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Do you

The New Year

Dollars and Cents l! Ring out the old, ring in the new, Ring happy bells across the snow;

“I do just as good work as I am paid for. The year is going, let him go;

suppose I'm going to do any more for thirty-five Ring out the false, ring in the true.

dollars a month? No, indeed !Ring out false pride in place and blood,

The teacher who begins to adapt the quality of her The civic slander and the spite;

teaching to her salary, whether thirty-five or seventyRing in the love of truth and right,

five dollars a month, is lost. When it comes to the Ring in the common love of good.

actual compensation for the worth of a good teacher,

seventy-five dollars isn't much nearer the mark than Ring in the valiant man and free,

thirty-five. The work of a skilful, generous, conscienThe larger heart, the kindlier hand;

tious teacher is priceless. It never has been paid for Ring out the darkness of the land,

and the twentieth century will find it still unrewarded Ring in the Christ that is to be.

unless the world moves faster in the appreciation of - Tennyson

soul work than it yet has done.

There is only one way for a scantily paid teacher to January

keep her head clear and her eye steadfast, — to think

of the children. That incentive never wavers. Salary Always a night from old to new! Night and the healing balm of sleep!

or no salary, appreciation or no appreciation, ebb tide Each morn is New Year's morn come true,

or high tide, their needs remain the same. And that Morn of a festival to keep.

teacher who can even think of dollars and cents in Only a night from old to new;

connection with the quality or degree of effort she Only, a sleep from night to morn.

puts forth for the children, who can The new is but the old come true;

effort by the amount of her salary, is worth less than Each sunrise sees a new year born.- H. H.

she already receives.

Guiding and directing the development of a human A HAPPY NEW YEAR!

soul admit of no half-interest. It must have the

whole or be a dismal failure. The artist who refuses A year of hope, love, trust and sympathy. Enough of these will make any year a happy one - the hap

to give his subtlest coloring to a picture because it is

the hap- already poorly sold, or who would not get up in the piness of blessedness.

night to add the finishing touch that grew from dreamy

fancies, because that picture is to bring him but five If teachers could only philosophize a little: “Now dollars, will never paint anything but five dollar picthere will be just about so much of rain, so much of ture, till he ceases to grudge his best self. An artist sunshine, and so much of gray weather in every week soul must do artistic work in the face of starvation. of this coming year. How to set the clouds against

So there seems but one way for the poorly-paid, the sunshine, and not be disheartened by them—that's poorly-appreciated teacher to keep her courage bright the thing I must learn to do."

and soul steadfast; - to do the work before her thoroughly and as artistically as she can, for its own

sake. Is not this what Browning meant? Why not set about bearing the dark days as logically

"Strive, and hold cheap the strain ; as one would lay out the conditions of a problem?

Learn, nor account the pang ; Would not that save “ eating one's heart out" with

Dare, never grudge the throe !"

gauge that

Children's Love of Self and Other further with young children in discussing abstract justice or

Interests

unselfishness, because there is not the basis of great concern about the welfare of others in general upon which to build. There will come a time when the pupil may be

safely led to adjust himself in an unselfish way to all the Prof. M. V. O'SHEA University of Wisconsin Madison

life about him, and there is no need of striving to unduly

hasten this with children. Nature plainly advises us to NSTRUCTION must be based first, last, and all the

allow the child to develop for a period as an individual ; let time upon the capabilities and interests of the one

him have his day planning for himself and endeavoring to to be instructed. One of the earliest and most im

realize his own ambitions when they do not directly antagoportant duties of the instructor, then, is to discover, nize with those of others, and when he has become strong if possible, what are the best instincts or interests (for

as an individual, he may be made all the stronger as an these two words refer in the main to the same things) unselfish member of society. of pupils at various stages of their development, as well as to ascertain something of their capacities for the mental

“Children Should be seen, not Heard" (!) foods he proposes to offer. I desire now to discuss briefly some instincts which one should take account of in all his

