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learned his spelling, Will for whispering and Fred because even, the plan is. so ingenious the cells on the other side he had spoken disrespectfully. Harry sat with his book of the comb being arranged so that every other intersection open before him, but the spelling still remained in the book, comes in the center of a cell upon this side.

Then again, while his thoughts wandered to his mates outside, playing, ball. Will and Fred sat in listless attitude as yet not sorry for any misconduct.

3 Time passed and no change. Miss B- still waited, her head aching, while her heart so longed for some little word of love and sympathy.

A rap at the door and a small curly head was thrust within, while a pair of large brown eyes looked into those of his brother, who sat across the room. “I so sorry you naughty, Ted dear. I did so want you to play with me, and

Flowers you hurt Mamma, Ted dear.” Two large tears, which had

from formed on the lashes, now streamed down the cheeks. Then a sob, a rush toward "Ted dear," one hug and kiss, a Master-Builder.

Cloudand the baby form had turned and fled from the room.

Land But that was enough, love had done its work. Four hearts were softened. Ted arose in a manly way, walked up to Miss B-, took her hand in that begrimmed little one

the floor of the cell isn't flat, but made of three little rhombs and apologized; while Will, who all this time, had been

so nearly square that you have to look twice to make sure. fighting a warfare in his seat, now came forward also.

Let the children see how nature shingles a fish or a pine moment the speller, which had dropped to the floor, had

stem, and thatches a bird (Fig. 5). There's no end to her two bright eyes riveted on it; and in a short time the spelling had been perfectly recited.

Only a wee brother's love, only the idea that the naughty boy had hurt some one whom he loved, and in one moment he was ready to make all right.

Would it not be possible for more of us, as teachers, to gain that deep love of our boys and girls, so they will be hurt if they know they hurt us, and know also that unless they do their best they hurt their fathers ahd mothers ?

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The Esthetic Element in Nature

Study VII HENRY T. BAILEY State Supervisor of Drawing Massachusetts UT there is a beauty in the humblest things dependent upon mere arrangement of parts, which the little people may

wonders. Look at a pine see during this month and the next.

cone! It is built in asWhen they study the fruits and the vege

Wild Carrot

cending spires like the tables they will find flowers hidden away in

in December.

tower of Babel. These them! Here

scales are like scales in is the russet

HD

music,- like “runs,” beLaurel apple-flower

ginning p. increasing in Hollyhock. (Fig. 1.)

force to f. and diminishing Then, too, Poppy

to pp. They begin small, some of the seed pods

grow larger as they ascend, and then smaller again to the

very smallest at the tip. This rhythmic arrangement will be really 1 little flowers made of wood

delightful to meditate upon, a fascinating field to investigate,

one of these days.
(Fig. 2). And when the
snowflakes come falling we

Now we will attend to beauty of arrangement, in rows, in shall find them only quaint according to Miss Warner's outline, that bye-and-bye, when

rosettes, in surface patterns, in the things we are to study little flowers which the wind

the flowers begin to come again, and the butterflies, we may has shaken from their stems

find new delight in them, seeing the same beauties in other in the fairy gardens of cloudland (Fig. 3). The law

forms, and feeling the truth of Emerson's fine lines :governing the arrangement in

“ Not unrelated, unaffied, Indian all of these is radial repeti

But to each thought and thing allied,

In perfect Nature's every part, Mallowtion, which in Nature means

Rooted in the mighty heart." at once more and less than

Here are the outlines for November and December. it does in conventional design: it includes such exact repetition of an element as

First and Second Grades may be found in a snowflake, or such a careless repetition

November and December of an element as we see in the wild carrot (Fig 4). As we found the prototypes of our vases and urns in

Summer fading, winter comes — the seed pods, so here in the flowers of all sorts we

Frosty mornings, tingling thumbs. find the beginnings of our ornamental rosettes. Let the

Window robins, winter rooks –

And the pictured story books. children discover these little rosette in Nature and draw them singly, or in borders, or for surface patterns. Let

Water now is turned to stone

Nurse and I can walk upon; them see nature's surface patterns. She has some cute

Still we find the flowing brooks ones! Take that made by the honey-bees (Fig. 3). How

In the picture story books. do they manage it? The walls are so thin, the cells are so

- R. L. Stevenson

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Help the children to feel that though the flowers are gone and the leaves have fallen, many glad and beautiful things remain. When the plants went to sleep they left us many things to remember them by— seeds, nuts, fruits, vegetables. Then the frost spirit comes, the wind is about in his travels and the treasures of the snow are ours. The pines and the hemlocks and spruces are still true to the summer. There are two holidays

ard
in these months. Let the
nature work and drawing
preceding be in sympathy
with the holiday spirit.

