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others had not. Late in October all the queens commenced laying again. To some colonies I gave three queens in about two weeks, and they lost each in turn."

The true cause of the disease has not been discovered. Some attribute it to the want of pollen; some to poisonous honey; and some to the unusually hot summer. Whatever may be the cause, the effect has been inost disastrous, throughout these two States.

BEE PASTURAGE.

Apiarians, to secure a good crop of honey, are beginning to raise crops for the pasturage of their bees. The rapid spread of improved agricul. ture has, in many localities, destroyed the wild honey-yielding plants, so that the profits of bee-keeping are made to depend upon the honey-producing qualities of cultivated plants. The three plants upon which the chief reliance is placed are buckwheat, mustard, and Alsike clover. Buckwheat is the crop most generally sown, though Alsike clover seems destined to supersede it in suitable soils. The advantages of the Alsike are that its honey is of a finer quality than that of buckwheat, and that it affords most excellent fodder, and fine fall pasturage for cattle. Mustard is raised to some extent, and yields a fair supply of honey.

J. King, of Dubuque, Iowa, states that he has grown with profit the purple cane raspberry. Mrs. Tupper, of Iowa, says she has sown Alsike clover, and "esteems it above all other plants.” J. T. Rose, of Monroe County, Michigan, thinks the culture of Alsike clover should be greatly encouraged, as it is valuable for hay as well as for bees. He says that it does not kill out in winter, as does the red clover in his State..

J. R. Gardner, of Montgomery County, Virginia, says: “I sowed, in April, 1867, five pounds of Alsike or hybrid clover, used upon one acre of moderately rich land. Last spring it came forward rapidly and bloomed profusely about the time white clover came into bloom. My bees worked on it from early morn until evening, seeming to prefer it to the white clover. I cut the first crop for seed, but owing to the wet spring it did not yield much seed. The second growth was very rapid, and it again bloomed very full, giving the bees a fine pasturage until frost. I consider it a valuable plant for bee-pasturage, as by cutting it at the proper season it will make a fine show of bloom in the fall, after the clover is gone. It is also as valuable a hay crop as red clover, and will stand the winter better from having a fibrous root, which takes a strong hold in our clay soil. If the farmers in the county could be induced to sow this variety instead of red clover, bee-keeping, I am sat. isfied, could be made profitable by using properly constructed hives, and introducing the Italian variety of the bee into this country generally,

White clover, the linden-tree, the golden rod, and the aster are the main support of the honey-bee. White clover and the linden-tree yield the best honey, while that from the honey-dew is of an inferior quality.

Mr. R. Rogers, of Webster, North Carolina, accompanies his report with a specimen of a plant, of which he says: “There is a minute plant growing around me, that I have seen nowhere else, which keeps green all winter; and, at the beginning of the first open weather in February, covers the earth with a dense and beautiful carpet of green, bearing a great profusion of white bloom. Every warm day in early spring the bees from all the neighborhood literally swarm upon it, drinking the nectar from its tiny cups. I do not know its name or its botapic position.

Professor Porter, of Lafayette college, Pennsylvania, names this plant Phacelia parviflora, Pursh. We hope bee-keepers will pay attention to plants upon which bees feed, and send specimens to the Department, in order that a complete list of honey and pollen yielding plants may be obtained.

The following list comprises some of the plants from which bees gathor honey and pollen during the feeding seasons:

Spring. Willow, alder, aspen or poplar, elm, maple, marsh-marigold, bepatica, anemone, dandelion, erythronium, (albidum,) service-berry, (Amelanchier Canadensis,) currant, gooseberry, strawberry, peach, cherry, apple, pear, China-tree, (Melia Acedarachi,) black-gum, (Nyssa multiflora,) whortleberry, cottonwood, cornel or dogwood, narcissus, honeysuckle, oak, red-bud, (Cercis Canadensis,) hazle, yellow jasmine,

Jasminum ordoratissimum,) sweet-myrtle, (Myrica gale,) magnolia, (glauca,) hawthorn, box-elder, (Negundo aceroides,) locust, azalea.