Parents and teachers alike feel that the child ought from teaching, as well in respect of the materials of instruction

his tenderest years to surrender his individuality to that of as of the methods of their presentation and the general playful ways he is considered to have no rights which he

his superiors. Because a child is a wee bit of a thing with arrangement of class-room exercises. To begin with, a young child is always most vitally inter

should be permitted to assert against those of the adult ested in everything that has to do with the promotion of his

who is so much bigger and who must take life so seriously. own welfare and that of those who are near and dear to Consequently we see efforts about us all the time on the him. We have here an instinct implanted deeper by nature

part of parents and teachers to make children ever obedient in the child's being than perhaps any other. The round of

to authority for its own sake, no matter how much that may life is appropriately divided into several cycles, each with its antagonize their native impulses. But nature again indipredominant interests and purposes. The first cycle, lasting

cates that the parent and the teacher exist for the well-being to puberty (or to twelve or thirteen years of age), is the

of the child — to devote themselves to his needs; and the time of preparation for life, when the child is an individual adult is not to have the only say as to what those needs thinking most largely of his own well-being, and uncon

ought to be, but he is to accept them as he finds them in sciously devoting most of his energies to the accomplish

the interests of the child. My thought is, then, that up to ment of his own immediate purposes. At adolescence, the

the period of adolescence the child must be indulged at second birth, this supreme interest in self gives way to a

least in a measure in his selfish propensities. The word broader interest in others, and the child is then ready to

selfish is not a happy one in this connection, however, for live a community life, to become an integral part of a larger

it suggests to the mind something worthy of blame; but whole. During adolescence and after, the individual may

the interest of the child in his own well-being is certainly be led with comparative ease and graciousness to sacrifice

not thus censurable. He comes by it as the most secure his own ambitions and pleasures when they conflict with the

and sacred gift of nature, and no parent or teacher can rightful pleasures and ambitions of his own fellows: but suppress or ignore it without doing violence to the child's before this period it is more difficult for him to make sacri

normal, all-round development. fices, and he cannot clearly comprehend why he should.

In concrete instances that arise in the child's intercourse He does not readily discern why others should have rights cannot realize his own desires if by so doing he brings pain

with his playmates, he must indeed be guided to see that he which prevent him from realizing his own desires.

or sorrow or affliction of any kind upon others. He must Unselfish Conduct not the Same as Speculating About

form habits of thus respecting the rights of those with

whom he comes into immediate contact; but it is to be Unselfishness

questioned if the various lessons and discourses upon unselMost people would say that whether a child be naturally

fishness which find a place in many school-rooms are suited selfish or not up to the period of adolescence, he should

to the age of the pupils to whom they are frequently given. nevertheless be trained, or, more emphatic still, should be

There is danger in the teacher's trying to enforce her idea compelled to be unselfish. The underlying philosophy of it; for over-hasty growth leads only to arrested develop

of unselfishness upon the child who is not at all ready for should be guided to think more of others than of himself,

ment, and finally to degeneration. or at least to regard their welfare as highly as his own; and

Children's Interests Center about Things of the Present within recent years considerable of our teaching in the primary grades has aimed directly and explicitly to cultivate I wish to refer in this connection to the immediateness of the various virtues of unselfishness. While doubtless much children's interests — to their wanting what they want right of this is to be commended, in so far as it relates to the here and now. It would be well for us all to consider in scrupulous observance by each pupil of certain modes of our dealings with children that their hopes and desires conduct which are necessary for the welfare of the entire always center round some object or end immediately attainschool, still there is danger of carrying it too far when the able. It is a psychological impossibility for a child in the teacher seeks constantly to lead the child as a matter of primary school to set for himself an end in the distant education or discipline to make unselfish judgments upon future which shall determine his present conduct. The questions which are not directly of concern to him in his child's foresight is exceeding short; his experiences have daily, concrete relations to his companions. There are not yet given him the idea of a future in which what is harthose who apparently see no good in the inborn and there- vested will depend upon what is sown to-day. So that when fore deep-seated instinct of childhood to keep its own well- teachers and parents ask a boy of five or six whether he being uppermost in mind and heart at first, and I believe wishes to become a good man, and if so, if he should not that much time is wasted and injury done ofttimes by such deport himself differently now, they can expect very little persons in trying to coerce a wee child into regret for many permanent reformation in his behavior. A thing so uncerof the apparently selfish acts and thoughts of his daily life, tain and hazy can have no restraining influence in the face and by endeavoring to instruct him in altruism as of present interests; and besides, a desire to be a good man abstract virtue.

