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stantinople. From the time of Alci- Of its eight-and-twenty gates, the biades to that of Mohammed II., it most celebrated is the Aurea, or goldhas undergone four-and-twenty sieges; en gate, through which the emperor the first and the last, with those of were accustomed to make their triSeverus, Constantine, Dandolo, and umphal entry ; it was constructed for Michael Palæologus, were, however, this especial purpose by Theodosius the only occasions on which the as- the younger, upon his return from desailants were not repulsed.

feating Maximius the tyrant.

THE SPANISH EXILE'S ADIEU TO HIS COUNTRY.

FAREWELL to thee, land of my father, fare. The lines in my early life traced! well!

Nor bear in my exile the pangs of regret I quit thee, loved land of my birth! For pleasures and ties I may never forget. Not vainly the records of hist'ry shall tell Thou stoodst, midst the realms of the But desolate now are our hearths, and the earth,

foe Unrivallid in beauty, unrivallid in fame, Hath ravaged the land like a flood; Till now—when unrivall’d, alas! is 'thy Our corn-fields and vineyards lie trampled shame.

and low,

The olive is stained with our blood; No more of thy freedom thy children shall And, fainting and feeble, in sorrow we vaunt;

roam, No more make thy glories their pride; The land of our birth-place no longer our In slavery sunk, thou shalt serve as a taunt

home. To those whom thou once didst deride. Misled by thy priests, by thy nobles betray'd, We wander afar o'er the dark-rolling ware, The foe doth but rivet the chains they have The land of the stranger to gain ; made.

More happy midst freemen to sink to the

grave, I linger a moment to gaze on the spot

Than live, bound by slavery's chain. Where the scenes of my childbood were The exile's brief struggles with life shall placed :

be o'er, Oh, would that from memory's page I could And the hand of the tyrant oppress him no blot

more.

CELESTIAL PHENOMENA.

Those wonders in creation—subjects telling us, not merely of the existence of a higher astronomy-systems of of other suns like our own, with each suns, performing their revolutions a splendid retinue of planets, of solar about their common centre of gravity, stars connected together by mutual in vastly extended periods of time- gravitation, but of systems of these, lost stars, those bodies which, after vastly separated in space, yet almost shining for ages, gradually disappear, infinite in the individual suns that and are no longer seen as glittering form the group, and these groups pergems in the diadem of night-new haps infinite in number, and scattered stars, or such as suddenly appear with boundless profusion over the vast where no stars were before observed, concavity of the heavens, while the justifying the suspicion, that these lat- whole of each starry system is probably, ter are new creations which have com- revolving about some distant, stupenmenced their measured circling way, dous, and unspeakably resplendent, till the appointed period arrives for glorious centre ;-these carry the mind them to be commanded back to the beyond the movements of this lower realms of obscurity—the subject of sphere, this remote province of the uni Nebulæ, a still higher step in this verse, to expatiate on the loftier pinwondrous scale of progression, dimly nacles of the higher heavens. Nebulæ may be generally divided into two kinds; ty. One most striking peculiarity is one, a combination of innumerable observed relative to these stars, that stars, which, from their distance, have the nebulous matter seems to recede the appearance of a faint cloud,-a dis- from them, so as to leave a dark space tance so remote, as to leave the most between it and their brilliant points, powerful mind faltering in endeavoring as though the stars were either repelto acquire an adequate conception of ling the nebulous matter or absorbing it: the other, probably not so remote, it. This is particularly the case with though inconceivably beyond our sys- those that form the trapezium: a simitem of fixed stars, composed of a lumi- lar appearance may be observed in nous matter, of the nature and destiny Sagittarius,-a nebula is broken into of which but a very faint idea is fur- three parts, forming dark roads through nished for conjecture. The most re- the luminous matter, leading to a cenmarkable of this kind is that in the tre in which is situated a beautiful sword-handle of Orion; its irregularity double star. On one of the sides of of form suggests a resemblance to the the dark openings before referred to, head of a monstrous animal, with two in the nebula of Orion, are filaments horns of unequal lengths, making a or fibres of light, which appear as if considerable angle with each other, extending themselves to the opposite the lower one having an easterly di- side; and on the sides of the head, in rection; an unequal brilliancy occurs the direction of the northern horn, are throughout, as though one part was faint streams of light, not unlike the formed of accumulated luminous mat- tails of comets : closely adjoining to ter, assuming in some places the ap- this nebula are several smaller. The pearance of solidity. Those parts which whole sky for several degrees around mark the outline of the mouth and eye this constellation is not free from these of the fancied animal may be better appearances ; two, close together, one described by comparing them to deep of a spindle, the other of a circular indented bays, nearly of a quadrangu- form; in the centre of the latter is a lar figure, well defined, and by its small star : a small nebula, at the enbrightness giving an intensity to the trance of one of the dark openings, darkness of the sky that it surrounds, appears as if drawing together into a which, in these openings (probably by star. contrast), appears of an unusual black - This is but an imperfect description ness. The brightest part has by no of the present appearance of this magmeans a uniform aspect, but exhibits nificent phenomenon, as recently seen an unevenness not unlike fleecy clouds by Herschel's 20 feet reflecting telesof a scirrhous or mottled appearance, cope. There is every reason to beas if undergoing some change of sepa- lieve that it has undergone consideraration. This bright region in some able changes since it was first observdirections is abruptly terminated, and ed by Huygens, in 1656. A careful beyond it is seen a fainter region of comparison of the descriptions and nebulosity, while other parts gradual- drawings of various astronomers seems ly fade into that which is more dilut- to indicate that the bright part of the ed, till it subsides in the gloom of the nebula once extended over a larger neighboring sky.

