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treatment is necessary is known to be a fallacy. The continued enconragement thus given to a multiplication of young shoots prevents the formation of fruit-producing branches; the trees become dense with slender growths, requiring constant thinning and manipulation to preserve eren the appearance of a fruit-bearing tree. Seeing that the objects desired are so widely different, it must be apparent that the treatment best adapted to form plants into a close, thick-set hedge cannot be a proper mode of managing those cultivated solely for their fruits.
It is probable that the best mode of managing pear trees is to refrain, as far as possible, from shortening back the leading points of branches, thus giving them an opportunity of producing fruiting spurs over the entire surface of the yearly growths, which they will speedily do if not disturbed by the pruning knife; and when they become destitute of such spurs near the base or main trunk of the tree, as in time they most certainly will, and it is desired to keep the plants low or dwarf in habit, these long, spurless branches can be thinned out by removing them entirely, cutting them quite close to the trunk, supplying their place with young shoots, somewhat similar to the mode adopted in the socalled “ renewal system” of pruning the grape-vine. Whatever mode may be adopted, it is perfectly evident that many of the failures in pear culture are clearly traceable to erroneous practices and false ideas of culture.
Much time and attention have been given to the improvement of the grounds of the Department. The flower garden in the main front of the building is completed, with the exception of the architectural terraces. The principal arenues and walks are rapidly approaching completion. Draining has been effected as far as means will allow; much, however, of this fundamental work remains to be done, as the ground is largely underlaid with a retentive subsoil. For purposes of protection and shel. ter, an Osage-orange hedge has been planted around the boundaries of the inclosure.
About three-fourths of the list of plants have been secured, and preparations for planting are now in progress, so that, when the proper season arrives, no delay may occur in placing each plant in its assigned position. The space allotted to each plant is computed so as to allow full development of growth for a period of forty years, so far as data have been available in deciding upon the respective dimensions each will assume. Alterations as indicated by progressive development can, to a great extent, be effected for many years to come, without interfering with the main design, and, in view of the novelty of the arrangement, such modifications may become necessary; but it is believed that there will be but few changes to make in the present position of the plants.
A list of the plants and also the classification adopted are subjoined. In some of the orders slight additions will be made to the present numbers; but as the collection stands, it forms probably as complete an arboretum as is to be found in any country.
DIVISION I. - POLYPETALE. MAGNOLIACEÆ. - Magnolia, 10 species, 9 varieties ; Schizandra, 1 species ; Kadsura, 1
species; Liriodendron, 1 species, 3 varieties. ANONACEÆ. - Asimena, 2 species. LARDIZABALACEÆ.—Akebia, 1 species; Stauntonia, 1 species.
MENISPERMACEÆ.—Cocculus, 1 species; Menispermum, 1 species; Calycocarpum, 1
species. BERBERIDACEÆ.—Berberis, 20 species, 10 varieties; Mahonia, 10 species. HYPERICACEÆ.-Hypericum, 6 species; Androsaemum, 1 species. TAMARISCINEÆ.—Tainarix, 6 species. MALVACEÆ.—Hibiscus, 1 species, 10 varieties. STERCULIACEÆ.—Sterculia, 1 species. TILIACEÆ.—Tilia, 2 species, 20 varieties. CAMELLIACEÆ.-Stuartia, 2 species; Gordonia, 1 species MELLACEÆ.—Melia, 2 species. RUTACEÆ.—Zanthoxylum, 2 species; Ptelea, 2 species, 1 variety SIMARUBACEÆ.—Ailanthus, 1 species. CORIARIE£.-Coriaria, 3 species. ANACARDIACEÆ.-Rhus, 7 species ; Pistacia, 2 species. RHAMNACE2.-Rhamnus, 11 species, 4 varieties; Frangula, 2 species ; Sageretia, 1 spe
cies; Berchemia, 1 species ; Zizyphus, 1 species; Ceanothus, 13 species; Paliurus,
1 species. CELASTRACEÆ.—Euonymus, 9 species, 11 varieties; Celastrus, 1 species. SAPINDACEÆ,-1, Staphyleaceæ : Staphylea, 3 species. II, Sapindaceæ reræ : Æsculus,
11 species, 12 varieties; Kolreuteria, 1 species. III, Acerineæ : Acer, 27 species, 17
varieties; Negundo, 1 species, 4 varieties. LEGUMINOS. E.-Sub-order I, Papilionaceæ. Tribe I, Loteæe : Genista, 13 species, 1 vari
ety; Ulex, 3 species, 1 variety; Spartium, 1 species, 1 variety; Laburnum, 2 species, 11 varieties; Cytisus, 16 species ; Sarothamnus, 1 species, 1 variety; Ononis, 2 species; Amorpha, 5 species, i variety ; Colutea, 2 species; Robinia, 3 species, 25 varieties ; Caragana, 11 species; Halimodendron, 1 species; Wistaria, 3 species, 2 varieties. Tribe II, Hedysareæ : Coronilla, 1 species." Tribe V, Sophoreæ : Sophora, 1 species, 2 varieties; Cladrastis, 1 species. --Sub-order II, Cæsalpinieæ. Cercis, 2 species, 2 varieties; Gymnocladus, 1 species; Gleditschia, 6 species, 5 varieties.