must be a very shallow emotion in the child's heart. I must not be understood to mean that I think the child We forget that a child has childish conceptions and should be allowed to be wholly selfish in all his conduct. wishes; and while a man might desire to be a noble man, a I would on the contrary insist that he acquire habits of babe cannot wish it. It is merely to please the teacher that respecting the plain rights of others with whom he comes the child will declare his interest in such a thing. We must in daily contact; but I would not think it wise to go much rather reach him through his present enthusiasms, through

an

at the Drama

the sea.

those that are vivid in his life and that appeal to him are wide apart in excellence, it is true of both that their day immediately. Only injury can be done by constantly refer- is past when the audience and the actors who called them ring to those larger and more comprehensive interests, such into being are gone. as being a good man or woman, which the child may begin

The Remnants Left Us to think seriously about after he passes adolescence, but not before. It is a case again of the adult dealing with the A few plays have come down to the modern stage from child from the adult standpoint; time and energy must the past, like Sheridan's “The Rivals " and Goldsmith's always be uselessly spent, if nothing worse is done by pur- “She Stoops to Conquer," and now and then some manager suing any such course.

with a fine taste and a worthy company revives some still (Concluded in February No.)

obscurer old English comedy. But for the most part we depend on the modern for our dramatic supply, and even Shakespeare is played less often than some of us could

wish. A Glance at the

V

So it comes that what we have of real dramatic literature

is of slender volume, if great in kind. We must make the ANNIE W. SANBORN

most of it, for it gives us something that we get nowhere HERE to begin, in reading from the great drama- else. In the old days the drama played an important part tists, is not a stupendous question - there are in public life and education, and we get at the heart of the

of them. The proportion of readable people, in a measure, through it. Nowadays, it expresses

plays to the bulk of literature is astonishingly rather than moulds life. The best dramas that have been small. When we begin to recall them, those of Shakespeare written in the last ten years have our nineteenth century rise conspicuously if not exclusively to the mind. Then we stamp upon them, so that instead of teaching us, they fit name Racine and Moliere, Goldsmith and Sheridan, and, themselves to our mood. But the dramas that have surthinking farther back, Æschylus and Sophocles and Eurip- vived the fashions and the actors for which they were ides. And we are further reminded, returning to our own produced and even the governments that witnessed their period, that Browning and Tennyson wrote readable, if production, have something instructive for us as well. unactable plays and that Ibsen is still writing them. But The Greek drama is such a survival, and it is only as we come back, at the end, to Shakespeare, who represents literature that you and I are likely to know it — unless we real drama to us as no one else ever can or ever will.

are fortunate enough to witness one of the occasional proIt seems strange, does it not, that although so few poets ductions of a Greek play by college students. Even then have made themselves immortal in drama, the greatest of we shall not have the wonderful setting — the great unroofed them all should have found that medium so fitted to his circular theatre, with its carven stone seats, the central wants ? Yet there is reason for the fact that so few plays stage, the blue sky above, the fresh wind and the sound of have survived, as literature, to our day. The dramatist, if

Nothing in a comparison of Greek with modern he writes for a living, has to make his appeal through the life presents a more striking contrast than this of the amphifads and fashions of the day. Men and women who write theatre, as we mentally place it beside our heated, scented, comedy and melodrama must strike a current and popular garish modern pleasure-house. It is as sharp and as typical note. Else they must have enough of the fire of the gods to in its difference as the Greek girl, with her sandalled feet touch off their audiences and make them there own by sheer and unbound robes is different from the buttoned and force of dramatic power.

corsetted modern woman. This is genius, and when a man has genius, he may write as well as he likes and people will listen to him. Shakes

The Classical Drama peare did this — gave his best to the temporary whim. He is So, for knowledge of the drama as literature, we a most unself-conscious poet,- he had no idea of you and driven to the books themselves, and some brief excursions me as possible audiences. He merely lived and wrote for in this direction are worth while, even if we do not take the people of his own time, three hundred years ago. But them very seriously. Do you read Greek?

