Imágenes de páginas

including mechanics, experimental physics, general inorganic chemistry, universal organic chemistry, agricultural chemistry, analytical chemistry, geognosy, introduction to botany, anatomy and physiology of plants, pathology of plants, special botany, anatomy and physiology of domestic animals, general and special zoology, microscopic observations. Connected with these studies are practices in the chemical laboratory, demonstrations in the green-houses and on the experimental fields of the experimental agricultural station, in the botanical garden, in the botanical, mineralogical, anatomical, and zoological collections. There are also botanical and geognostic excursions; 5. Veterinary sciences, including remedies and receipts, pathology and therapeuties of domestic animals, aids to animals in giving birth, shoeing animals, and veterinary clinical demonstrations; 6. Agricultural architecture, including the drawing of plans.



The grade of this school is that of a higher agricultural and industrial agricultural academy. The instruction is in German and Bohemian. The first two years are devoted to general agriculture, and the third year to special branches. Instruction by lectures, practice in fields and the manufactories of Tetscheu and Bodenbach, excursions, free conversational meetings under the guidance of professors, and the writing of essays. The lectures are not written and delivered, but spoken freely, with opportunity for questions, éxplanations, and illustrations. Each subject under consideration is treated with some class book as a general basis for study and investigation. Notes on the lectures are taken by the students. Tuition costs sixty florins yearly. The lowest age of ad. mission is seventeen years, and proofs must be produced of the applicant having finished the course of the under gynnasium, or lower “Real. school;" also, of some practical preparation in agriculture. Number of professors and teachers, tifteen. At the close of the summer term of 1868 there were one hundred students. The arrangements of the insti. tution are for the admission of not more than thirty students at the beginning of each year, so that ninety is the normal number of students in the institution, as it is composed of three classes. Yearly ten thousand florins have been received from government, since the opening of the academy in 1866, as a national high school; previous to that date, two thousand florins yearly. Whole area of the farm, 1219.8 metzen ; * leased, 368.4 metzen ; leaving 851.4 metzen farmed by the institution, as follows: Arable land-rotation of crops, 582; border pasturo land, 20.7; experimental fields, 3.4; botanical garden, 0.12; grass-seed school, 0.5; hop garden, 0.13; meadow land, 160; boundaries, roads, &c., 65.8.

Other accessories to improvements exist in Tetschen, open to the students, as the beer brewery, flax factory, distillery, beet drying, fruit dry. ing, vegetable garden, vineyard, chemical experimental station, forests, library, philosophical, chemical, and mathematical apparatus, mineral collection, zoological collection, varieties of soil, workshops for agricultural tools and small machines, cocoonery, apiary, &c.

In 1850 Tetschen-Liebwerd was established as an agricultural school for the peasantry, under the protection of Count Thun, on the farm Liebwerd, given by him for the purpose. It was organized on a plan of Director Komers, who, with four professors and teachers, constituted

[ocr errors]

the faculty. This was the first agricultural school with German instruction in Bohemia. In 1856 it was reorganized under Director Komers, with a higher and lower department-the courses distinct. The higher department received from the Royal Economical Society a gift of twentyove hundred dorins, and the buildings were enlarged at the cost of the Protector, Count Thun. The organization of the experimental station, under Dr. Th. von Göhren, took place in 1864–65. The formal opening of the institution as a high school of the Kingdom of Bohemia was in 1866. There is an examination every term, with classification of students. The first three receive prizes, with publication of their names. Particular attention is called in the report to the need of occasional travel by representative professors, to compare the operations and results of other institutions; in the case of Dr. von Göhren, whose able report on Lichtenhof, Weihenstephan, Hohenhein, and Grignon, was the result of such a journey.

After the two years' general study of agriculture, there is a division of the third year into four courses: 1st. General administration of estates, with rational stock raising; 2d. Agricultural technology, sugar making manufacture of brandy, beer, oil, &c.; 3d. Agricultural engineering, and science of reclamation ; 4th. Agricultural-industrial improvements.

In the second year the students are divided into four classes, in the management and overseeing: 1st. The local direction; 20. Administration: 3d. Account of the revenues ; 4th, Natural accounts.

The first year they are busied in a varied manner, in house, on fields, &c. Students who work as a part payment are allowed thirty-eight to forty kreutzers. The soil at Liebwerd is, in the portions lying in the valleys, hard loam; on the heights, sandy loam, or loamy sand. The working of the soil is very hard. Climate mild and damp. Prevailing winds southeast, northwest, and northeast. In September fogs often roll into the valley at three o'clock in the afternoon, and do not break away until ten o'clock in the morning.