Harvest Myths
Myths and Mother Plays

Friends
All the Year Round(Autumn)

The
The Leaves at Play

Bend of a
PRIMARY EDUCATION(Nov.'97)

Wing-
November
PRIMARY EDUCATION

The Wanderings of the Birds
Nature in Verse

Winter Pine
Robert Louis Stevenson

The Sparrows
Kate Hennessey

The
What the Acorns Say
Kindergarten Magazine

II. Plates of an Armor
FROST
Little Jack Frost

Songs and Games for Little

Ones Winter Jewels

Songs and Games for Little

Ones The Little Artist

*Nature in Verse SNOW

The Babies' Blanket PRIMARY EDUCATION (Dec.'95)
The Little Snowflake Lucy Larcom
Help One Another

Nature in Verse
The First Snow

Nature in Verse
The Snowflake's Story

Plant Life
WIND
Wind Myths

Myths and Mother Plays
The Weather Vane

Myths and Mother Plays
Sweet and Low

Tennyson
Which Way the Wind Doth
Blow

Songs and Games
Windy Night

R. L. Stevenson
Whichever Way the Wind
Doth Blow

Caroline Mason
The Windmill

Songs and Games
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Study these as storehouses of plant-food
From Seed to Leaf
When studying the pumpkin read
Judging from Appearances The Farmyard Gate
The Seed, read
Mr. Finney had a Turnip Longfellow

Tell the story of Cinderella and the pumpkin coach.
EVERGREENS
O Hemlock Tree

Long fellow
The Little Pine Tree Nature in Verse

The First Christmas Tree Sel.
THANKSGIVING AND CHRISTMAS

Can a Little Child Like me Mary Mapes Dodge
Minna's Thanksgiving The Farmyard Gate
Study some famous picture appropriate to Christmas.

The Holy Night” Corregio

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How will it be when the woods turn brown
Their gold and their crimson all dropped down
And crumbled to dust? Oh, then as we lay
Our ear to earth's lips we shall hear her say
“ In the dark I am seeking new gems for my crown
We will dream of green leaves when the woods turn brown.

Lucy Larcom Blue sky, clear air, wonderful color in woods and on distant hills are some of the beauties of the late autumn.

The dried seed pods, leaves and branches, are full of interest.

The frost, the snow, the wind, challenge the attention with their beauty and their mystery.

Let us help the children to enter into the spirit of it all. See Down to Sleep

H. H. The Snow Bird

Nature in Verse Hide and Seek

Sel. Red Riding Hood

J. G. Whitties
FROST

The Frost Looked Forth Nature in Verse
Frost Pictures

Nature in Verse
Jack Frost

Celia Thaxter
SNOW

Little Ships in the Air Nature in Verse
The First Snowfall

Lowell
Snowflakes

Sel. The Snow Storm

Sel.
The Magic Flakes

Sel.
WIND
The Wind

R. L. Stevenson
At the Back of the North
Wind

George McDonald
Natural Phenomena

PRIMARY EDUCATION
FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
The Study of Fruit and
Vegetables