Then I say his contemporaries did the same thing, and how they have nothing to you of Æschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, for dwindled ! Shakespeare is of our time as well as of his you are wiser concerning them than I. But if they are own. But Marlowe we know as he of the “ mighty line ; still but names to you, try following through them the Beanmont and Fletcher and “rare Ben Johnson” are little tragic story of Iphigenia, the Greek girl vowed by her father more than names to us. In fact, unless the playwright have to a premature death. Each of the three used the story as the mysterious gifts of the gods, he must live with his public the subject of a play.

the subject of a play. In the “ Electra" of Sophocles, the and die with it. He must produce an “Old Homestead” “Iphigenia in Tauris " and “Iphigenia in Aulis” of Euripor a “ Hazel Kirke" that will run phenomenally and draw ides, and the

ides, and the “Agamemnon" of Æschylus, you have the crowds night after night; even then his work is as dead as theme treated in varying and characteristic fashion, while in the dodo when the “ 500 consecutive nights” are over and Racine's “ Iphigenie en Aulide " we find still another vera new favorite claims the crowd that demand to be amused. sion of the story. Of Æschylus and Sophocles the Plumptre

Yet, through all the ages, the principles on which dramatic translations are the best, while Lawton's version of Euripides success rests, have been the same,— common to Æschylus will be found satisfactory. and Shakespeare and Sheridan. The successful playwright A rhymed version of Racine has been made by R. E. of any age, whether he be a Shakespeare or a Boucicault, Boswell, but if you have a moderate knowledge of French, aims to challenge the close attention of his auditor from the

Iphigenie en Aulide " far more interesting in first. Whether he goes farther and fires the imagination, the original. Although Racine, as I have said, does not inspires the will and thrills the heart, depends on what stuff follow his classical model very closely in motive, he has the he is made of. The majority choose to startle and amuse, distinction of being the most successful of the brilliant regardless of the final effect on their hearers. Here and school of French dramatists who attempted a revival of the there we find the man of great artistic purposes like Wagner, Greek drama. who was a musical dramatist, or Browning, whose plays are For accompanying readings the most recent critics fail to full of life and thought and action.

make themselves more interesting than Schlegel, who wrote For one Wagner and one Browning, h wever, in the uni- his “ Lectures on Dramatic art and Literature" nearly a verse, we have a horde of playwrights if all gradations from century ago and whose attitude towards the Greek drama is Sardou, with his " Cleopatra” and “ Theodora” down to still wonderfully true and his style astonishingly vivid. Prof. Hoyt and his “ Parlor Match.” Now it will never occur to Moulton's “The Ancient Classical Drama " is an excellent the reader of this or any future period, to buy a copy of prelude to the reading of the Greeks, giving an exhaustive “ Theodora” or “A Parlor Match” for home reading. analysis and interpreting to the modern reader their techThey were made for immediate consumption — manufac- nique and detail. If you should decide on the Iphigenia plan, tured to order for the trade, as it were, and although they there is a pleasant little essay by Prof. Woodward in the

are

you will find

Children's Love of Self and Other further with young children in discussing abstract justice or

unselfishness, because there is not the basis of great conInterests

cern about the welfare of others in general upon which to build. There will come a time when the pupil may be

safely led to adjust himself in an unselfish way to all the Prof. M. V. OʻSHA University of Wisconsin Madison life about him, and there is no need of striving to unduly

hasten this with children. Nature plainly advises us to NSTRUCTION must be based first, last, and all the allow the child to develop for a period as an individual; let time upon the capabilities and interests of the one him have his day planning for himself and endeavoring to to be instructed. One of the earliest and most im

realize his own ambitions when they do not directly antagoportant duties of the instructor, then, is to discover, nize with those of others, and when he has become strong if possible, what are the best instincts or interests (for as an individual, he may be made all the stronger as an these two words refer in the main to the same things) unselfish member of society. of pupils at various stages of their development, as well as to ascertain something of their capacities for the mental

