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two to a bed-ridden father of a large pired alang wi' the last spark on the family, to save his bed and bed-clothes ashy hearth. from being sold at the Cross.
Tickler.–Give me your hand, Shepherd.-But you maunna be an- James. James, your health-God gry at him--unless he's impident- bless you-certainly a young lady-or and duns you for your donation. a middle-aged one either-never looks That's hard to thole.
better-so well—as when in prudence Tickler.-Yet, am I to apologize to and meekness she seeks to cheer with him-uninformed, or misinformed, as charity the hovels of the poor. I know he is about me and mine-for not several such-and though they may drawing my purse-strings at his soli- too often be cheated and imposed oncitation ? Am I to explain how it that is not their fault-and the dishappens that I cannot comply-to tell charge of a Christian duty cannot fail him that, in fact, I am at that mo- of being accompanied by a great overment poor? He is not entitled to balance of good. hold such a colloquy with me-yet, if Shepherd.-Oh man! Mr. Tickler I simply say, “ Sir, I must refuse your – but you hae a maist pleasant face petition,” he probably condemns me the noo-you're a real gude creturas a heartless hunks—an unmerciful and I wad fling a glass o' het water in miser-and, among his friends, does the face o' onybody that wad daur to not abstain from hints on my selfish speak ill o' a single letter in your character.
name.--Is't no time, think ye, sir, to Shepherd.—There's, for the maist be ringin' for the eisters ?-I hear them part, I am willing to believe, a spice comin'!—That cretur Awmrose has o'goodness about the greater number the gift o' divination ! even o' the gadders about wi' subscription papers.
North.--Tickler puts all his soul, Tickler.—But a spice, James, is James, into whatever he happens to not enough. Their notives are of be doing at the time. Why, he too mixed a kind. Vanity, idleness, brushes his hat, before turning out at mere desire to escape ennui, curiosity two for a constitutional walk, with as even, and a habit of busy-bodyism, much seeming, nay, real earnestness, which is apt to grow on persons who as Barry Cornwall polishes a dramatic have no very strong ties of affection scene, before making an appeal to binding them to home, do sadly im- posterity. pair the beauty of beneficence.
Shepherd.—And baith o' them rub Shepherd.—They do thal-yet in a aff the nap. Commend me to a rouch great populous city like Embro', much hat and a rouch poem-a smooth hat's good must often be done by charitable shabby-genteel, and a smooth poem's people formin' themselves into asso no muckle better. I like the woo on ciations-findin' out the deserving the ane to show'shadows to the breeze poor, gettin' siller subscribed for --and the lines o' the ither to wanton them, visitin' them in their ain houses, like waves on the sea, that, even at especially in the winter time, sir, ge- the very cawmest, breaks out every in' them a cart o' coals, or a pair o' noo and then into little foam-furrows, blankets, or some worsted stockens, characteristic o' the essential and the and so on-for a sma' thing is aften a eternal difference atween the waters great help to them just hangin' on the o' an inland loch, and them o' the edge o' want; and a meal o' meat set earth-girdlin' ocean. afore a hungry family, wha hadna expeckit to break their fast that day, Tickler.-I have lost my appenot only fills their stamacks, puir titesowls, but warms their verra hearts, Shepherd. I howp nae puir man 'll banishin' despair, as by a God-gist, find it, now that wages is low and and awaukenin' Hope, that had ex wark scarce.
[Beranger, the celebrated French song-writer, has lately been made the object of a ministerial prosecution, on account of some allusions to the Bourbons in a volume lately published by him, and has been condemned, by the Court of Correctional Police, to nine months imprisonment and a fine of 401. of the taste, fancy and elegance, which embellish his Odes, the following hasty translation will afford a specimen.] The rain, the rain, the summer rain! Like lonely stars are seen ;, How sweet this balmy eve!
Till rushing on the sight, the bills My footsteps on the velvet grass,
Have burst the veil between, A greener print they leave.