Sub-order III, Mimosea. Albizzia, 1 species. ROSACEÆ.-Sub-order I, Amygdaleæ. Amygdalus, 3 species, 16 varieties; Amygdalopis, 1
species; Prunus, 27 species, 12 varieties.-Sub-order II, Rosacem veræ. Tribe I, Spiræeæ : Kerria, 2 species, 2 varieties; Spiraa, 41 species, 6 varieties; Schizonotus, 2 species, 1 variety. Tribe II, Dryadeæ : Potentilla, 2 species, 2 varieties; Rubus, 8 species, 5 varieties.-Sub-order III, Pomea. Cratægus, 36 species, 27 varieties; Photinia, 2 species; Cotoneaster, 18 species; Amelanchier, 5 species, 5 varieties; Mespilus, 2 species; Pyrus, 33 species, 40 varieties; Cydonia, 2 species, 12 varie
ties. CALYCANTHACEÆ.—Calycanthus, 6 species; Chimonanthus, 1 species, 2 varieties. LYTHRACEÆ.—Punica, 2 species ; Lagerstræmia, 5 species. SAXIFRAGACEÆ.-Sub-order I, Grossula. Ribes, 24 species, 7 varieties.-Sub-order II,
Escallonieæ. Itea, 1 species.-Sub-order III, Hydrangieæ. Hydrangea, 5 species ; Decumaria, 1 species; Philadelphus, 9 species, 7 varieties; Deutzia, 6 species, 2
varieties. HAMAMELACEÆ.—Tribe I, Hamameleæ: Hamamelis, 1 species. Tribe II, Fothergilleæ :
Fothergilla, 1 species. Tribe III, Balsamifluæ : Liquidamber, 2 species. UMBELLIFERÆ.—Bupleurum, 1 species. ARALIACEÆ.—Aralia, 3 species; Hedera, 3 species, 4 varieties. CORNACEÆ.—Cornus, 12 species 4 varieties; Benthamia, 1 species; Nyssa, 3 species;
Garrya, 1 species.
CAPRIFOLIACEÆ.—Tribe I, Lonicereæ : Linnæa, 1 species; Symphoricarpus, 5 species,
I variety; Lonicera, 35 species, 11 varieties; Diervilla, 4 species, 13 varieties; Leycesteria, 2 species. Tribe II : Sambucus, 4 species, 9 varieties; Viburnum, 17 spe
cies, 6 varieties. RUBLACEÆ.-Sub-order II, Cinchoneæ. Cephalanthus, 1 species.-Sub-order III, Lo
ganiæ. Gelsemium, 1 species. COMPOSITE.-Sub-order 1, Tubuliflore. Baccharideæ: Baccharis, 3 species. Senecion
ideæ: Iva, 1 species; Artemisia, 3 species. ERICACEÆ.-Sub-order Í, Vacciniea. Gaylussacia, 5 species; Vaccinium, 16 species, 5
varieties ; Chiogenes, 1 species.-Sub-order II, Ericinea. Arctostaphylos, 2 species; Epigæa, 1 species; Arbutus, 4 species; Leucothe, 5 species; Cassandra, 1 species; Cassiope, 2 species ; Andromeda, 7 species; Oxydendrum, 1 species ; Clethra, 2 species; Phyllodoce, 1 species; Pernettya, 2 species; Kalmia, 7 species, 2 varieties; Dabæcia, 1 species, 1 variety; Menziesia, 2 species, 2 varieties ; Azalea, 4 species, 2 varieties; Rhododendron, 6 species; Rhodora, 1 species; Ledum, 2 species ; Loiseleuria, 1 species; Leiophyllum, 1 species.
ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ.—Aristolochia, 2 species.
dera, 2 species; Tetranthera, 1 species. THYMELEACEÆ.—Dirca, 1 species; Daphne, 7 species, 6 varieties. ELÆAGNACEÆ.—Shepherdia, 2 species; Elæagnus, 5 species, 1 variety; Hippopbæ, 2
species, 1 variety SANTALACEÆ.-Darbya, 1 species; Pyrularia, 1 species; Buckleya, 1 species. EUPHORBIACEÆ.-Stillingia, 1 species ; Buxus, 8 species, 9 varieties. EMPETRACEÆ.-Empetram, 1 species ; Corema, 1 species ; Ceratiola, 1 species. URTICACEÆ.-Sub-order I, Ulmaceæ. Ulmus, 17 species, 37 varieties; Planera, 3 species;
Celtis, 5 species, 2 varieties. Sub-order II, Artocarpcæ. Morus, 5 species, 4 varieties; Broussonetia, 1 species, 1 variety; Maclura, 2 species, 1 variety; Ficus, 1
species. PLATANACEÆ.—Platanus, 3 species, 2 varieties. JUGLANDACEÆ.-Juglans, 3 species, 3 varieties ; Carya, 10 species, 1 variety ; Ptero.
carya, 1 species. CUPULIFERÆ.—Quercus, 39 species, 51 varieties; Castanea, 3 species, 12 varieties;
Fagus, 3 species, 13 varieties ; Corylus, 4 species, 2 varieties ; Carpinus, 2 specics,
4 varieties; Ostrya, 3 species.
CONIFERÆ.-Sub-order 1, Abietineæ. Pinus Binæ, 25 species, 24 varieties ; Pinus Ter
natæ, 25 species, 3 varieties; Pinus Quinæ, 35 species, 5 varietjes; Pinus Dubiæ, 5 species; Abies Veræ, 14 species, 23 varieties. Tsuga : Abies, 7 species, 6 varieties. Picea Bracteata : Abies, 10 species, 8 varieties. Picea Brevebracteata :: Abies, 11 species, 5 varieties ; Cedrus, 3 species, 6 varieties ; Cunninghamia, 1 species, 1 variety ; Sciadopitys, 1 species; Sequoia, 2 species; Laris, 9 species, 7 varieties ; Pseudolarix, 1 species ; Araucaria, 7 species, 5 varieties; Dammara, 8 species, 2 varieties.-Sub-order II, Cupressinéa. Juniperus (oxycedrus), 7 species, 7 varieties; Juniperus (Sabina), 9 species, 12 varieties; Juniperus (Cupressoides), 16 species, 2 varieties; Widdringtonia, 5 species; Callitris, I species ; Libocedrus, 4 species; Actinostrobus, 1 species ; Frenela, 19 species; Læchhardtia, 1 species; Fitzroya, i species; Thuja, 3 species, 15 varieties ; Thujópsis, 3 species, 2 varieties; Biota, 1 species, 15 varieties; Cupressus, 20 species, 15 varieties ; Retinospora, 5 species, 7 varieties ; Cryptomeria, 1 species, 4 varieties; Taxodium, 1 species, 4 varieties; Glyptostrobus, 2 species. Sub-order III, Taxineæ. Taxus, 7 species, 21 varieties; Torreya, 4 species; Cephalotaxus, 4 species ; Podocarpus, 43 species, 3 varieties; Dacrydium, 6 species ; Salisburia, 1 species, 3 varieties ; Phyllocladus, 5 species; Microcachrys, 1 species; Pherosphæra, 1 species ; Saxe-Gothea, 1 species ; Nageia, 7 species, 1 variety; Veitchia, 1 species.
WM. SAUNDERS. Hon. HORACE CAPRON, Commissioner.
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF SEED DIVISION.
ŞIR: The following tabular statement shows the quantity and kinds of seeds sent from this division during the year ending December 31, 1868:
The United States and territories embrace about twenty-four degrees of latitude and fifty-eight degrees of longitude, and, in consequence of difference of elevation, direction of winds, and contiguous oceans, wide isothermal differences of temperature are manifest even in the same latitude; but within the different latitudes of these extended limits are found great diversities of climate and soil, adapted to the growth of plants of every quarter of the globe. The distribution of seeds was made with reference to climatic and thermal peculiarities; but the adaptability of seeds to different soils can be satisfactorily ascertained only by the sure test of experiment, and it is, therefore, to be regretted that practical farmers do not, as requested, more generally report to the department the results of their experiments with seeds sent to them.
All important facts connected with the cultivation of untried seeds should be carefully noted, and promptly reported to the departinent.
The object of the department in procuring and distributing seeds is, to substitute superior varieties for those which have deteriorated or have become diseased, and to introduce the seeds of new plants, that the resources of our broad and fertile domain may be developed, and its agricultural wealth increased. To accomplish these ends the co-operation of the farmer is indispensable. His farm is a laboratory in which the efficacy of new varieties and the success of novel productions are alike tested. Without an intelligent report, showing the means used and the results reached, the department must remain in doubt in regard to the success and utility of its seed distributions, except as they may be indicated in the steadily increasing products of the land, and in the general improvement of its farming interests. Reports promptly and regularly sent in would enable the department to furnish to the country and to the world an array of facts of great practical interest and value, while this co-operation on the part of farmers would tend surely to the advancement of their own interests, and to the increase of national wealth.
SENECA DEAN. Hon. HORACE CAPRON, Commissioner.