Summer.-Red clover, white clover, raspberry, blackberry, cockspur, thorn, whortleberry, black-haw, ( Viburnum prunifolium,) self-heal, (Brunella,) azalea, sour-wood, Oxydendrum arboreum,) cinquefoil, cucumber, narrow-leaved plantain, horse-chestnut, strawberry, pea, honey-dew, (on live oak,) chincapin, (Castanea pumila,) persimmon, linden, bee-balm, (Melissa officinalis,) maize, sorghum, heliotrope, iron. weed, (Vernonia,) smart-weed, (Polygonum Persicaria,) butterfly-weed, (Asclepias tuberosa,) viper's bugloss, (Echium vulgare,) cotton plant, buckwheat, sumac, catnip, Spanish needles, (Bidens bipinnata,) beg. gar's lice, (Cynoglossum Morisoni,) boneset, starwort, (Stellaria,) silkweed, (Asclepias cornuti,) thistle, sage, cardipal flower, balsam, mountain mint, ( Alonarda didyma,) sweet marjoram, lavender, spearmint, peppermint, thyme, dandelion, chickweed, pennyroyal, sweet clover, speedwell, (Veronica,) poppy, turnip, hollyhock, sunflower, dahlia, phlox.

Autumn.-Aster, golden-rod, dandelion, white clover, red clover, cinque. foil, chickweed, pennyroyal, artichoke, phlox, chrysanthemum.

SILK' CULTURE.

That the culture of silk can be profitably carried on in the United States is clearly established. The success of the experiments in California has far surpassed the most sanguine expectations of those engaged in them. Mr. Prevost, the pioneer silk grower of that State, and formerly engaged in the same pursuit in France, maintains, after twelve years' experience, that California is “the best silk country in the world," and that the manufactured article, even in its best grades, can be produced cheaper than in Europe. At an early period silk was raised in Virginia. In 1718 experiments in Louisiana were successful, and a good article of silk was produced. For about forty years, silk of a superior quality was raised in Georgia, continuing to be the leading and most profitable product of the colony until it was prostrated by the revolutionary war. In most of the colonies, prior to the revolution, the culture of silk was more or less successful, in Georgia and South Carolina especially so. Cocoons of an excellent quality were produced in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Connecticut. In 1771 a silk establishment was started in Philadelphia for the manufacture of silk of native growth, . which for a series of years received a large amount of cocoons. The culture and manufacture of this valuable commodity are still carried on in parts of New England, in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Philadelphia, Paterson, New Jersey, Hartford, Manchester, and Mansfield, Connecticut, are noted for their extensive silk manufactures. The manufactured silk product of the United States in 1840 was valued at $250,000. In 1844 it had increased to $1,500,000. In 1860 the product in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Connecticut was estimated at over $5,000,000; the leading article manufactured being sewing silk. Since that date the manufacture of silk in those States has been making steady progress, embracing a wide range of articles, as ribbons, braids, trimmings, fringes, and different varieties of dress goods.

It is a source of great encouragement that the diseases which threaten the total destruction of the native species of silk-worms in Europe do not prevail in this country. Mr. Prevost asserts that while from twentyfive to seventy-five per cent. of silk-worms are destroyed by disease and the unpropitious climate of Europe, few ever perish in California. The article from a California correspondent, published herewith, fully sets out the advantages possessed by that State over the silk-growing coun. tries of Europe.

THE SILK INTEREST AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION.

The report of Hon. Elliott C. Cowdin, one of the commissioners representing the United States at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867, and to whom was assigned the subject of silk and silk manufactures, contains much valuable information concerning the progress and present condition of silk husbandry and manufactures in foreign countries, and throws out many suggestions which cannot fail to be useful to those entering upon the culture or the transformation of silk in this country.

The progressive development of silk industry is carefully noted. In

1812 there were in seven of the principal towns of France 27,000 silk looms; in 1824 Lyons alone had nearly 25,000, and in 1839, 40,000. In the latter year there were 85,000 looms in the kingdom, employing about 170,000 workmen, and the production was estimated at $16,300,000. In 1850 the silk goods produced were estimated at $75,000,000; in 1855, at $106,500,000—the number of looms in the empire having increased to 225,000, and the number of workmen employed to half a million. In 1860 the product was estimated at $140,000,000. The United States purchased of French tissues alone, in 1859, 927,000,000; in 1860, $20,800,000; on account of the war of the rebellion, our purchases feli to $5,000,000 in 1861. The commissioner states, as the result of his observations, that though the rebellion has been suppressed, the fiscal measures resulting therefrom still have their effect upon the silk husbandry and manufacture of France, operating as they do at the same period with the scarcity of indigenous silk, and the prevalence of mysterious disease among the silk-worms.

The operations of England in silk are confined to manufactures of the raw material, her uncongenial climate not permitting the rearing of silkworms. In 1823 Great Britain exported of silk goods $702,000; in 1844, $3,682,000; in 1856, $14,800,000; in 1858, $11,950,000; in 1861, $11,560,900; in 1865, $10,886,000. A recent treaty with France has seriously interfered with some branches of the silk industry of Great Britain. In view of the fact that the manufacturers of England are wholly dependent upon foreign importations of raw silk, it is well observed that an instructive lesson is taught the citizens of our country, where everything combines to render the prosecution of this industry pre-eminently successful.

