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tellites, and other tributary bodies ; galaxy, (to which belong several stars these elements not in awful stagna- of the first, second, and other magnition, but through the whole one Spirit tudes,) the cluster in which our sun incessantly operating with sublime, is placed, if viewed from the bright unerring energy, -a process going on nebula in the hand of Perseus, would which illimitably extends the fields of probably appear as an assemblage of conjecture, as it slowly urges its aw telescopic stars, ranged behind each ful way through this boundless range other in boundless perspective. Were -these mighty movements and vast we to pursue our flight to that in the operations. How stupendous the girdle of Andromeda,* it would dimiconsideration! Suns so immeasura- nish to a milky nebulosity; and, still bly distant, that the light of those further to extend our ideal Aight, we which are supposed to be contiguous, should indistinctly perceive it as dimly is three years in traversing the space revealed,-its light being nearly blendthat separates them; yet these con ed with the surrounding gloom, like nected with each other, and innume- those uncertain apparitions, which are rable others, on the simple principle only occasionally seen in the field of of gravitation,—these stars, so nume- view of a powerful telescope, when irous, that in the small compass of half the air is refined and serene. How - a degree, a greater number has been grand is the consideration of the ple- discovered by the telescope, than the nitude of space !-no awful void, 10 naked eye can discern in the whole dread vacancy, no dreary solitude : vault of heaven; and yet there is incessant streams of light, from myriground for the belief that the whole ads of systems, intersecting each other of these millions and millions of stars in every direction, and bearing to the would melt into a soft tint of light, if boundless realms of creation evidences supposed to be contemplated from of creative power, benevolent design, some remole point of space. The and universal dominion.

VARIETIES.

“ Come, let us stray Where Chance or Fancy leads our roving walk.”

career.

LORD BYRON.

bared and blackened in the very Lord Byron's merits and defects, wrath of Nature. as a poet, have been largely attributed Like all men of rank, he had tempto the personal temperament that ac- tations to contend with, that severely counts for, and palliates, his personal try man. Fortune, flattering compa

The constitutional irritabili- nionship, and foreign life, were his naty which embittered his days, proba- tural perils; and we can only lament bly gave birth to the pride, sternness, that, when a few years more might and misanthropy of his style, its love have given him back to his country of the darker passions, and its sullen with his fine faculties devoted to her and angry views of human life. But service, and cheered by true views of the error was often nobly redeemed human life, his career was closed. by the outbreak of a noble mind, by His moral system as a poet is founded touches of the finest feeling ; flashes on the double error, that great crimss of sunshine through the gloom ; vistas imply great qualities ; and that virtue of the rosiest beauty, through a mental is a slavery. Both maxims palpally wilderness that seemed to have been untrue ; for crime is so much within

* The nebula in Andromeda is visible to the unassisted eye, and has very much the appestance of a comei, for which there is reason to believe it has recently been mistaken.

DREAMS.

human means, that the most stupen- are well calculated to excite our asdous crime may be committed by the tonishment. But if you are thus most abject of human beings. And struck and surprised at the scene common experience shows, that to be when viewed froin the cliff above, how superior to our habits and passions is much greater will be your wonder if the only true freedom ; while the man you descend to the surface of the of the wildest license is only so much mine. You will then behold a combithe more fettered and bowed down. nation of the powers of Art, with the But on the grave of Byron there can wild sublimity of Nature, which is be but one inscription—that living long quite unparalleled; the effects of the enough for fame, he died too soon for whole being not a little heightened by his country. All hostility should be the hollow roar of the raging billows, sacrificed on the spot where the re- which are perpetually lashing the cliff mains of the great poet sleep; and no beneath. In looking up, you will obman worthy to tread the ground will serve troops of mules laden with sacks approach it but with homage for his of coals, for the supply of the engine, genius, and sorrow that such genius with their undaunted riders, fearlessly should have been sent to darkness, in trotting down the winding path which the hour when it might have begun to you trembled at descending even on fulfil its course, and, freed from the foot. As you approach the engine, mists and obliquities of its rising, run the cliff becomes almost perpendicular, its high career among the enlighteners and the ore raised from the mine is of mankind.

therefore drawn up over an inclined

plane, by means of a horse-engine The exercise of the soul in sleep placed on the extreme verge of the may be aptly compared to a musician overhanging rocks above, and which who is so fond of his art that he seems to the spectator below as if suschooses rather to play on his lute pended in “mid air.” The workings though half untuned, and at the incon- of this mine extend at least seventy venience of making false music, than fathoms in length under the bed of the to suffer his fingers to become stiff by sea; and in these caverns of darkness disuse.

are many human beings, for a small THE CROWN ENGINE OF BOTALLACK. pittance, and even that of a precarious