C. B. Scott
In the Black Forest

Celia Thaxter
EVERGREENS

Christmas Evergreens C. B. Scott
ANIMALS
The Adventures of Molly
Cottontail

PRIMARY EDUCATION
Winter Comrades

Edith Thomas

Playing Games “Take the games played in many kindergartens to-day as an example of what child study should teach us not to play," writes Miss Sarah Wiltse in North Western Monthly. “I used to allow much free play in my kindergarten, and trying to make the most of Freebel's barnyard play, I encouraged the children to personate the domestic animals; but I soon discovered one child who would be a cow every time, and a cow that hooked and kicked every animal that came near him, and when rebuked for his rough play, turned upon me with his horns and hoofs, saying that he was not Henry, he was a cow that knew no better. If a child with brutal tendencies would use the personation of a domestic animal for the indulgence of the lower instincts, what should we expect of that child when he personated the cat in the well-known game of the cat and the mouse? I studied the effect of the games I condemn, and am sure that the timid child is injured by personating the hunted mouse, and the child with cruel, selfish tendencies is influenced in wrong directions by such games."

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Her sister lily floats On the blue pond, and raises golden eyes To court the golden splendor of the skies. The sudden signal comes, and down she goes

To find repose

In the cool depths below. A little later and the asters blue Depart in crowds, a brave and cheery crew : While golden-rod, still wide awake and gay,

Turns him away,

The Pilgrims to whom John Robinson preached on that memorable day before the “Speedwell” sailed were Puritans. The Pilgrims who landed at Plymouth were Puritans; their children who founded here “a church without a bishop and a state without a king " were Puritans. The principles, which have given us our right to be called a Christian nation were derived from the Puritans; most of our colleges were founded by Puritans; our school system came from the Puritans; our ideals are all Puritan. These ideals will become realities, and the American nation worthy to possess its privileges and possibilities, only as we are loyal to the principles and the spirit which were the inspiration of our fathers. Our hope is not in Puritanism in its narrowness and with its bigotries, but in its larger spirit which reveres God and seeks his will ; which owns no authority but truth; which believes in righteousness and does right; and always and everywhere trusts the people.

- Amory H. Bradford, D. D.

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Some hae meat that canna eat
And some would eat that want it;
But we hae meat and we can eat,
So let the Lord be thankit.

- Robert Burns

The sleepy river flows as slowly by Delfshaven to-day as when two hundred and seventy-seven years ago a little company of English Christians prepared to embark on its waters as they started on the most memorable voyage ever sailed on any sea. The precise point of their departure cannot be identified. The river is lined with warehouses and factories, and neither tradition nor history speaks of the exact spot where the “Speedwell” was anchored. But some things which preceded the embarkation are known, and among them that a day of fasting and prayer was observed, when John Robinson, with the inspiration of a prophet and the tenderness of a pastor, preached a sermon that has become historic. The solemnity of the occasion cannot be reproduced. It was one of those historic moments when men chosen of God dimly realize that they are facing a mission of vast and mysterious magnitude, and therefore humble themselves before Almighty God and seek to know his will.

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The Pilgrim Fathers were all Puritans, and yet they were not bigots. Their eyes were open toward the future, but they did not forget the truths which had been forged in the fires of the Reformation. The sermon of John Robinson on that memorable day was an eloquent and solemn presentation of the principles of Puritanism; the principles which in England led to Hampden, Harry Vane, Cromwell, the Puritan Revolution; the principles which inspired the heroic souls who dared a winter voyage on the North Atlantic in a craft smaller that ocean yachts to-day; which led to the compact in the cabin of the "Mayflower," to the Declaration of Independence, to the Union of States, and to all that distinguishes that which is best in American civilization.

Pilgrim Hall

at it while the dinner boiled in the big pot and the brightly

scoured pewter dishes shone upon the dresser. Her father (From Little Pilgrims at Plymouth*)

would come in from his work or his trip to Plymouth, per

haps, and look at it and praise his little daughter's work." “We will accompany Suzette to Pilgrim Hall. Not that this was her first visit there. She and Dick had been there many times during the weeks they had spent in Pilgrim Town.

“ The hall is built of granite and has a portico across its front which, if you should ask me its style, I should tell you it was Doric. In its pediment is a carving in wood of the Landing. It is highly imaginative, of course, for an Indian is represented as kneeling before the Pilgrim who is stepping out of the boat; and we know no Indian was there. The Pilgrim's right hand is outstretched, and in that hand a saucy English sparrow had built its nest that spring, and consequently the Pilgrim looked very much as though he had been birds' nesting, like a naughty boy. That was what Susette heard a gentleman remark as she was going up the steps, and as she looked up, the sparrow flew down, almost brushing her cheek in passing.

