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were in almost total ignorance re- point of union between them a thickspecting the real nature of the circula- ening is to be seen, called the turbertion, or the mode in which it is per- culum Loweri. Within the auricles formed : for although, perhaps, among bundles of muscular fibres project their writings, passages may be found from the sides. These, from their apparently indicating some acquaint- resemblance to the teeth of a comb, ance with the subject; yet as they are termed musculi pectinati. The have left us no distinct account, and partition between the right and left as their works abound with gross ab- auricle is called the septum aurisurdities respecting it, our conclusions cularum. are certainly warrantable ; especially The right auricle communicates when we consider, at the same time, with the right ventricle by means of how little anatomy was cultivated as a an opening, denominated the ostium science among them.
venosum; at the edges of which, The discovery of the true nature of within the ventricle, are three valves, the circulation is due to Harvey, who or rather a valve divided into three flourished in the 17th century; but parts, called the tricuspid valve, from
since his time, succeeding physiolo- its resemblance to the points of three 4. gists have diligently applied their ta- spears; to the edges of this valve
lents to the subject, (a wide field for small muscular bundles are attached, investigation,) and have added by called carnæ columne, by incans of their labors many new facts to the tendinous chords, (chordæ tendine.) discovery of their immortal predeces. From the right ventricle the pulmonary
artery arises, at the root of which, inVarious and important are the uses ternally, are situated the three semiwhich the circulation of the blood is lunar valves, with a small white body destined to serve :-by its means the at the edge of each, termed corpus various secretions are performed, the sesamoideum. Into the left auricle the growth of the body promoted, and its four pulmonary veins enter. The decay and losses repaired; and be- coats of this auricle are thicker than sides all this, it is, in some mysterious those of the right, otherwise it exhimanner, connected with that inexpli- bits much the same appearances. It cable subject, the animal temperature. opens into the left ventricle, having
We shall in the first place, then, also at the opening a valve, but dividendeavor to give a general sketch of ed only into two parts, called from its the anatomy of the heart, the great likeness to a mitre, valvula mitralis. agent of the circulation ; and then The great difference which the left explain the nature and constituent ventricle exhibits is the superior parts of the blood—the fluid of vi- strength and fleshiness of its walls, tality.
indicating the vigorous action it is The heart is a large hollow muscle, destined to maintain ; emerging froin situated in the chest, between the lungs, it is seen the aorta, or main artery, and enfolded in a bag called the peri- with three semilunar valves internally cardium, the inner lining membrane of at its root. The use of the various which is reflected over the surface of the valves we shall explain when consiheart itself. The heart is divided in- dering the course of the circulation. ternally (we are speaking of man) into Having thus briefly described the four cavities : the right and the left auri- general anatomy of the heart, we cle, and the right and the left ventricle. shall next proceed to examine the Into the right auricle, two veins, call- properties and constituent parts of the ed the vena cavæ, enter ; one bring- blood itself. The blood, when drawn ing the blood from the upper, the from the body, and suffered to remain other from the lower parts of the in any vessel, quickly separates into body. The two veins unite at their two parts,-one a thick yellow fluid, entrance into the auricle, and at the called serum, the other a tenacious
solid mass of a dark red color, termed of nutriment, more florid if exposed crassamentum. The relative propor- to oxygen, and darker if exposed to tions of these vary exceedingly, ac- carbonic acid or hydrogen. The cocording to age, sex, temperament, loring matter has been said to contain mode of life, &c.; yet generally speak- oxide of iron; this, however, later ing, the estimate may be made as ten chemists have disputed, and Dr. of the serum to fourteen of the cras- Wells, in his “ Observations and Essamentum. The serum contains wa- periments on the Color of Blood,” after, albumine, muriate of soda, and ter much investigation, decides against potass, phosphate of soda, animal mat- the theory; indeed, his arguments,
which are too extended to be here inThe crassamentum is divisible into troduced, seem to settle the point at two parts, fibrine, and the coloring once, confirmed as they have been particles of the blood. The compo- by subsequent inquirers—Berzelius, nent parts of fibrine are carbon, oxy- Brande, and Vauquelin. Mr. Brande gen, hydrogen, and azote. When the has even succeeded in dying cloth coloring matter of blood recently with it, but he found considerable drawn is examined with a microscope, difficulty in fixing the color ; the most it is found to consist of globules of effectual mordants he discovered were, extreme minuteness, of a red color, the nitrate and oximuriate of mercury. hut varying from different causes, be- —The specific gravity of the blood is ing paler from illness and deficiency estimated at 1050, water being 1000.
EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM PARIS.
CHATEAU DE LAGRANGE- LAFAYETTE.
In the country, as I told you in my some thirty years back by Mr. Fox, last, all the better society of Paris is give a sort of feudal air to the castle, now buried, and Lagrange, from which which mingles curiously, but not disaI am just returned, since the end of greeably, with the republican associthe session, has been the Chaussée ations attached to the name of its d'Antin, where all the most illustrious owner. The chateau is surrounded by men in the Chambers, or in literature, a fine park, which is stocked in a manhave by turns rusticated. There is no ner that would not harmonise with want of strangers either; and, as you your English notions. Instead of would expect, the Americans especial- slight, graceful, aristocratical deer, ly are to be seen there in multitudes. nothing but the tiers état of the animal The last very conspicuous English creation, blebeian cows, and more visitor there, was Sir Francis Burdett, plebeian sheep, are to be seen grazing who has been exerting his eloquence within its precincts. For these last in favor of the droit d'ainesse ; from animals, the General has a great afwhich, exclaimed his distinguished fection. He superintends their eduhost, “Thank God! the revolution cation in person, and exhibits a most has delivered us!”
philomelical zeal in improving the The chateau is delightfully situated. breed. The English friend who was It is about thirteen leagues from Pa- with me had never seen Lafayette. ris, and the road is through the rich He was wonderfully struck with his plains of the ancient province of Brie. venerable appearance, and especially We quitted the diligence at the village with the calm, full, and scarcely of Rosoy, about half an hour's ride wrinkled countenance, upon which a from the chateau, where a carriage, record of the words he has spoken, sent by the General, was waiting for and the deeds he has performed, for us. Ruined Gothic towers, covered his country, seemed to be legibly enwith ivy, which was planted there graven. His head, over which seven
ty-two years have passed, is lofty,-a precautions which it was possible for peruque à la Titus covers it, and does him to adopt. He renewed bis denot take much from its patriarchal ap- clarations of inviolable attachment to pearance. His tall figure adds to the the King, and did everything to conimpression of nobility which his coun vince him of their sincerity ; but the tenance produces upon your mind; distrust of the Court continued, and it and, in short, there is nothing about is to this cause alone, that we must him, even to his slow and painful attribute the events which followed, walk, a reminiscence of his long cap- and which were arrested by that very tivity at Olmutz, which does not at plebeian militia, by that very Lafayonce attract and affect the heart. ette whose offers of assistance had
The severest charge ever brought been suspected or disdained. Meanagainst this great man, whose name is time, a band of wretches killed some so dear already to two of the greatest of the body-guards whom their comnations of the world, and will, some rades could not or would not defend. day or other, be pronounced with re The apartment of the Queen was forcverence in its remotest corners, relates ed : they rushed to her bed; she esto his conduct respecting Louis XVI. caped, half-naked, just in time to save and the Royal Family on the memo herself from the poinards of the asrable 6th of October. In a work, con- sailants—the Parisians rushed to their sisting of various interesting anec assistance-entered the house in defidotes, from the pen of M. Touchard ance of the opposition of the persons La Fosse, entitled “ La Revolution, they came to rescue, and the King and l’Empire, et La Restoration,” which Queen were saved. I should like to appeared in the course of last week, know where was the negligence of the there is a page upon the insurrection national guard ? Where any want of of Versailles, which sets this matter foresight in their chief ?" in so clear a light, and so completely The volume from which I have borexonerates Lafayette from blame, rowed this
contains many that I am sure you will thank me for other pages, doing equal honor to the transcribing it.
