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“When the fish are hatched, raise the water in the troughs about four or five inches by putting on a piece of board of that width on every crosspiece, thus keeping the fish separate about an equal number in each square. If you have a small stream of shallow water near the head of your pond, put a few in a place in the stream and pond, and they will take care of themselves better than you can. The object of distributing them is that they will get more food. All old streams and ponds have plenty of food for small trout and large, which you will find by examining the moss, sticks, and stones in your ponds and streams, as they are full of water insects.
“The fish, after hatching, should be fed twice daily for two or three months, then once a day—the grown fish once a day or oftener. For the young fish, liver should be scraped and chopped very fine, and mixed with water, to give it about the consistency of clotted blood. Toss whis to the fish a little at a time, so that they can catch and devour it before it reaches the bottom of the trough ; no more should be given than the fish will eat, because if any is left it will settle to the bottom and foul the water, and the fish will sicken and die. The fish may be fed on curds, fish offal, or other animal matter, provided it be small enough for them to swallow."
Trout breeding easy.-A family supply of trout may be attained with small expense and little labor by any intelligent owner of a brisk spring of never-failing cold water, if the location is so sheltered as to avoid the risk of overflow from surface drainage. Deep, narrow ponds in ravines protected from the sun's rays, and supplied by spring water through an inch pipe, may suffice for a few specimens, and serve to ainuse and instruct the amateur proprietor; a fountain capable of filling constantly a twoinch pipe will sustain a trout preserve which may prove a source of pleasure and profit; a still larger stream is, of course, desirable, and essential as well, if anything important is sought to be accomplished. There are many who desire to undertake a very simple experiment in pisciculture, content with small returns in the pleasure of providing a new and agreeable feature for their homesteads, and of adding a new luxury to their table fare. To such we recommend the following directions of Theodore Lyman, one of the commissioners of Massachusetts: 66 The simplest hatching apparatus (without a house at all, and one at command of anybody) is made as follows: Close below a spring-head dig a trench a foot wide, so that the whole water shall pass through it gently. Fit tightly into this trench a box, four feet long, and open above and at each end; the water will now flow through this. Close the upper end of the box with a layer of coarse sponge, and below this (down stream, that is) add two flaunel strainers stretched across the box. Now the water will still flow, but will be filtered. Close the lower end of the box with a metallic gauze, (the bottom of an old sieve, painted, will do,) and add a movable cover on top. Now you have a closed box or trough, through which a stream of filtered spring water flows constantly. Take gravel, the size of peas, wash it till clean, and spread it one inch thick on the bottom of the box. On this gravel lay trout eggs, so that they do not lie on top of one another. Examine them daily to remove the dead ones, or any dirt, and to wash the filters when necessary. They will all hatch when they get ready. But, how to get these eggs! In October or November go to a trout brook and walk softly along those parts of it that are gravelly and have running water. Peep under the banks and the dead logs until you see a pair of trout lying close together, their heads to the current. With a hand-net, dexterously used, both may be captured, and transferred to a, pail of water. The female is seen to be the stouter; she has a less-projecting under-jaw, and her fins are not so red. “Take her up tenderly,' and do not go poking a clumsy thumb into her gills. Pass the finger and thumb with a gentle pressure along the abdominal region, and, if the fish is óripe,' the eggs will now out freely. They should be received in a pan of water. Put the female back; take out the male and press him in like manner, and allow the expressed milky fluid to fall into the same pan. Stir the water with the hand, cover it, and allow it to stand for half an hour. Atthe end of that time the eggs which had stuck fast to the sides will become free and roll about. Now gently spread the eggs on the gravel of the trough, and the primary work is done. Should the female not prove ripe, keep her a few days in a pool or spring-hole. The fish thus captured for breeders should not be set free, but kept in a suitable pool till the next season. Such a preserve may easily be made by digging out a place a dozen feet square and three feet deep, grating the inlet and outlet, and leading a stream of water through it. The breeding fish here kept will feed vora. ciously, and will eat refuse scraps of meat, insects, caterpillars, clotted milk, hasty pudding boiled with milk, and small minnows. Thus fed, once or twice a day, they grow rapidly, and a half-pound fish will get to a pound in a year. Meantime, the eggs are growing also, and in their way. After three or four weeks two dark specks appear on each egg, and these, when held to the light, are seen to be the eyes of the embryo, showing through the translucent shell. This is a good time to pack eggs for transportation, Take a tin box, the size and shape of a pint measure, collect also a good handful of peat moss, (Sphagnum,) and wash it clean. Lay a stratum of wet moss in the bottom of the box, and cover the same with a fold of the gauze called musquito bar. On this gauze spread gently a single layer of eggs, and cover them with a second fold of musquito bar. Then put more moss, and another layer of eggs in like manner, and thus continue until the box is full. Put on a cover with a few holes in it, pack the tin in a case of sawdust, and the eggs are good for a month without opening. When they are unpacked take the moss off the top, then lift them out by the gauze, and place them in the hatching-trough. It will be found that they have developed almost as much in the wet moss as they would have done in the water. The tiny embryo may be seen jerking itself uneasily in its spherical prison ; a movement that continues to increase until, after two or three months from impregnation, (according to the temperature of the water,) the creature bursts its shell and appears in all its grandeur, looking, to say the truth, more like a spiritual polliwog than a real salmonide. This polliwog's character arises from the great yolk sac, or, rather call it, harresac, for it bears the thirty days' rations of this recruit. All that time he lies still without foraging. But thereafter we must issue to him, for now he ap. pears as a genteel minnow, with bars on his sides. Twice or thrice a day a little clotted milk, rubbed very fine in water, must be put in the trough, and the fry may be seen eagerly to swallow the floating particles. With enough food, room, and water they will grow fast, and will take larger and larger morsels. Ata year old they may very well weigh four ounces, though they may be somewhat larger or much smaller, according to their treatment. Their increase will depend on depth of water, and quantity and variety of food."
