A Treatise on Physical Optics

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Deighton, Bell, 1892 - 411 páginas

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Contenido

Polarization and double refraction
11
Composition of two waves polarized in the same plane
12
Elliptically and circularly polarized light
13
The Principle of Huygens
14
Law of the reflection of light
15
Law of the refraction of light 6 7
16
CHAPTER II
17
Fresnels mirrors 19 Production of interference fringes by a biprism
19
do do biplate
20
Fresnels experiment with three mirrors
21
Displacement of fringes by the interposition of a plate
22
Abnormal displacement of the central band Airys explanation
23
Lloyds experiment
25
Examples
26
Coloured rings produced by a plane mirror
31
Stokes theorem for the displacement produced by an element of
37
Rectangular aperture
43
Resolving power of optical instruments
52
Reflection gratings
58
Diffraction arising from light diverging from a focus Expression
63
Intensity at the centre of the aperture or disc Poissons theorem
69
Diffraction by a circular disc
75
256
77
Resolution of double stars
78
Evaluation of two definite integrals
81
CONTENTS XV
82
B 0
94
17
96
Positive and negative uniaxal crystals Principal indices of refrac
109
Principal indices of refraction for aragonite and topaz
110
Transparent media when subjected to stress exhibit double refraction
111
CHAPTER VII
112
Discussion of the hypothesis that the vibrations of polarized light are perpendicular to the plane of polarization
113
crystal
115
Equation determining the velocity of propagation in a biaxal 105 The optic axes are perpendicular to the circular sections of the ellipsoid of elasticity
116
107108 Values of the two velocities in terms of the angles which the normal to the wavefront makes with the optic axes
117
Determination of the equation of Fresnels wavesurface
118
22
119
Singular points Ray axes
120
24
121
25
122
26
123
Uniaxal crystals Proof of Huygens construction
124
Discovery of conical refraction by Sir W Hamilton
125
Internal conical refraction
126
Criticisms on Fresnels theory
127
125126 Theory and construction of Nicols prism
128
Polarization by a plate of tourmaline
129
Polarization by a pile of plates
130
Uniaxal crystals
132
Biaxal crystals The brushes produced by a plate of nitre
138
ART PAGE 156 Expression for the intensity when a plate of quartz is cut perpen
156
CHAPTER IX
157
ART PAGE
161
Rings and brushes produced by quartz Airys theory
164
Discussion of the results when the Nicols are crossed
167
do do when the planes of polarization and ana lysation are parallel
169
Expression for the intensity when the incident light is circularly polarized
170
Discussion of the results
172
Two plates superposed one of which is righthanded and the other lefthanded
173
Discussion of the results Airys spirals
174
CHAPTER X
176
Verification of Brewsters law by Sir J Conroy
177
Fresnels theory
178
Values of the intensities
179
Total reflection is accompanied by a change of phase
180
The refracted wave is a superficial wave
181
Reflection and refraction of light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence
182
Proof of Brewsters law
183
Experimental verification of the change of phase which accom panies total reflection Fresnels rhomb
184
Theories of Neumann and MacCullagh
185
Objections to these theories
187
The final equations of motion
188
CHAPTER XI
189
190191 Criticisms on Greens Theory
190
The internal stresses 190 184 The internal stresses 185 The equations of motion of an elastic medium The stresses are completely specified by six qua...
191
Media which possess gyrostatic momentum
192
CHAPTER XII
198
Potential and kinetic energies of wave motion are equal 193 Reflection and refraction Light polarized in the plane of in cidence 194 Change of phase...
201
Intensity of the transmitted light
203
Black spot at the centre
204
Variation of the intensity with the colour
205
Dependence of the size of the spot upon the nature of the polari zation
206
Intensity of light reflected from a pile of plates
207
Intensity of light reflected and refracted by a single plate
208
do do do by a pile of plates
209
Quasigeometrical construction for the intensities of the reflected and transmitted lights
210
Finely divided substances exhibit colour or are white
211
Tables
212
Discussion of the tables
213
Perfectly transparent plates
214
72
218
panied by longitudinal waves unless the constants reduce to four
246
The equations of motion of the special kind of medium considered by Green and the expressions for the potential energy and the strains
247
Greens medium propagates longitudinal waves in the same manner as an isotropic medium
248
Additional properties of Greens medium
249
Common light
250
251252 Directions of vibration and rotation Greens theory renders it necessary to suppose that the vibrations of polarized light are parallel to the plan...
251
Crystalline reflection and refraction Failure of Greens theory to satisfactorily explain this phenomenon
253
Criticisms on Greens theory
254
Suggestion of a theory which would account for double refraction
255
produced by stress
258
THEORY OF LORD RAYLEIGH AND SIR W THOMSON
265
266
266
The conditions of continuity require that the rigidity should be the same in all media
268
Expression for the mean energy per unit of volume
269
Crystalline reflection and refraction
270
When the medium is isotropic the expressions for the intensity are the same as those furnished by Fresnels theory 272 Criticisms on this theory
271
Extension of this theory to rotatory polarization
273
Application to quartz and turpentine
274
Theory of quartz
275
272
278
CHAPTER XVI
282
279
283
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
284
descent produces its own particular spectrum
285
The infrared and ultraviolet waves
286
The ultraviolet waves are noted for their chemical effects
287
Spectrum analysis enables the presence of elements to be detected in the sun and fixed stars
288
Kirchhoffs laws of absorption
289
Spectrum analysis enables the relative motions of the sun and fixed stars to be determined in cases where astronomical methods fail
290
298299 Huggins investigations on the proper motions of the stars
291
SELECTIVE ABSORPTION
292
COLOURS OF NATURAL BODIES
294
DICHROMATISM
295
ANOMALOUS DISPERSION
296
SELECTIVE REFLECTION
298
Subsequently studied by Christiansen
299
CHAPTER XVII
308
The experiments of Kundt show that anomalous dispersion is pro duced by most of the aniline dyes 297
312
349
318
ART PAGE 354 Von Helmholtz theory of anomalous dispersion
321
The equations of motion of the ether and the matter
322
Integration of the equations of motion
323
Expression for the index of refraction
324
Application of the theory to anomalous dispersion
325
The theory may be extended so as to apply to a medium baving several absorption bands
326
Values of the changes of phase
327
Colour of the reflected light depends upon its state of polarization
328
CHAPTER XVIII
329
The principal incidence and azimuth depend upon the medium in contact with a metallic reflector
330
Theories of metallic reflection
332
Expression for the quasirefracted wave
334
Expressions for the ratio of the amplitudes and the difference of the changes of phase
335
The constants R and a can be calculated from experiment
336
Jamins experiments on the intensity of the reflected light
337
Jamins experimental laws concerning the changes of phase
339
Kundts experiments
341
Molecular theory of Lord Kelvin Sir W Thomson
342
viscous term
343
Discussion of the results to which this theory leads
344
388389 Criticisms on the theories relating to the mutual reaction of ether and matter
345
Maxwells hypothesis
346
The equations of motion of the ether
348
Kundts law 298
352
Experiments on Iceland spar
358
Definition of a twin crystal
373
432434 Plane of incidence perpendicular to the plane of symmetry
375
435436 In this case the direction of polarization is reversed by reflection when the angle of incidence is small
379
CHAPTER XX
380
Faradays experiments
381
Glass when under the action of electrostatic force behaves like a negative uniaxal crystal
382
Resin behaves like a positive uniaxal crystal
383
Kerrs experiments on reflection from a magnet
384
Experiments upon from a magnetic pole
385
Experimental results in this case
386
Description of the arrangements employed
387
Summary of the experimental results
388
Halls experiments on nickel and cobalt
389
Kundts experiments on magnetized glass
390
Summary of results
391
ART PAGE 472 Table of the values of Halls effect for different metals
392
Theory of magnetic action on light
393
Equations of motion
395
Propagation of light
396
Rotatory polarization
398
The theory explains Faradays experiments
399
The boundary conditions
400
The electrostatic and the electrokinetic energy 401
401
The final boundary conditions
404
Reflection and refraction from glass which is magnetized normally
406
Discussion of the results 484 Reflection and refraction when the magnetization is parallel to the reflector
408
glass
411