“In all her visits to the hall Suzette could never quite decide which thing it was that pleased and interested her most; whether it was the bit of quilt that once belonged to the lovely Rose Standish, or John Alden's bible, or the shoes that Penelope Winslow, wife of Governor Josiah Winslow, wore when a baby, or Edward Winslow's gold ring, or the redoubtable sword of the redoubtable Myles Standish.

“This trusty sword, as Longfellow calls it, *Curved at the point and inscribed with its mystical Arab sentences, has also upon its blade the sun and the moon with lion's faces engraved inside of them. This is said to be a Persian blade, and made of meteoric iron, which drops down to us from somewhere in the great blue space about us. Orientals believe that swords made of this iron are specially lucky, and that the bearer has a charmed life.

“In that hall, too, are the huge iron pot and pewter platter of Myles Standish, and if we gauge his appetite by the size of them, it must have been excellent. In that pot was cooked, perhaps, a portion of the eagle the Pilgrims killed and which they thought tasted so much like mutton.

“And there is the dressing case of Penelope Winslow, which shows that, if our Pilgrim Mothers did eat without forks, they were not quite destitute of the elegancies of life;

The National Monument and also a bead purse which she made. “ But I think that, after all, the one thing of deepest

National Faith Monument, erected to the memory of our interest to Suzette was the sampler of Lorea Standish, the

forefathers at Plymouth, Mass. It was designed by Hammatt

It little daughter of Myles Standish. All our great-grand- Billings, and the corner-stone was laid August 2, 1859.

is built entirely of granite. mothers had to work their samplers, as they were called, when they were little girls, working the letters upon the

On the main pedestal stands the colossal figure of Faith. canvas in the pretty cross-stitch which is still the prettiest

the largest and finest piece of granite statuary in the world of all for simple marking of clothes. And here is the in

It is two hundred and sixteen times life-size, and estimated scription on that sampler just as it is embroidered :

to weigh two hundred tons. The pedestal is forty-five feet high, and the statue thirty-six feet, making a total height of eighty-one feet. This noble figure was the gift of Hon.

Oliver Ames, of Easton, a native of Plymouth. The sculptor Lorea Standish is my name

was Joseph Archie, a Spaniard.

Upon the four buttresses are seated figures emblematical of the principles upon which the Pilgrims founded their

Commonwealth — Morality, Education, Law, and Freedom. Lord guide my heart that

Each figure was wrought from a solid block of granite. On I may doe thy will, Also fill

the faces of buttresses, beneath these figures, are alto-reliefs

in marble, representing scenes from Pilgrim History — The hands with such

Departure from Delfshaven, The Signing of the Social Comonvenient skill may

pact in the cabin of the Mayflower, The Landing at

Plymouth, and The Treaty with Massasoit. Upon the four conduce to vertue void of

faces of the main pedestal are large panels for records. shame and I will give

That in the front contains the following : “ National Monuthe glory thy

ment to the Forefathers. Erected by a grateful people in remembrance of their labors, sacrifices and sufferings for the cause of civil and religious liberty." The right and left panels contain the names of those who came over in

the Mayflower. The monument was dedicated with appro“Suzette never tired of looking at this faded bit of work. priate ceremonies August 1, 1889. She liked to think of the little Lorea sitting in the kitchen of that solitary house over there in Duxbury, working away Guard well the trust that's given you, and to yourselves be

* By permission. Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society, Boston. true.- Dana

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Language in Primary Grades.