space, and that it is gradually receding In these regions are several minute towards the stars that form the trapestars, one cluster of four, on the bright zium : similar changes are suspected in part, of different colors, arranged in other nebulæ : in some instances smallthe form of a trapezium ; five others er ones are formed by the decompoin the fainter part of the nebula, in sition of larger. These mysterious the direction of the southern horn; luminous masses of matter may be other stars are scattered in and near termed the laboratories of the universe, the nebula, some of which are sur- in which are contained the principles rounded with the same milky luminosi- of future systems of suns, planets, satellites, and other tributary bodies ; – galaxy, (to which belong several stars these elements not in awful stagna- of the first, second, and other magnition, but through the whole one Spirit tudes,) the cluster in which our sun incessantly operating with sublime, is placed, if viewed from the bright unerring energy,-a process going on nebula in the hand of Perseus, would which illimitably extends the fields of probably appear as an assemblage of conjecture, as it slowly urges its aw- telescopic stars, ranged behind each ful way through this boundless range other in boundless perspective. Were —these mighty movements and vast we to pursue our flight to that in the operations. How stupendous the girdle of Andromeda, * it would dimiconsideration! Suns so immeasura- nish to a milky nebulosity; and, still bly distant, that the light of those further to extend our ideal fight, we which are supposed to be contiguous, should indistinctly perceive it as dimly is three years in traversing the space revealed,-its light being nearly blendthat separates them; yet these con- ed with the surrounding gloom, like nected with each other, and innume- those uncertain apparitions, which are rable others, on the simple principle only occasionally seen in the field of of gravitation, these stars, so nume- view of a powerful telescope, when rous, that in the small compass of half the air is refined and serene. How · a degree, a greater number has been grand is the consideration of the plediscovered by the telescope, than the nitude of space !--no awful void, no naked eye can discern in the whole dread vacancy, no dreary solitude : vault of heaven; and yet there is incessant streams of light, from myriground for the belief that the whole ads of systems, intersecting each other of these millions and millions of stars in every direction, and bearing to the Would melt into a soft tint of light, if boundless realms of creation evidences supposed to be contemplated from of creative power, benevolent design, some remote point of space. The and universal dominion.

VARIETIES.

« Come, let us stray Where Chance or Fancy leads our roving walk.”

LORD BYRON.

bared and blackened in the very Lord Byron's merits and defects, wrath of Nature. as a poet, have been largely attributed Like all men of rank, he had tempto the personal temperament that ac- tations to contend with, that severely counts for, and palliates, his personal try man. Fortune, flattering compacareer. The constitutional irritabili- nionship, and foreign life, were his naty which embittered his days, proba- tural perils; and we can only lament bly gave birth to the pride, sternness, that, when a few years more might and misanthropy of his style, its love have given him back to his country of the darker passions, and its sullen with his fine faculties devoted to her and angry views of human life. But service, and cheered by true views of the error was often nobly redeemed human life, his career was closed. by the outbreak of a noble mind, by His moral system as a poet is founded touches of the finest feeling ; flashes on the double error, that great crimss of sunshine through the gloom; vistas imply great qualities; and that virtue of the rosiest beauty, through a mental is a slavery. Both maxims palpably wilderness that seemed to have been untrue; for crime is so much within

* The nebula in Andromeda is visible to the unassisted eye, and has very much the appest. ance of a comel, for which there is reason to believe it has recently been mistaken.

human means, that the most stupen- are well calculated to excite our asdous crime may be committed by the tonishment. But if you are thus most abject of human beings. And struck and surprised at the scene common experience shows, that to be when viewed from the cliff above, how superior to our habits and passions is much greater will be your wonder if the only true freedom ; while the man you descend to the surface of the of the wildest license is only so much mine. You will then behold a combithe more fettered and bowed down. nation of the powers of Art, with the But on the grave of Byron there can wild sublimity of Nature, which is be but one inscription—that living long quite unparalleled ; the effects of the enough for fame, he died too soon for whole being not a little heightened by his country. All hostility should be the hollow roar of the raging billows, sacrificed on the spot where the re- which are perpetually lashing the cliff mains of the great poet sleep; and no beneath. In looking up, you will obman worthy to tread the ground will serve troops of mules laden with sacks approach it but with homage for his of coals, for the supply of the engine, genius, and sorrow that such genius with their undaunted riders, fearlessly should have been sent to darkness, in trotting down the winding path which the hour when it might have begun to you trembled at descending even on fulfil its course, and, freed from the foot. As you approach the engine, mists and obliquities of its rising, run the cliff becomes almost perpendicular, its high career among the enlighteners and the ore raised from the mine is of mankind.