This is undoubtedly one of the most amount, constantly digging for ore, extraordinary and surprising places in regardless of the horrors which surthe mining districts of Cornwall, whe- round them, and of the roar of the ther considered for the rare and rich Atlantic ocean, whose boisterous assemblage of its minerals, or for the are incessantly rolling over wild and stupendous character of its their heads. We should feel pity for rock scenery. Surely, if ever a spot the wretch who, as an atonement for seemed to bid defiance to the success- his crimes, should be compelled to ful efforts of the miner, it was the site undergo the task which the Cornish of the Crown Engine at Botallack, miner voluntarily undertakes, and as where, at the very commencement of cheerfully performs ; yet such is the his subterranean labors, be was requir- force of habit, that very rarely does ed to lower a steam-engine down a any other employment tempt him to precipice of more than two hundred forsake his own: the perils of his feet, with the view of extending his occupation are scarcely noticed, or if operations under the bed of the At- noticed are soon forgotten. lantic ocean! There is something in the very idea which alarms the imagination ; and the situation and appear The Academic Society of Metz are ance of the gigantic machine, together forming a library of the books that with the harsh jarring of its bolts, re treat of mechanics, agriculture, and echoed from the surrounding rocks, general industry, which are to be lent

waves

MARCH OF IMPROVEMENT.

are

ANCIENT VALUE OF BOOKS.

SERVANTS.

out to the workmen of that city. Si- 3321. while the assets on the same acmilar institutions forming in count are 23,552,6081. creating a balFrance.

lance in their favor of 21,956,2761.

It should be observed that among the We have it from good authority, commercial debts of the company are that about A.D. 1215, the Countess placed the interest due on their stock of Anjou paid two hundred sheep, five and on the bond debt. The amount quarters of wheat, and the same of the Company's bonds then in circuquantity of rye, for a volume of ser- lation, and bearing interest at four per mons—so scarce and dear were books cent. was 3,730,4751. ; the bonds in at that time ; and although the coun- circulation not bearing interest was tess might in this case have possibly 15,4171. The total balance in favor been imposed upon, we have it, on of the Company was 7,900,0881. Mr. Gibbon's authority, that the value of manuscript copies of the Bible, for HOW TO CURE THE SMALLPOX. the use of the monks and clergy, com In Abyssinia, where this dreadful monly was from four to five hundred disease is supposed to have originated, crowns at Paris, which, according to when any person is seized with it, the the relative value of money at that neighbors surround the house and set time and now in our days, could not, fire to it, and consume it with its miat the most moderate calculation, be serable inhabitants. less than as many pounds sterling at the present day.

The King of Oude has employed all the most celebrated Moonshees in col

lecting together ancient and rare orienA fund has been established at tal manuscripts, for immediate publiStockholm, for the reward of servants cation in the original languages. who have distinguished themselves by virtue and fidelity. The King has subscribed 1000 crowns, the Prince Dividing the population of Ireland Royal 500, and the Princess Royal into four grand classes, with respect 300. Would an institution of this na- to age, the last census presents to our ture in other cities be attended by view the following lamentable picture beneficial effects ?

of the state of a country abounding with every means of industry, and

with able and willing hands to cultiIn a Polish fable entitled “ the Mi- vate it, in the most civilized period of ser and the Envious Man," the latter the world :-Infants of 5 years and is represented as obtaining from the under, 1,040,666—one half, at least, gods the favor of being allowed to badly clothed and fed. Children, lose one eye, in order that he may, at from 5 to 15, 1,748,663—1,300,000 the same time, deprive the former of destitute of education. Operatives, the only eye he had left!

from 15 to 70, 3,931,660—1,094,815

destitute of employment. Aged, from EAST INDIA COMPANY'S FINANCES. 70 to 100, 81,191-a great portion of

By the last annual account of the whom are paupers. What claims for financial affairs of the East India Com- employment! What claims for edupany, laid before Parliament, and made cation! not to speak of the claims of up to the 28th of May last, it appears the aged and others, totally helpless, that the territorial and political debts as to their own exertions, or any that of the Company amounted to 12,019,- their kindred (even where they may 6571. while the assets on the same have kindred) can make for them. branch amounted only to 1,759,3611. Something has been done in the way leaving a deficiency of 10,260,2961. of employment and education; more The commercial debts, however, of is doing : but a thousand times more the corporation are stated at 1,596,- still remains to be done.

IRELAND.

ENVY.

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While Lower Saxony was oppressed and fervent prayers for divine assistand exhausted by the Austrian and ance were succeeded by the sublime Bavarian troops in the Thirty Years' hymns of Luther, while around the War, the circle of Upper Saxony had portrait of the immortal Reformer, been preserved for a considerable pe- large tapers were constantly burning, riod from military outrage by the cau as before the altar of a saint. tious or timid policy of the Elector, One day, while the congregation John George. At length the advance was singing with fervent devotion the of the savage Tilly into his states, in fine hymn, beginning, “ The Lord is consequence of his refusal to recede a tower of strength,” the church door from the treaty of Leipzic; and the was abruptly thrown open, and a dusty successive captures of Merseburgh, courier, in the Electoral uniform, rushNaumberg, and other places of ed into the middle aisle. Immediatestrength, compelled the Saxon princely the organ ceased—the singers were to relinquish his temporizing policy, mute, and every head was turned in and to embrace the proffered alliance anxious anticipation of some momenand protection of Gustavus Adolphus. tous intelligence. The stranger adThis unexpected accession of strength vanced rapidly to the altar, ascended determined the Swedish monarch to the steps, waved his hat thrice above abandon the defensive system he had his head, and exclaimed in tones of for some time pursued, and to advance loud and thrilling energy-" Rejoice, immediately upon Leipzic, which had my dear fellow Christians, rejoice! also opened its gates to the Catholic The brave Lutherans have conquered general. At this dreadful crisis, when the battle of Leipzic is fought and intelligence of the rapid advance of won—7000 Imperialists lie dead on Tilly

