heart, playing at existence but for the interposition of those two but would have despoiled her of the feminine frailties, tricks developing elements,- adversity and love. That they made and subterfuges that make the scene a triumph of subtlety. their entrance so appositely is the business of the dramatist, Browning, on the contrary, shows Colombe as she was, a

but that they wrought their perfect work is the concern of woman capaple of great things, but only half awake to them.

the poet-teacher - and of his readers. She is dazzled by Berthold's offer, besides being tempted by themselves against the crowded events of the day, is an

The growing fineness of Colombe's divinations, whetting it, in the most natural and feminine way in the world, as a dignified solution of her personal problem.

exquisite conception of spiritual growth. At each stage of Girl-like, she assumes that Berthold's sole motive in wed

her rapidly condensed experience she grows deeper, truer, ding her will be love. “ That he should love me." she

more womanly. Nor would we spare one touch of the immurmurs, in wonder. This taxes Valence's endurance perious, even cruel, coquetry of the love scene because withbeyond the limit.

He enlightens her — tells her that love out it we should miss something of the essential femininity does not enter into the matter, yet grudgingly admits that of the woman. Berthold has offered “munificently much." A brief war of

To name Colombe as the most lovable of all Browning's

But it is not words between them on this point ends with this parting women would be perhaps to claim too much. shot from him :

going too far to say that of all Browning's lovers, Valence is “ Where reason, even, finds no flaw,

the most to be envied. It is this aspect of the whole case Unerringly a lover's instinct may.”

that confronts us to the last. Valence and Colombe turn “You reason, then, and doubt?” asks Colombe,

their backs on courts, the world well lost. They go — “ to “I love and know."

their friends, God's earth.” This is the signal for the bringing into play of Colombe's whole feminine armory. Hitherto her feeling for Valence has been but the play of a girl's ardent admiration about a possible hero. Now jealousy, a fiery ally, leaps to the aid of love. Whom does he love?—she asks herself, and proceeds to find out.

The remainder of the scene is too packed with emotional action to make fragmentary quotation intelligible. Colombe, imperious, pleading, iremulous, determined, by turns, rests not till she has Valence on his knees, her helpless worshipper. That we can no more point out than could she, the precise point at which she changes doubt for certainty and becomes the conscious soverign instead of the suppliant,

When the Woods Turn Brown is a proof of the dramatist's art.

How will it be when the woods turn brown, And when she has proved him to the utmost, woman still Their gold and crimson all dropped down, in the byplay as in the main current of her emotions, And crumbled to dust? Oh, then as we lay she retreats into her fortress, chills him with her privilege of

Our ear to earth's lips we shall hear her say, rank, and brazenly laments, after his crushed departure,

• In the dark, I am seeking new gems for my crown :"

We will dream of green leaves, when the woods turn brown. that “nothing's what it calls itself !”— that even this man's

Lucy Larcom devotion, which she pretends to have taken for loyalty to the Duchess, was “mere love ” for the woman. She even, having

A Lesson of Love had the heart of a hero laid bare before her, balances it, in full view of the audience, with the potential crown Berthold has

A TEACHER. to offer.

HE bright beautiful sun was streaming in at the Night

window. Regardless of the sunshine outside, it had The fifth act is chiefly remarkable for the rounding out been a hard day for both pupils and teacher. For of the two delineations of Berthold and Colombe. Guibert

the teacher, it had been an especially wearisome day, is also completed with that single, happy little touch _" 'Tis as that morning she had received discouraging news in a my birthday, too,” — which shows that the unstable has at letter, and then had come into the school-room with a last cast anchor.

severe headache. Hard for the children, as it always is Berthold, complex and subtle, grows in distinctness when a teacher is not cheery and bright. throughout the play. He has the deliberate cynicism of So the long day had dragged on hour after hour, and now the ambitious man, and when it appears that Colombe is the time had come for closing and still three little boys were about to accept his proposal, he murmurs to Melchior, “ The to remain. It seemed almost unbearable and still discipline Empire has its old success, my friend.” Melchior, has not must be enforced. Harry remained because he had not





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