conduct of Lafayette, under the Re“ For a long time,” says M. Tou- public and the restored Bourbons. chard, “it has been fashionable to lay Indeed, of the two hundred and twenthe responsibility of the events of the ty persons, whose portraits are hung 6th of October upon the veteran of the up in the gallery of M. Touchard, American and French Revolutions. would not be rash to affirm that LaEven those who were unwilling to ac- fayette is the only one who has recuse him of direct bad faith, have in- mained the same, amidst all the timated that he was at least sadly de- changes which, during the third of a ficient in foresight; and he has been century, have been passing under our nicknamed, Le dormeur de Versailles. eyes. Let us see whether he merits their If Lafayette complies with the reproaches. M. de Lafayette came wishes of his friends, and writes a to Versailles on the 5th, at ten o'clock history of his life, how many new in the evening. He instantly placed facts he will reveal; how many inguards without the gate ; but the com- trigues he will be able to explain ! for, manders of the body guard positively to say the truth, he is the only Frenchrefused to admit the soldats bourgeois man who lived through the Revolution into the interior. The royal family without participating in its excesses ; itself rejected the offers of the Com- beheld the empire, and was not dazzled mander-in-chief of the National by its splendor; took part in the esGuard,-a guard which a very cele- tablishment of the monarchy, and nehrated person stigmatised as the ca ver defiled himself by any of its intenaille nationale. In spite of this rested conversions. These three petreatment, Lafayette neglected no riods of modern French history, re
quire a new, a hold, and an impartial the eyes of Frenchmen are beginning pen. The calamitous events immedi- to be purged of the inists which false ately subsequent to the restoration have notions of glory had called up, has been scarcely touched upon. Thiers employed his all-powerful pen to enand Mignet are far too much of fa- courage the delusion by spreading talists in their histories of the Revolu a dangerous admiration for Napotion; and Béranger, at a time when leon.
BY L. E. L.
Heaven knows our travellers have sufficiently alloyed the beautiful, and profaned the sublime, by associating these with themselves, the common-place, and the ridiculous ; but out upon them, thus to tread on the grey hairs of centuries,-on the untrodden snows of Mont Blanc. Thou monarch of the upper air,
The poet and philosopher
Are born of such an hour.
But now where may we seek a place
Our steps have been o'er every soil,
Our sails o'er every stream.
Those isles, the beautiful Azores,
We looked for their perpetual spring
To find it was not there. Upon thy stainless snows.
Bright El Dorado, land of gold,
We have so sought for thee, Now out on those adventurers
There's not a spot in all the globe
Where such a land can be.
How pleasant were the wild beliefs
That dwelt in legends old ! Its sully on thy brow,
Alas! to our posterity The glory of thy forehead made
Will no such tales be told. A shrine to those below:
We know too much, scroll after scroll Men gazed upon thee as a star,
Weighs down our weary shelves ; And turned to earth again,
Our only point of ignorance With dreams like thine own floating Is centred in ourselves. clouds,
Alas! for thy past mystery, The vague but not the vain.
For tbine untrodden snow, No feelings are less vain than those Nurse of the tempest, hadst thou none That bear the mind away,
To guard thy outraged brow? Till, blent with nature's mysteries,
Thy summit, once the unapproached, It half forgets its clay.
Haih human presence owned; It catches loftier impulses,
With the first step upon thy crest, And owns a nobler power;
Mont Blanc, thou wert dethroned!
THE SHAVING SHOP.