had spread consternation the field-Tilly has fled—and the throughout the Electorate, and the great Gustavus Adolphus and his dread of Austrian barbarity overba- army have returned thanks to God lanced the hope of deliverance by Almighty on their knees.” the Swedes, I had been officiating se At this joyful and unexpected intelveral months as curate in the populous ligence every knee was hent, and evevillage of B. in Upper Saxony. The ry lip moved in thanksgiving ; the atrocious cruelty of Tilly at Magde- pealing organ put forth all its volume, burg was still fresh in our recollection, and the assembled villagers concluded and the consternation of the villagers the hymn with streaming eyes and impelled them to seek relief from in- grateful hearts. cessant and devout attendance at About three weeks after this happy church. The bells were tolled hourly, day, I was sitting alone in my humble

41 ATHENEUM, vol. 1, 3d series.

an

apartinent, and contemplating with a thrones of princes totter beneath them, grateful heart the improved condition the sons of nobles, and the minions of and prospects of the great Protesta nt kings and ministers, yield to the force cause, when a stranger entered the of events, and give place to men of room unannounced, and seated him- talent and energy. At the present self opposite to me in silence. His time there are few field-officers in actall person was enveloped in a milita- tive service throughout Germany who ry cloak-his countenance was bronzed have not carried muskets in early with exposure to sun and storm, and life. This rule holds good even in his

eyes and forehead were oversha- the Imperial and other Catholic states, dowed by a dragoon-helmet. I gazed which are preeminently aristocratic. for some tiine upon this mysterious Tilly and Wallenstein, although of nointruder ; but my earnest perusal of ble birth, are sprung from indigence; his features, although it roused some as are also Bucquoy and Dampier. remote reminiscences, led to no satis- Johann von Wert was a peasant; factory conclusion, until arch General Beck, a shepherd; Stahlsinile, which curved his well-formed hantsch, a footman; and Field-Mar. lips, revealed my old friend and fellow shal Aldringer, a valet-de-chambre." student, Seifert. Joyous exclama He now arose, threw open the wintions of Dear Charles ! and Dear dow, and whistled. This signal was Albert! were followed by a cordial soon explained by the entrance of a embrace, and many eager inquiries tall blue-eyed and fair-haired Swede, concerning our respective pilgrimages who covered my deal table with a napsince our separation a few years be- kin of white damask, placed upon it a fore at the university of L. My sur- bottle of wine with two green glasses, prise at this unexpected meeting was and disappeared. Seifert filled two no little increased when my friend bumpers of costly Hochheimer, and threw aside his cloak. At the univer- exclaimed with glowing enthusiasmsity, he was distinguished by the clas- " Long live Gustavus Adolphus !” sic elegance of his tall and slender “ Since I have known this great and person, by fastidious refinement of admirable man, Albert,” he continued, mind and manners, by his temperance, “I have ceased to indulge my fancy diffidence and taciturnity in mixed so- by building models of superhuman exciety, and by his unceasing devotion cellence. My day-dreams are disto study. I now gazed upon a robust solved, and my understanding and afand military figure, whose light yellow fections are occupied by a splendid jacket and polished steel cuirass, an- reality. What has not the heroic nounced the Swedish officer of dra- Gustavus conceived and accomplished! goons. His former diffidence of tone A better man, in every sense of the and manner had vanished for ever, and word, walks not the earth ; nor bas was replaced by a loud voice, an air any soldier, of ancient or modern of military frankness, and an imposing times, made so many discoveries and self-possession, which however became improvements in military science. The him well, and developed advantage- Swedish regiments formerly comprised ously his powerful and well cultivated 3000 men, and were helpless and ununderstanding. I congratulated him wieldy as elephants. By reducing upon his improved appearance, and their numbers to 1200, he has enabled upon the rank he had attained in the them to perform the most comples service of the noble Gustavus. manæuvres with facility, and to more

“ I need not explain to you,” he with the bounding energy of Arabian replied, with the air of a man who is

Four surgeons of approved not ignorant of his own merits, “hy what skill are attached to each regiment process I have become a captain of dra- Before the introduction of this humane goons. When the great drama of Eu- and politic improvement, the wounded ropean politics grows serious, and the

were left groaning on the field of bai

coursers.

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