therefore drawn up over an inclined DREAMS.

plane, by means of a horse-engine The exercise of the soul in sleep placed on the extreme verge of the may be aptly compared to a musician overhanging rocks above, and which who is 80 fond of his art that he seems to the spectator below as if suschooses rather to play on his lute pended in “ mid air.” The workings though half untuned, and at the incon- of this mine extend at least seventy Tenience of making false music, than fathoms in length under the bed of the to suffer his fingers to become stiff by sea ; and in these caverns of darkness disuse.

are many human beings, for a small THE CROWN ENGINE OF BOTALLACK. pittance, and even that of a precarious

This is undoubtedly one of the most amount, constantly digging for ore, extraordinary and surprising places in regardless of the horrors which surthe mining districts of Cornwall, whe- round thein, and of the roar of the ther considered for the rare and rich Atlantic Ocean, whose boisterous assemblage of its minerals, or for the waves are incessantly rolling over wild and stupendous character of its their heads. We should feel pity for rock scenery. Surely, if ever a spot the wretch who, as an atonement for seemed to bid defiance to the success- his crimes, should be compelled to ful efforts of the miner, it was the site undergo the task which the Cornish of the Crown Engine at Botallack, miner voluntarily undertakes, and as where, at the very commencement of cheerfully performs ; yet such is the his subterranean labors, be was requir- force of habit, that very rarely does ed to lower a steam-engine down a any other employment tempt him to precipice of more than two hundred forsake his own: the perils of his feet, with the view of extending his occupation are scarcely noticed, or if operations under the bed of the At- noticed are soon forgotten. lantic orean! There is something in the very idea which alarms the imagi MARCH OF IMPROVEMENT. nation ; and the situation and appear- The Academic Society of Metz are ance of the gigantic machine, together forming a library of the books that with the harsh jarring of its bolts, re- treat of mechanics, agriculture, and echoed from the surrounding rocks, general industry, which are to be lent

SERVANTS.

out to the workmen of that city. Si- 3321. while the assets on the same acmilar institutions are forming in count are 23,552,6081. creating a balFrance."

lance in their favor of 21,956,2761. ANCIENT VALUE OF BOOKs. It should be observed that among the We have it from good authority, commercial debts of the company are that about A.D. 1215, the Countess placed the interest due on their stock of Anjou paid two hundred sheep, five and on the bond debt. The amount quarters of wheat, and the same of the Company's bonds then in circuquantity of rye, for a volume of ser- lation, and bearing interest at four per mons-so scarce and dear were books cent. was 3,780,4751. ; the bonds in at that time ; and although the coun- circulation not bearing interest was tess might in this case have possibly 15,4171. The total balance in favor been imposed upon, we have it, on of the Company was 7,900,0881. Mr. Gibbon's authority, that the value of manuscript copies of the Bible, for HOW TO CURE THE SMALLPOX. the use of the monks and clergy, com- In Abyssinia, where this dreadful monly was from four to five hundred disease is supposed to have originated, crowns at Paris, which, according to when any person is seized with it, the the relative value of money at that neighbors surround the house and set time and now in our days, could not, fire to it, and consume it with its miat the most moderate calculation, be serable inhabitants. less than as many pounds sterling at the present day.

The King of Oude has employed all the most celebrated Moonshees in col

lecting together ancient and rare orienA fund has been established at tal manuscripts, for immediate publiStockholm, for the reward of servants cation in the original languages. who have distinguished themselves by virtue and fidelity. The King has

IRELAND. subscribed 1000 crowns, the Prince Dividing the population of Ireland Royal 500, and the Princess Royal into four grand classes, with respect 300. Would an institution of this na- to age, the last census presents to our ture in other cities be attended by view the following lamentable picture beneficial effects ?

of the state of a country abounding

with every means of industry, and EXVY

with able and willing hands to cultiIn a Polish fable entitled “ the Mi- vate it, in the most civilized period of ser and the Envious Man,” the latter the world :-Infants of 5 years and is represented as obtaining from the under, 1,040,666—one half, at least, gods the favor of being allowed to badly clothed and fed. Children, lose one eye, in order that he may, at from 5 to 15, 1,748,603—1,300,000 the same time, deprive the former of destitute of education. Operatives, the only eye he had left!

from 15 to 70, 3,931,660–1,094,815

destitute of employment. Aged, from EAST INDIA COMPANY'S FINANCES. 70 to 100, 81,191-a great portion of

By the last annual account of the whom are paupers. What claims for financial affairs of the East India Com- employment! What claims for edupany, laid before Parliament, and made cation ! not to speak of the claims of up to the 28th of May last, it appears the aged and others, totally helpless, that the territorial and political debts as to their own exertions, or any that of the Company amounted to 12,019,- their kindred (even where they may 6571, while the assets on the same have kindred) can make for them. branch amounted only to 1,759,3611. Something has been done in the way leaving a deficiency of 10,260,2961. of einployment and education; more The commercial debts, however, of is doing : but a thousand times more the corporation are stated at 1,596,- still remains to be done.

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