This school is situated near Nuremberg. Its grade is that of a middle school, embracing three institutions: 1st. The District Agricultural School; 2d. The Lower Agricultural School for peasantry; 3d. The Preparatory School. The character of instruction is general agriculture, with rudiments of forestry; the instruction of an order to prepare scholars for the management of small or moderate estates as owners or overseers, or to enter the higher agricultural school at Weihenstepban, or the Central Veterinary School at Munich, or for entrance upon a course of universal practical forestry.

The full cost of tuition is one hundred florins, yearly, for scholars un. der thirteen years; one hundred and twenty-five florins for those from thirteen to sisteen years; one hundred and fifty florins for all pupils over sixteen years-living included. Twelve years is the lowest age for admission. The course embraces a period of three years. There are two courses : 1st. District school course, inclusive of the preparatory course, when students are not fitted for immediate entrance; 2d. The course in the lower school, for peasantry.

The number of professors and teachers is ten; number of scholars last year, eighty-three. The buildings will accommodate one hundred scholars. The institution has the rents of the Maximilian foundation or establishment. This consists of the estates Lichendorf and Gibitzhof, which are given for the use and purposes of the institution, and the income from

thein for free scholarsbips for poor students. All rents and a subsidy from the district or county funds, with private gifts, amount to from four thousand to six thousand or even cight thousand florins yearly. Connected with the school are an experimental farm, vegetable garden, botanical garden, and a tree school. The experiments with superpkosphate have, according to their reports, resulted unfavorably in beet cul. ture, but the experiment will be continued for further results.

This school opened in 1833, with twelve students; at present there are ninety-sis. Whole number from commencement, six hundred. The subsidy from the province is seven thousand to eight thousand florins yearly. The receipts of the agricultural journal, “Lichtenhofer Blatter," go toward the establishment of free scholarships. The students form three classes: Those who pay full tuition and board: those admitted at reduced prices; and free scholars. The farm is situated in the “Knoblancksland;" the subsoil coarse-grained quartz sand, with beds or layers of clay run. ning through it. One peculiar physical feature of this district is the frequent presence of water at a depth of three to five feet, which in many places prevents the use of subterranean cellars. Liebig's doctrine of the absorptive capacity of arable land finds here a striking confirmation, where the soil is of marshy and, mixed through culture with a mass of manure stuffs, chiefly mineral. The writer believes that the secret of fruitfulness of this region consists in the mixing of inarshy and sandy soil, otherwise he cannot account for the less favorable results of the same experiments in preparation and manuring of the soil upon adjacent sand fields. Only the result of more than one thousand years' alternating plant growth with their decay could be at the bottom of this fertility. The principal experiments are in raising fodder and trade crops, fruit-tree culture, various modes of manuring, bee raising, and crossing of different breeds of cattle. The soil is cultivated to a depth of one and a half to three feet, with frequent manuring at almost every plowing:

VEIHENSTEPHAN ROYAL BAVARIAN CENTRAL SCHOOL. This school is situated at Weihenstephan, near Treising. Its grade is that of a high school of agriculture. The character of instruction is agriculture, forestry, and stock raising. The full cost of tuition for Bavarians is twenty-five florins half yearly; for all others, fifty florins for first half year, and twenty-five florins for second half year. Sixteen years is the age for admission. The course covers a period of two years. In connection with the usual course are, 1st, a practical preparatory course of one year; 2d, a brewery school of one year; 3d, fruit culture course of two or three years; 4th, trial station for agricultural machines and tools. Number of professors and teachers, thirteen; number of pupils, sixty, (twenty-two in regular course, seventeen in technical course, sixteen in preparatory, five occasional.)

The royal estate Weibenstephan, with seven hundred and ten taguer. ken (about four hundred and twenty joches*) of meadow land fields and turf land, belongs to the school. The following may be mentioned among the accessories : Fifty-seven cows, four hundred sheep, swine-number variable-botanical garden, hop garden, apothecary for veterinary surgery, brewery, distillery, brick-kiln, lime-kiln, cheese dairy, fishery, turfcutting field, chemical laboratory, library.

The institution was founded in 1852. Weihenstephan was a Benedictine cloister, established in 725. The expenses of students are: Winter

A joch is 1.4223 acres.

term, Bavarian students, for tuition and boarding, including single room, fire, lights, washing, service, and use of reading-room, ninety-five florins; when two students use a double room, the expense to each is eighty florins. For the same items the cost to foreign students is one hundred and twenty florius for single, and one hundred and five florins for donble room. Summer term, Bararian students, single room, fifty florins, (including above particulars,) and double room forty-fire florins; foreign students, seventy-five and seventy florins. The second year's expenses for foreigners and native students are the same, the former being reduced to the same plane as the latter. The entire expense for the one year preparatory course is three hundred florins. In the brewery school one hundred florins for practical instruction during the winter term, and eighty for the summer term, are charged. Tuition in the fruitculture course, torty florins yearly. Under this head mention is made of paving students who choose to labor: twenty-four kreutzers per day in the first year; later, more is paid, according to their ability.