I

telling them about the Pilgrims and the first Thanksgiving

day. They constructed the Mayflower and the Speedwell Celia F. OSGOOD Denver Colo.

out of chairs, and several started out on the voyage in the

two ships. I said they might turn the chairs upside down to N an inquiry into primary language work, as into any show that the Speedwell had sprung a leak, and unfortuother branch of our curriculum, let us look first for the nately threw in a suggestion that the passengers should wave underlying principle. We know that anything, any their handkerchiefs so that the Mayflower would come back

theory, any subject, any plan, is empty without a prin- with them. This taught me that in allowing them to act ciple.

history, I must beware of side issues, for afterwards in The principle of language, I conceive, to lie in the fact telling the story of the Pilgrims, the children, whatever else that language itself is the out-growth of the need of one they might omit, never failed to say “and they all waved human mind for communication with another. It must be their handkerchiefs at the Mayflower !" Whatever they then a logical production of the mind of man corresponding themselves do, they remember, and that is why the action to that mind's development. Having settled this, we feel sentences in the Speer work are so successful in teaching the that the teaching of language must follow the natural evolu- first steps in reading. tion of the child's mind. Is there anything in the experi- Drawing is one means by which the mind seeks expresences from the ages of six to twelve that creates a demand sion. Language is another and later means. The children's for the definitions of the parts of speech and the rules of drawings are the funniest things in the world, but if you syntax? There is certainly a demand for the subjects and have not tried this, you will be surprised to find how intelobjects, and an inexhaustible draught upon the different ligibly they do express their story. parts of the irregular verbs, but there is no insatiable craving for the methods by which past tense and past participle are

Written Expression formed; nor is there any lack of fluency in the use of

Coming now to the written expression, that begins by the interjections previous to the acquisition of the valuable close of the first month, when the children have learned to knowledge that they are used to express wonder, surprise, form enough of the letters to make the simplest sentences. admiration, or grief.

These can be given to them first by visualization. They In the first grade : The work should be largely conversa- learn to take in the sentences as a whole, including the captional. The very first thing to do is to give the pupil a

ital and the period or the question mark, and this seems reason for seeking expression, and nothing furnishes this so

much superior to the old plan of copying sentences from the readily as some action of his own or some occurence in

board. As long as they are copying, they are working more which he has taken part. If you begin his first school day

or less mechanically, but when reproducing what is photowith some simple nature lesson, whose details are partially graphed on their own minds, they are doing independent old and partially new to his mind, ask him in a conversa- work. tional way, unembarassing to him, questions whose answers We should never manufacture specimens of false syntax, will come from his experience. For example :

for the less of that they see and hear, the better, while the “Where did you find those leaves you brought in after

mistakes occurring daily are found sufficient for drill in correcess?”

rection. A helpful plan for occasional use is to send a “ I found them across the street.”

portion of the class to the board to write sentences either “I thought there were no trees so near.”

from dictation or visualization, and to call attention to the The trees are way over to Jimmie's house." “How did the leaves come here, then?"

mistakes. Their keenness in observing and carefully think“ The wind must have blown them.”

ing is promoted by this exercise. (Probably Willie says “blowed,” but pay no attention at I think the second year is not too early to begin the this stage to such peculiarities.) What ever your nature

pleasant work proposed by Supt. Skinner of Nebraska City lesson has brought out can be elicited by questioning, and in his “Studies in Reading and Literature." Lead the before many days without much questioning. Connect some children to begin the study of words and their meanings. pleasing story with the lesson at once, and allow the chil- Let them tell you what picture is brought to their minds by dren to give it back to you in a succeeding lesson.

certain words, for instance: woods, picnic, bridge, tiny,

wild, rub-a-dub, ding-dong, - presenting first very simple, Acting the Stories

later more complex ideas. The plan of acting the stories is found to be a great help. First by talking, questioning, and having them produce In the first grade the stories are simple and the acting very their pictures orally, lead them to write small compositions, primitive. For instance, the story of “The Tortoise and giving them such themes as : the Hare” is given by one child traversing the vacant space What a little girl would be like that could be compared to in the front of the room, ou a run, while the other walks, a sunshiny morning. the first falling down and going to sleep, while the little tor- A girl compared to a hornet. toise travels slowly on, and is found at the goal by the Hare, A baby's cradle compared to a rose leat. who wakes and runs on at the proper time.

A boy who was like a beaver, and so on. Noticing the zest with which the children entered into Their imagination readily grasps the idea, and they make this way of becoming familiar with any of their stories, I let a beginning of the interesting study of the delicate meanthem try it with their history lessons, when I had been ing of words.

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