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Página 372 - Nicol's prism turned in any way. [Shown.] (5) The spectrum of the reflected light is frequently found to consist almost entirely of a comparatively narrow band. When the angle of incidence is increased, the band moves in the direction of increasing refrangibility, and at the same time increases rapidly in width. In many cases the reflection appears to be almost total.
Página 356 - The difference between these numbers is greater than can be accounted for by errors of observation, and shows that our theories of the structure of bodies must be much improved before we can deduce their optical from their electrical properties. At the same time, I think that the agreement of the numbers is such that if no greater discrepancy were found between the numbers derived from the optical and...
Página 347 - To fill all space with a new medium whenever any new phenomenon is to be explained is by no means philosophical, but if the study of two different branches of science has independently suggested the idea of a medium, and if the properties which must be attributed to the medium in order to account for electromagnetic phenomena are of the same kind as those which, we attribute to the luminiferous medium in order to account for the phenomena of light, the evidence for the physical existence of the medium...
Página 347 - But the properties of bodies are capable of quantitative measurement. We therefore obtain the numerical value of some property of the medium, such as the velocity with which a disturbance is propagated through it, which can be calculated from electromagnetic experiments, and also observed directly in the case of light. If it should be found that the velocity of propagation of electromagnetic disturbances is the same as the velocity of light, and this not only in air, but in other transparent media,...

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