The following table is given to show, as near, as can be ascertained, the value of raw silk produced annually in the nations of the earth: Chinese empire....

$81, 200,000 Japanese empire....

17,000,000 Persia ..............

5,000,000 Asia Minor ........

5, 200, 000 Syria..............

1, 800,000 Turkistan (in China)...

400, 000 Turkistan independent, in As

1,400,000 Corean Archipelago.......

100, 000 France................

25, 600,000 Italy....

39, 200, 000 Turkey in Europe.....

7,000,000 Spain and Portugal......

3, 200, 000 Pontifical States.........

1,300,000 Greece, Ionian islands.......

810, 000 Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Mediterranean coast.....

300,000 Basin of the Danube, Austria, Bavaria, Servia, Hungary 1, 280,000 India .......

24, 000, 000 America.....

80,000 Total..

214, 900,000

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BRANCHES OF SILK MANUFACTURE.

In silk industry there are seven distinct branches, or specialties: 1st, the rearing of the silk-worms; 2d, the filature or reeling of the silk from the cocoons; 3d, the throwing or spinning of the silk thread; 4th, the

dyeing of the silk; 5th, the preparation of the silk threads for the looms; 6th, the wearing of silk goods; 7th, the spinning of waste silk. Commissioner Cowdin reports the condition of, and progress made in, the branches severally, as manifested at the Paris Exposition.

In regard to the first, for purposes of reproduction it is important to choose cocoons of the largest size, and those the most successfully reared and least affected with any malady during the course of their development. These cocoons are recognized by the regularity of their form, the roundness of their extremities, the fineness of grain on the surface, and the solidity and thickness of the layers or silky envelopes. The male cocoons differ from the female in shape and size; the former being smaller, and presenting a cavity upon their back; the latter present the figure of an olive or the egg of a small bird. After collecting, the cocoons should be of a golden yellow color, and exhibit no spot or stain of any kind. After having put a certain number of male cocoons on one side, and of females on the other, weigh both parts to find the average weight of each, and every time this average is exceeded there is a presumption that excellent cocoons are obtained for reproduction, all other things being equal. Cocoons of an exceptional bulk are generally the resuit of two grubs united under the same envelope. Their product is known as “doubles," and is always inferior, being valued at hardly one-third the price of the normal product. An Italian silk husbandman exhibited at the Exposition an apparatus designed to prevent these doubles in the breeding of worms. It is an arrangement of cells made of light wood, each one having only the bulk necessary for a single grub. Each insect, therefore, at the proper time, has its own case, and doubles are rendered impossible. The inventor also claims that his system affords facilities for the choice of the best reproducers, and prevents coupling between grubs of the same family, consanguinity being by many considered as one cause of the rapid deterioration of the breed. The coupling accomplished, the females are removed and made to lay, each in her own cell, in such a way as to admit of the eggs of each las. ing being separately weighed. For good chances of success each laying should weigh at least sixty or seventy grams (per kilogram of cocoons,) each gram to contain thirteen hundred and fifty to fifteen hundred eggs.

The best known varieties of silk-worms are seven in number. The common silk-worm (Bombyx mori) is the species most in use, and produces the best silk: it feeds on the leaves of the mulberry tree, and attains its full growth in about six weeks. The castor-oil plant silk-worm (Bombyx arrindia) is a native of Bengal and British India, and lives on the food indicated by its name. It has been successfully propagated in Europe, where its silk product is found to be supple and durable, but almost destitute of luster. The ailanthus silk-worm (Bombyx Cynthia) is indigenous to the temperate regions of China. It produces an elongated cocoon, of a reddish shade, from which a strong and durable tissue is made. This worm was introduced in France in 1858, and its silk is growing in importance and industrial value. The Tusseh silkworm (Bombyx mylitta) lives in a wild state in Bengal, and in the woods of the hot regions of India. Its food is the leaves of the jujube tree. Their cocoons produce a fine and brilliant silk. Every effort to reproduce this worm in France has failed. The wild silk-worm of Japan (Bomby. Yama Mai) has been successfully reared in France. The leaves of the oak and similar trees are its only food. It is easy to raise, and furnishes a cocoon of greenish yellow, and can be reeled into a beautiful silk. The Bombyx Cecropia is indigenous to the temperate regions of North America, and found principally in the Carolinas, Louisiana and

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