While thousand rain-brooks bubbling down, The bird beneath those weeping boughs Stream from their bare and shining crown.
(Heaven bless him !) shakes his wing, And singing to the wind, that makes Oh, come-along the humid plainA stilly murmuring,
Come, by the linden grove, Watches the rain-drops as they fall, Thy gentle arm embracing mine; Like pearls from some gay coronal.
Alone, we there may rove.
But ere the sloping hill we leave,
Where palaces and huts are bright
And, on a heaven of darkest blue,
With blades of grass, and store Of sleeping lizards burthened,
Oh see! from yonder misty roofs, Speeds on, and tumbling o'er
A thousand smokes ascend; Some dangerous pebble's precipice, There happy hearts and kindred sighs Makes Niagaras to the mice!
In sweet communion blend.
The windows flashing in the sun, Whirling amain on that wild flood,
A light like torches fing; Some oarless insects sweep,
The illuminated city shows Perched on a larger insect's wing,
A noiseless triumphing : A wreck upon the deep;
Such be the coarsest lights that fall Or, clinging to some floating isle, On nature's sun-set festival.
A withcr'd leaf,—they decm Their troubles light, if, pendant o'er
The rainbow-oh! the rainbow see, The brink of that rude stream,
Grasping the illumined sky; A straw's majestic point appear,
A treasure the Almighty sends, To stop them in their dread carcer.
When rains and tempests fly.
How oft, eternal spheres ! my soul The currents o'er the sand have gushed, Has longed for winds of wind, The vapors sunward fly ;
That some Ithuriel I might crave The dim horizon, dimmer grown,
The secret to unbind Escapes the gazer's eye.
To what far worlds of endless day And now a few bright irembling specks, That golden sun-bridge leads the way.
ESSAYS ON PHYSIOLOGY, OR THE LAWS OF ORGANIC LIFE.*
Essay V.-ON THE CIRCULATION OF THE Blood.
From the left ventricle of the heart, as termed capillaries, a network of such we have before stated, the main arte- delicacy and minuteness is produced, ry of the frame, termed aorta, arises. that a puncture with the finest instruThis vessel distributes its branches, ment cannot be made without woundlike a tree, to every part of the body, ing them, and drawing blood. The forming, as they proceed, numerous capillaries gradually assume the chacommunications with each other, till racter of veins, as minute and delicate at last, by their extreme ramifications, as themselves, assisting equally to
* See page 315.
form the network; and so intimate is the valves also on the other side of their union, and so imperceptibly do the heart. the veins assume their venous charac The blood having traversed the ter, that it would be difficult to say lungs, is returned by the pulmonary where the artery ends, and the vein veins to the left auricle of the heart; begins. This beautiful system of mi- and this contracting, it is propelled nute vessels is distributed throughout into the left ventricle, from whence it every part of the body but the skin; is sent through the aorta and its ramithe various membranes, and the mus- fications to every part of the body; cles, are supplied the most abundant- and is again returned by the veins to ly. It is not, however, into all the ca- the right auricle. It appears, therepillary vessels, in a natural state, that fore, that the blood on the right side the red particles of the blood are ad- of the heart must pass through the mitted ; as for instance the cornea of lungs before it can be admitted into the eye, whose vessels contain the se- the left, in order to be conveyed by rous, or uncolored, portion only. This the means of arteries through the may arise from the calibre of the system. vessels being too minute to admit the Now, we shall find, upon examinaentrance of the red particles, or, from tion, that a manifest difference exists a natural disposition and power in between the blood in the veins, and in them, to refuse that part of the blood the arteries,-or, in the right, and in which would interfere with the neces- the left cavities of the heart ; that of sary function of the organ.