Prizes for fish-rearing.--The Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture has offered two prizes, one of three hundred dollars and one of two hundred dollars, for the best two establishments for the culture of food-fishes in Massachusetts. The awards will be made March 1, 1872, and are to be determined by a consideration of the number of species cultivated, the number and condition of individuals, the number of eggs hatched and young reared, and the neatness and economy of the establishment, and the excellence of the fixtures.
Area for fish-farming.–Few realize the extent of inland water in which fish culture cau aid in the enlargement of food production. In the State of New York, for example, the area of lakes is nearly half a million acres, (466,457,) the coast line 270 miles, and the number of lakes 647. Of the larger, Cayuga is 35 miles long; Seneca, 35; Oneida, 20; Otsego, 20; Chautauqua, 18; Crooked, 18; Canandaigua, 16; Skaneateles, 16; Owasco, 12; Hemlock, 8; lIoneoye, 5, and Conesus, 5. These waters are ample for the annual production of edible fish to the value of many millions of dollars, sufficient to aid materially in supplying subsistence to the dense population of the State oï New York.
As New York is thus made to illustrate the extent of inland waters, without reference to the chain of inland seas stretching westward to Minnesota, the seaboard bays and estuaries of Maryland and Virginia, with many hundreds of miles of coast line, may serve to show how rast an area of tide-water is accessible for fish-producing and fish-catching purposes.
WHAT IIAS BEEN DONE BY STATE ACTION. As early as 1856 a commission upon pisciculture was authorized in Massachusetts, which resulted in a few experiments and a report.
In April, 1865, upon remonstrance of New Hampshire and Vermont against preventing migration of fishes by high dams on the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers, the legislature appointed two commissioners, Theodore Lyman and Alfred A. Reed, to investigate the question. In December of the same year these commissioners reported to the governor and council, and in May, 1866, the legislature provided for the appointment of two commissioners for five years to carry out a general plan for opening the above rivers to the passage of shad and salmon over the dams. Mr. Lyman was again appointed, and Alfred R. Field was associated with him. In December, 1866, they were able to report the finishing of the Merrimack fish ways, and the opening of the New Hampshire section of the river by the authorities of that State. The powers of the commissioners were enlarged in 1867, and they entered at once upon a general examination of the fish ways, and commenced restocking the waters of the State. In June, 1868, a question having arisen relative to the liability of the proprietors of the Holyoke dam for the construction of a fishway, an appropriation of twelve thousand dollars was made for such improvement. The appropriations of the Massachusetts legislature in aid of fish culture for a single year have amounted to thirty thousand dollars.
A recent communication from Theodoro Lyman, president of the Massachusetts cominission, reports the progress of their official operations, and announces their success in opening several rivers, especially the Merrimack. The Lawrence fish way over the high dlam at that place has been a difiicult one, both from its height and the necessity of great strength as a protection against ice. Its cost has exceeded eight thousand dollars, and while it carries the fish over in its present condition, some projected improvements will render it an undoubted success. The commission has stocked ponds with black bass, and bred salmon, trout, lake trout, (Salmo toma,) and land-locked salınon (S. Gloveri :) distributed many millions of shad spawn, but failed in efforts to obtain that of the white fish, ( Coregonus alba,) the Belgrade smelt, and the wall-eyed pike, (Lucio perca.)