“Children Should be Seen, not Heard” (!) foods he proposes to offer. I desire now to discuss briefly some instincts which one should take account of in all his his tenderest years to surrender his individuality to that of

Parents and teachers alike feel that the child ought from teaching, as well in respect of the materials of instruction as of the methods of their presentation and the general his superiors. Because a child is a wee bit of a thing with arrangement of class-room exercises.

playful ways is considered to have no rights which he To begin with, a young child is always most vitally inter

should be permitted to assert against those of the adult ested in everything that has to do with the promotion of his Consequently we see efforts about us all the time on the

who is so much bigger and who must take life so seriously. own welfare and that of those who are near and dear to him. We have here an instinct implanted deeper by nature

part of parents and teachers to make children ever obedient in the child's being than perhaps any other. The round of

to authority for its own sake, no matter how much that may life is appropriately divided into several cycles, each with its antagonize their native impulses. But nature again indipredominant interests and purposes. The first cycle, lasting cates that the parent and the teacher exist for the well-being to puberty (or to twelve or thirteen years of age), is the of the child — to devote themselves to his needs; and the time of preparation for life, when the child is an individual adult is not to have the only say as to what those needs thinking most largely of his own well-being, and uncon

ought to be, but he is to accept them as he finds them in sciously devoting most of his energies to the accomplish

the interests of the child. My thought is, then, that up to ment of his own immediate purposes. At adolescence, the

the period of adolescence the child must be indulged at second birth, this supreme interest in self gives way to a

least in a measure in his selfish propensities. The word broader interest in others, and the child is then ready to

selfish is not a happy one in this connection, however, for live a community life, to become an integral part of a larger the interest of the child in his own well-being is certainly

it suggests to the mind something worthy of blame; but whole. During adolescence and after, the individual may be led with comparative ease and graciousness to sacrifice

not thus censurable. He comes by it as the most secure his own ambitions and pleasures when they conflict with the

and sacred gift of nature, and no parent or teacher can rightful pleasures and ambitions of his own fellows; but suppress or ignore it without doing violence to the child's before this period it is more difficult for him to make sacri

normal, all-round development.

In concrete instances that arise in the child's intercourse fices, and he cannot clearly comprehend why he should. He does not readily discern why others should have rights cannot realize his own desires if by so doing he brings pain

with his playmates, he must indeed be guided to see that he which prevent him from realizing his own desires.

or sorrow or affliction of any kind upon others. He must Unselfish Conduct not the Same as Speculating About

form habits of thus respecting the rights of those with

whom he comes into immediate contact; but it is to be Unselfishness

questioned if the various lessons and discourses upon unselMost people would say that whether a child be naturally

fishness which find a place in many school-rooms are suited selfish or not up to the period of adolescence, he should

to the age of the pupils to whom they are frequently given. nevertheless be trained, or, more emphatic still, should be

There is danger in the teacher's trying to enforce her idea compelled to be unselfish. The underlying philosophy of

of unselfishness upon the child who is not at all ready for the kindergarten declares that the young child may and it; for over-hasty growth leads only to arrested developshould be guided to think more of others than of himself, ment, and finally to degeneration. or at least to regard their welfare as highly as his own; and