the veins of the right side of the As it is the office of the arteries to heart being of a dark livid color, convey the blood from the heart to while its hue in the arteries and left every part of the system, for its sup- side is scarlet or bright red. This port and nourishment, so it is the of- circumstance, independent of others, fice of the veins to return it to the indicates a change in its nature, and same source, its important task being it is evident also, that this change accomplished. All the veins of the must be effected in the lungs. But body, except those of the heart itself, before proceeding, it may be proper to terminate ultimately in the two venæ give a brief description of these orcavæ, from whence the blood passes gans, by which some idea of their into the right auricle ; this reservoir structure and use may be formed. being filled, its sides immediately con The lungs are situated in the cavity tract, and the blood is forced through of the chest, which when distended the ostium venosum into the right ven with air, they completely fill; their tricle, being prevented from returning texture is light and spongy, and conback into the veins by the valve plac- sists of an assemblage of most minute ed at their entrance into the auricle. and numberless cells, connected toThe right ventricle, on receiving the gether, and communicating with each blood, now in its turn contracts, and other; the whole being corered by an forces it into the pulmonary artery, by extremely fine membrane termed the which it is carried immediately to the pleura. In these cells the ramificalungs, where, undergoing certain tions of the trachea or wind-pipe terchanges, it becomes fitted for the pur- minate, and it is in these that the poses of the animal economy. On the blood undergoes its change. The contraction of the ventricle, it would lungs are abundantly supplied with abbe natural to expect that the blood sorbents, and also with a considerable would, at least in part, return back number of nerves, although at the into the auricle, and this would cer same time their sensibility is very irotainly occur, were it not prevented by perfect. On each dilatation of the the valve at the ostium venosum, or
chest there enters into these organs, entrance into the ventricle ; the same according to some physiologists, be"remark holds good, with respect to tween thirty and forty cubic inches, or,
at a deep inspiration, from six to oxygen and azote, the oxygen unites eight quarts of atmospheric air, con- with a great portion of the carbon, sisting, when pure, of 73 of azote or forming carbonic acid, and is expired nitrogen, 27 of oxygen, and one or two with the azote, which seems to be parts in the 100, of carbonic acid. unchanged, and also with the reThe character of the air, when expired, mainder of the oxygen which exists. is found to be considerably altered, after the production of the acid. The the portion of carbonic acid being blood now becomes of a florid color, much increased, that of the oxygen having parted with the carbon, to diminished, and the azote remaining which its previous darkness was owapparently unchanged.
ing; and this is supposed to be the Now, on the air-cells of the lungs, only change it undergoes during respithe contexture of which is estimated ration. It has been, however, the by Håller at the 1000th part of an opinion of several physiologists, that inch in thickness, the extreme ramifi- a part of the oxygen was absorbed cations or capillaries of the pulinonary by the blood, and so entered into artery are spread like a delicate net- combination with it. This again work; and under such circumstances contradicted, and with reason, as it is it appears, that the oxygen of the at- ascertained by experiments that the mosphere is fully capable of acting on portion of oxygen which disappears, the blood, and affecting the requisite is just sufficient for the formation of changes, by which, having become ar- the carbonic acid which is produced. terial, it is returned through the pul The quantity of oxygen consumed monary veins, to the left side of the hy animals in a given time is variable, heart. We may here remark, that not only as it regards species and indithe pulmonary artery is the only arte- viduals, but the same individual under ry which carries dark, or, as it is com- different circumstances. monly called, venous blood, and it In man, the quantity of oxygen arises from one of the right cavities of consumed in a minute has been difthe heart; while the pulmonary veins ferently rated. Allen and Pepys proceeding to the left are the only found it to be 26.6 cubic inches in a veins that carry arterial blood : thus minute ; Davy 31.6 ; and Murray 36. the blood in the right cavities of the Various states of the system, however, heart is dark-colored, or venous ; that occasion considerable differences. in the left, bright red, or arterial. For instance, the quantity of oxygen