In sheep raising the Southdown bucks have been crossed with merino, and the result promises well. The raising of the pure merino sheep is also an object here. Four hundred sleep and lambs sheared gave eight houdrell and six pounds of wool. Experiments have been made in Liebig's substitute for mother's milk in raising calves. Also in the use of greater quantities of malt germs in the raising of young cattle. Great efforts are being made to discover the proper proportion of nourishment containing nitrogen, and that without nitrogen, for grown sheep. The surrounding woods, evergreen and “needle," are used for practica] experiments and instruction.


[ocr errors]

I regard the work these stations are accomplishing, both for scientific and practical agriculture in Germany, as being of the very highest im. portance. They cannot, however, supersede or even precede the work of the agricultural college. First of all we must have thoroughly educated men (educated technically in agriculture) to conduct these stations. As soon as agricultural colleges can produce competent men, the more experiineptal stations we can have the better. The following remarks, taken from a sketch of this work by Dr. Theod. von Göbren, will show something of the history, progress, and economy of these stations in Germany :

“ The year 1840 (the date of the publication of Liebig's Chemistry) was the birth year of scientific agriculture. Liebig's book was the seed from which already such wondrous growths have been quickened. Adolph Stöckhardt, of Tharand, is the man who, by ceaseless efforts in clubs, schools, and experimental stations, has done most to prepare the soil for the reception of this seed of truth. The question early arose as to the means of linking men of science with the masses. What method would best convey the fertilizing streams of scientific knowledge through ebannels and ducts to the people? Stöckhardt and others saw, in the establishment of chemical-agriculture experimental stations, a means. The first private experimental farm in Germany was established by Boussingault, in Bachelbronn; but the first true experimental station was founded in 1851, in Möckern. In Prague, an experimental station was founded by the Bohemian Royal Economic Society in 1855, under the distinguished guidanco of Dr. Hoftinan, which is still in active operation.

"In Mäliren an experimental station was founded in Blansko, on the

estate of Prince Salm, by the Royal Schleswig Agricultural Society in 1856, but it was discontinued in 1861. In 1855 an experimental station was established in the most munificent manner by Prince Johann Adolph von Schwarzenberg, in Lobositz, a private enterprise, but onnected with it were Dr. Hamamann and Dr. Breitenlolner, highly distinguished in their respective departments. Quite recently, Carl Maximilian, Count von Seilern, the well-known author of Nourislıment of Plants,' lias established an experimental station upon his estate, Prilep, in Mähren, Finally, in Bohemia must recognition be made of the activity of the experimental station connected with the acarlemy of Tetschen-Liebwerd. In 1866 the number of stations in operation in Germany was twenty. eight.

* The first chapters in the history of experimental stations is a record of discouragements, injustice, and partial failure. The development of such an enterprise must necessarily be slow, and the practical results not immediate. But, not considering the series of years needed for esperiments, the public exacted speedy and marvelous results. Failing in these, the scheme was denounced as a failure, and popular sympathy and support withdrawn; nor did the strife of the agricultural chemists among themselves tend to raise their authority in the eyes of the practical. For a time the stations seemed to be in a hopeless condition because of this distrust. Now, experimontal stations stand recognized in the first line in the service of science. It is less than three decades since agriculture took its rank among sciences. Its first purpose must be, as in the case of every other science, the discovery of truth; then adaptation of that truth to practical ends.

"The most pernicious foes of science are those who constantly demand the useful, and ignore all truth, the immediate marketable value of which is not evident. Reverence for truth must so fill the minds of scientific workers that a false description of the most insignificant plant would be felt as much a reproach as a false description of the solar system. Simple, pure truth must be the end of all naturalists. Science can never accept as her task the discovery of what we wish, but the discovery of what is true; and never can the welfare of mankind be attained by eren the pleasantest illusion, except through the complete and simple truth.

These stations are working great practical good to agriculture; and in the future the results will be inore marked. Their task is threefoldto seek, to teach, and to warn.

"A few statistics will show the results of knowing the elements of the soil, the nature of manures, &c. In Belgium, where agriculture is most rationally pursued, a square mile produces means of nourishment for 7,345 persons, whereas the Polish three-field farming produces food for only 2,229 persons per square mile. Therefore the Belgians are better nourished than the Poles, though the country of the latter is more fruitful by nature, Great Britain, in the cominencement of the nineteenth century, produced grain for eleven millions; now, for at least seventeen millions. Still the results of searching out the secrets of nature are chietly in the future. The most important questions look to future experiments for their answer.

"In regard to aniinal productions, the results of scientific farming are not less marked. Austria produces on one square mile 3,796 heal of stock; Prussia, within the same limits, 5,537; France, 5,970; Great Britain, 11,447.

“Added to the questions of plant and animal production is that scarcely less important one of agricultural industrial manufactories, as

« AnteriorContinuar »