Children's Interests Center about Things of the Present within recent years considerable of our teaching in the primary grades has aimed directly and explicitly to cultivate I wish to refer in this connection to the immediateness of the various virtues of unselfishness. While doubtless much children's interests — to their wanting what they want right of this is to be commended, in so far as it relates to the here and now. It would be well for us all to consider in scrupulous observance by each pupil of certain modes of our dealings with children that their hopes and desires conduct which are necessary for the welfare of the entire always center round some object or end immediately attainschool, still there is danger of carrying it too far when the able. It is a psychological impossibility for a child in the teacher seeks constantly to lead the child as a matter of primary school to set for himself an end in the distant education or discipline to make unselfish judgments upon future which shall determine his present conduct. The questions which are not directly of concern to him in his child's foresight is exceeding short; his experiences have daily, concrete relations to his companions. There are not yet given him the idea of a future in which what is harthose who apparently see no good in the inborn and there- vested will depend upon what is sown to-day. So that when fore deep-seated instinct of childhood to keep its own well- teachers and parents ask a boy of five or six whether he being uppermost in mind and heart at first; and I believe wishes to become a good man, and if so, if he should not that much time is wasted and injury done ofttimes by such deport himself differently now, they can expect very little persons in trying to coerce a wee child into regret for many permanent reformation in his behavior. A thing so uncerof the apparently selfish acts and thoughts of his daily life, tain and hazy can have no restraining influence in the face and by endeavoring to instruct him in altruism as of present interests; and besides, a desire to be a good man abstract virtue.

must be a very shallow emotion in the child's heart. I must not be understood to mean that I think the child We forget that a child has childish conceptions and should be allowed to be wholly selfish in all his conduct. wishes; and while a man might desire to be a noble man, a I would on the contrary insist that he acquire habits of babe cannot wish it. It is merely to please the teacher that respecting the plain rights of others with whom he comes the child will declare his interest in such a thing. We must in daily contact; but I would not think it wise to go much rather reach him through his present enthusiasms, through

an

W

those that are vivid in his life and that appeal to him are wide apart in excellence, it is true of both that their day immediately. Only injury can be done by constantly refer- is past when the audience and the actors who called them ring to those larger and more comprehensive interests, such into being are gone. as being a good man or woman, which the child may begin to think seriously about after he passes adolescence, but not

The Remnants Left Us before. It is a case again of the adult dealing with the A few plays have come down to the modern stage from child from the adult standpoint; time and energy must the past, like Sheridan's “The Rivals and Goldsmith's always be uselessly spent, if nothing worse is done by pur- “She Stoops to Conquer,” and now and then some manager suing any such course.

with a fine taste and a worthy company revives some still (Concluded in February No.)

obscurer old English comedy. But for the most part we depend on the modern for our dramatic supply, and even Shakespeare is played less often than some of us could

wish. A Glance at the Drama V

So it comes that what we have of real dramatic literature

is of slender volume, if great in kind. We must make the ANNIE W. SANBORN

most of it, for it gives us something that we get nowhere HERE to begin, in reading from the great drama- else. In the old days the drama played an important part

tists, is not a stupendous question there are in public life and education, and we get at the heart of the so few of them. The proportion of readable people, in a measure, through it. Nowadays, it expresses

plays to the bulk of literature is astonishingly rather than moulds life. The best dramas that have been small. When we begin to recall them, those of Shakespeare written in the last ten years have our nineteenth century rise conspicuously if not exclusively to the mind. Then we stamp upon them, so that instead of teaching us, they fit name Racine and Moliere, Goldsmith and Sheridan, and, themselves to our mood. But the dramas that have surthinking farther back, Æschylus and Sophocles and Eurip- vived the fashions and the actors for which they were ides. And we are further reminded, returning to our own produced and even the governments that witnessed their period, that Browning and Tennyson wrote readable, if production, have something instructive for us as well. unactable plays and that Ibsen is still writing them. But The Greek drama is such a survival, and it is only as we come back, at the end, to Shakespeare, who represents literature that you and I are likely to know it — unless we real drama to us as no one else ever can or ever will.