With the passage of this Auid consumed, is increased by exercise ; through the lungs is connected that and if the experiments of Peguin may most important phenomenon, the be trusted, this consumption is nearly nourishment and support of the body. four times more than in the usual It is remarkable that arterial blood state of the body. But Prout, who seems to be alone calculated to sus- has paid much attention to the subject, tain the natural integrity of the ani- concluded from numberless experimal frame ; its decay and losses being ments, that exercise, when moderate, repaired, and its various secretions increased the consumption of oxygen, being furnished, from arterial blood. but when continued so as to induce To this rule there is however one ex- fatigue, diminished it. The exhilaratception, viz. the bile ; this fluid is se- ing passions appear to increase the creted by the liver from venous blood. quantity; the depressing passions, on
In venous blood is contained a the other hand, and sleep, alcohol, and large portion of carbon, acquired tea, to diminish the quantity. The during its course through the animal experiments of Dr. Prout tend also to system. Now, when it reaches the prove, that the quantity of oxygen lungs, and becomes acted upon by the consumed is not uniform during the: atmospheric air, which I have already twenty-four hours, but is always said to be comprised principally of greater at one and the same part of
the day than at any other. For in- tion (to a certain point at least) is stance, that its maximum occurs be- accompanied by an increased contween 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., or gen- sumption of oxygen ; so, on the other erally between 11 A. M. and 1 P. M., hand, as fatigue follows exertion, this and that its minimum commences increased consumption will always be about Sh. 30' P. M., and continues succeeded by an equally great denearly uniform till about 3h. 30' A. M. crease, and this is indicated by yawn
To account for this phenomenon, ing and drowsiness, which are also the Dr. P. refers, and with much proba- signs of muscular exhaustion. bility, to the sun, as regulating by its The amount of oxygen consumed is presence or absence these variations. an index of the quantity of carbon And we may here observe that in all thrown out of the system, and this in diurnal animals, the season of their man ainounts to nearly half an ounce greatest activity is the forenoon, at every hour; but its relative proportion which time also the consumption of to the quantity of food taken into the the oxygen is greatest, while lassitude system, or to the bulk or natural haand fatigue come on gradually in the bits of the animal, is yet undetermined afternoon, when the consumption of by experiments. oxygen is diminished.
The blood having thus become however, inany animals from whose aérated, or, to speak more correctly, natural habits of activity in the night, deprived of the carbon which it bad and repose during the day, we may acquired in its course through the conclude that with them the arrange- frame, is now fitted for the purposes ment is reversed.
of the animal economy; and it is in From the experiments of Dr. the order of our plan to take a closer Crawford, it would appear, that tem- view of the agents appointed to this perature exerts much influence also, end. Our readers need not now be as to the quantity of oxygen consum told that these are the heart, the arteed. He found, for example, that a ries, and the veins. The general guinea-pig confined in air at the tem- anatomy of the heart has already been perature of 55 deg., consumed double explained; it now remains for us to the quantity which it did when con consider its peculiar mode of action. fined in air at 104 deg. ; and also We have stated this organ to be a that in such cases of exposure to high muscle containing four cavities, destemperature, the venous blood had tined for receiving and expelling the not its usual dark character, but, by blood; but with respect to its action, its arterial florid hue, indicated that it differs from every other in the ani in its course through the system the mal rame. To other muscles, rest natural and usual changes in it had not from their labors is necessary, that taken place.
their powers of exertion may be reWhen the temperature of warm newed; they are wearied with toil, blooded animals is greatly increased, and require repose ; those even by exertion becomes laborious, and fa- which respiration is effected, are retigue and lassitude, as if resulting freshed at each interval. But the from violent muscular efforts, are heart alone is unwearied; it continues speedily induced ; but, on the con its labor for years; it requires no retrary, in cold blooded animals, on pose ; death alone puts a period to its whose system temperature has so exertions ; and even then life lingers marked an influence, that when cooled there the latest, and slowly and unbelow a certain degree they become willingly retires. The heart, we torpid, the effect of a moderate de- bave said to consist of two auricles gree of beat will be to increase mus and two ventricles, and their contraccular action, and a corresponding con tion separately on the blood has been sumption of oxygen. As the.. it ap- mentioned, but it must not be thence pears that an increase of muscular ac- concluded, that each of these divisions