'Tis not an half hour's work-
“Hold back your head, if you please, paper there ?” said I; “are you a posir, that I may get this napkin proper- litician, Mr. Tims ?” ly fastened—there now," said Toby “ Ob, just a little bit of one. I get Tims, as, securing the pin, he dipped Bell's Messenger at second hand from his razor into hot water, and began a neighbor, who has it from his couworking up with restless brush the la- sin in the Borough, who, I believe, is ther of his soap-box.
the last reader of a club of fourteen, “ I dare say you have got a news- who take it among them ; and, being
last, as I observed, sir, he has the pa- very much admired-extremely like per to himself into the bargain.- Please the Wenus de Medicine-capital nose exalt your chin, sir, and keep your —and as for the wig department, catch head a little to one side—there, sir,” me for that, sir. But of all them there added Toby, commencing his opera- pictures hanging around, yon is the tions with the brush, and hoarifying favorite of myself and the connesmy barbal extremity, as the facetious soors.” Thomas Hood would propably express Ay, Mr. Tims,” said I, “ that is it. “ Now, sir-a leetle more round, truly a gein-an old lover kneeling at if you please—there, sir, there. · It is the foot of his young sweetheart, and a most entertaining paper, and beats two fellows in buckram taking a peep all for news. In fact, it is full of eve at them from among the trees.” rything, sir-every, everything--ac Capital, sir-capital. I'll tell you cidents—charity serinons-markets, a rare good story, sir, connected with boxing—Bible societies-horse-racing that picture and my own history, with -child-murders- the theatres — for- your honor's leave, sir.” eign wars-Bow-street reports-elec “ With all my heart, Mr. Timstioneering—and Day and Martin's you are very obliging.' blacking."
“Well then, sir, take that chair, and “ Are you a bit of a bruiser, Mr. I will get on like a house on fire ; but Tims?”
if you please, don't put me off my clew, “Oh, bless your heart, sir, only a sir.-Concerning that picture and my leetle-a very leetle. A turn-up with courtship, the most serious epoch of the gloves, or so, your honor.—I'm my life, there is a leetle bit of a story but a light weight-only a light weight which I would like to be a beacon to -seven stone and a half, sir; but a others ; and if your honor is still a rare bit of stuff, though I say it my. bachelor, and not yet stranded on the self, sir-Begging your pardon. I dare shoals of matrimony, it may be Wersay I have put some of the soap into bum sapienti, as O'Toole the Irish your mouth. Now, sir, now-please schoolmaster used to observe, when in let me hold your nose, sir.”
the act of applying the birch to the “ Scarcely civil, Mr. Toby,” said I, booby's back. “ scarcely civil-Phroo ! let me spit Well, sir, having received a gramout the suds."
matical education, and been brought “ I will be done in a moment, sir- up as a peruke-maker from my
earliest in half a moment. Well, sir, speak- years—besides having seen a deal of ing of razors, they should be always high life, and the world in general, properly tempered with hot water, a in carrying false curls, bandeaux, and leetle dip more or less. You see now other artificial head-gear paraphernahow it glides over, smooth and smack lia, in bandboxes to boarding-schools, as your hand.-Keep still, sir, I might and so on—a desire naturally sprung have given you a nick just now.—You up within me, being now in my twendon't choose a leetle of the mustachyty-first year, and worth a guinea a left ?"
week of wages, to look about for what “ No, no-off with it all. No ma- old kind Seignor Fiddle-stringo the trimonial news stirring in this quarter minuet-master used to recommend unjust now, Mr. Tims ?"
der the title of a cara sposa-open shop Nothing extremely particular.- —and act head frizzle in an establishNow, sir, you are fit for the King's ment of my own. levee, so far as my department is con Very good, sir-In the pursuit of cerned. But you cannot go out just this virtuous purpose, I cast a sheep's now, sir—see how it rains—a perfect eye over the broad face of society, and water-spout. Just feel yourself at at length, from a number of eligible home, sir, for a leetle, and take a peep specimens, I selected three, who, whearound you. That block, sir, bas been ther considered in the light of natural
44 ATHENEUM, vol. 1, 3d series.