are fortunate enough to witness one of the occasional proIt seems strange, does it not, that although so few poets ductions of a Greek play by college students. Even then have made themselves immortal in drama, the greatest of we shall not have the wonderful setting — the great unroofed them all should have found that medium so fitted to his circular theatre, with its carven stone seats, the central wants ? Yet there is reason for the fact that so few plays stage, the blue sky above, the fresh wind and the sound of have survived, as literature, to our day. The dramatist, if the sea. Nothing in a comparison of Greek with modern he writes for a living, has to make his appeal through the life presents a more striking contrast than this of the amphifads and fashions of the day. Men and women who write theatre, as we mentally place it beside our heated, scented, comedy and melodrama must strike a current and popular garish modern pleasure-house. It is as sharp and as typical note. Else they must have enough of the fire of the gods to in its difference as the Greek girl, with her sandalled feet touch off their audiences and make them there own by sheer and unbound robes is different from the buttoned and force of dramatic power.

corsetted modern woman. This is genius, and when a man has genius, he may write

Shakesas well as he likes and people will listen to him.

The Classical Drama peare did this

- gave his best to the temporary whim. He is So, for knowledge of the drama as literature, we a most unself-conscious poet,- he had no idea of you and driven to the books themselves, and some brief excursions me as possible audiences. He merely lived and wrote for in this direction are worth while, even if we do not take the people of his own time, three hundred years ago. But them very seriously. Do you read Greek? his contemporaries did the same thing, and how they have nothing to you of Æschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, for dwindled ! Shakespeare is of our time as well as of his you are wiser concerning them than I. But if they are own. But Marlowe we know as he of the “mighty line ; " still but names to you, try following through them the Beanmont and Fletcher and “rare Ben Johnson " are little tragic story of Iphigenia, the Greek girl vowed by her father more than names to us. In fact, unless the playwright have to a premature death. Each of the three used the story as the mysterious gifts of the gods, he must live with his public the subject of a play. In the “ Electra” of Sophocles, the and die with it. He must produce an “Old Homestead” “Iphigenia in Tauris " and " Iphigenia in Aulis” of Euripor a “ Hazel Kirke” that will run phenomenally and draw ides, and the “Agamemnon ” of Æschylus, you have the crowds night after night; even then his work is as dead as theme treated in varying and characteristic fashion, while in the dodo when the “ 500 consecutive nights” are over and Racine's “ Iphigenie en Aulide " we find still another vera new favorite claims the crowd that demand to be amused. sion of the story. Of Æschylus and Sophocles the Plumptre

Yet, through all the ages, the principles on which dramatic translations are the best, while Lawton's version of Euripides success rests, have been the same,— common to Æschylus will be found satisfactory. and Shakespeare and Sheridan. The successful playwright A rhymed version of Racine has been made by R. E. of any age, whether he be a Shakespeare or a Boucicault, Boswell, but if you have a moderate knowledge of French, aims to challenge the close attention of his auditor from the you will find " Iphigenie en Aulide " far more interesting in first.

Whether he goes farther and fires the imagination, the original. Although Racine, as I have said, does not inspires the will and thrills the heart, depends on what stuff follow his classical model very closely in motive, he has the he is made of. The majority choose to startle and amuse, distinction of being the most successful of the brilliant regardless of the final effect on their hearers. Here and school of French dramatists who attempted a revival of the there we find the man of great artistic purposes like Wagner, Greek drama. who was a musical dramatist, or Browning, whose plays are For accompanying readings the most recent critics fail to full of life and thought and action.

make themselves more interesting than Schlegel, who wrote For one Wagner and one Browning, h wever, in the uni- his “ Lectures on Dramatic art and Literature” nearly a verse, we have a horde of playwrights if all gradations from century ago and whose attitude towards the Greek drama is Sardou, with his “ Cleopatra” and “ Theodora” down to still wonderfully true and his style astonishingly vivid. Prof. Hoyt and his “ Parlor Match.” Now it will never occur to Moulton's “The Ancient Classical Drama” is an excellent the reader of this or any future period, to buy a copy of prelude to the reading of the Greeks, giving an exhaustive “ Theodora” or “A Parlor Match” for home reading analysis and interpreting to the modern reader their techThey were made for immediate consumption manufac- nique and detail. If you should decide on the Iphigenia plan, tured to order for the trade, as it were, and although they there is a pleasant little essay by Prof. Woodward in the

are

Then I say

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