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EXPERIMENTS WITH FIELD SEEDS.
All seeds sent forth by the Department for test and experiment are accompanied with a request to report results in all essential details. A digest of the more important of these reports will be presented among the annual transactions of the Department. The following statements are the results of experiments made in different parts of the country with seeds which were distributed with the view of ascertaining their adaptation to the different soils and climates of the Upited States:
WINTER WHEAT. Windsor County, Vermont.-One quart of Tappahanuock wheat was sowed on an alluvial soil the 1st of October; yield, ten quarts of fine wheat with very full kernel; quality superior to any other wheat in that section.
Bristol County, Massachusetts.- The Tappalannock wheat has been successful in some parts of the State; in Bristol County twelve to sixteen bushels per acre having been raised.
Hampden County, Massachusetts.-One quart of each variety of the White and the Red Mediterranean wheat was sowed the 4th of October, and barvested the 16th of July. The yield was fifty-one pounds of the Red and forty-sis of the White. The Red yielded better than the White, and appears more desirable for the Connecticut Valley. It was grown on sandy soil, and is superior to the native varieties.
Neuport County, Rhode Island. - The White Flint, the Tappahannock, and the White Mediterranean wheat have been cultivated, but with little success. The largest yield is only about sixteen bushels per acre, on a soil which would produce fifty or sixty bushels of corn.
Dutchess County, New York.- The Tappahannock wheat sown last fall was a failure. No kernel was formed in the heads.
Jefferson County, New York.-A quart of Sandomirka wheat was sown in drills, the last of August, on five and a half square rods of ground, which had not been manured, and had produced three crops after being cleared up from the forest. The crop was harvested the last of July, and produced forty-seven and a half pounds of fine, plump wheat, at the rate of twenty-three bushels per acre. It seems well adapted to the soil and climate of New York, and preferable to the common spring wheat.
Tioga County, New York.–Tappahannock wheat, received from the Department, is quite fifteen days earlier than any other variety
Cayuga County, New York.-Tapahannock wheat, sown on the 10th of September; grew well; stood the winter first-rate; ripened about the 8th of July, with large heads and plump kernel; and escaped by its earliness both rust and weevil, which injured other varieties badly.
East Maine, New York.-The White Mediterranean and Sandomirka wheats were badly winter-killed, and produced less than an average crop. The Polish wheat yielded a good crop-superior to anything in the vicinity.
Wyoming County, Pennsylvania.-The Tappahannock wheat is ten days tarlier than any other variety grown in this county. Two quarts of seed, received from the Department, yielded from the second year's sowing five bushels of very fine wheat.
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.-One quart of the Tappahannock wheat, sown on the 18th of September, yielded seventy-nine pounds. It ripened twenty days earlier than other varieties, and was not injured by the midge. It stood the winter well, and promises to be the wheat for this region.
Columbia County, Pennsylvania.-One quart of Tappahannock wheat, sown broadcast in September, on one-twentieth of an acre, ripened a week earlier than other varieties, and produced eighty-two pounds, or over twenty-seven bushels to the acre, of screened wheat of fine quality. Our reporter says, if it does not deteriorate, it will be a great acquisition.
Montgomery County, Maryland. The Tappahannock and the White Mediterranean wheat are cultivated in the county. The White Medi. terranean yields more, but the Tappahannock commands a higher price.
Baltimore County, Maryland.—The Tappahannock wheat ripened early, and yielded exceedingly well. There was no appearance of injury from the midge.
Amelia - County, Virginia.-After a trial of twenty varieties of wheat, preference is given to the Tappahannock, which is now found on almost every plantation. If sown from the 20th of September to the 10th of October, it will ripen from the 10th to the 25th of June.
Powhatan Hill, Virginia.—The Tappahannock wheat has failed generally, and is likely to be abandoned, as most popular varieties have been after having a good run for a few seasons.
Montgomery County, Virginia.--About a pint and a half of the Tappa. hannock wheat produced three pecks of the most perfect wheat our correspondent ever saw. The kernel was one-fourth larger than the sample sown.
Dover Mines, Virginia.Seven quarts of Mediterranean wheat, drilled one foot apart, produced seven bushels of heavy wheat, uninjured by rust. .
Clarke County, Virginia.- The Tappahannock wheat was somewhat injured by the fly. The injury appears to have been occasioned by late sowing. Fields sown in September produced heavy crops of fine quality Tappahannock wheat is preferred to any other in Greene, Washington, Wythe, Craig, Louisa, and Clarke counties.
Duplin County, North Carolina.—About a quart of Tappahannock wheat was sown on a stiff, sandy loam, in drills eighteen inches apart. The land was as fertile it could well be made. After the grain came up about one-fourth was destroyed by grasshoppers. In February a topdressing of guano and phosphate of lime was applied, mixed, at the rate of two hundred pounds to an acre. In April the rabbits destroyed nearly one-fourth of what remained. A crop of three and a quarter bushels was harvested from the one quart of seed. It grew five feet high, and ripened ten days earlier than other winter wheat.
Albermarle County, North Carolina.-Two quarts were sown on high, dry land, a gravelly clay slate, without manure, and produced, from a little more than half an acre, seven bushels of fine wheat. It tillered astonishingly, as many as fifty heads sometimes growing from one kernel. They were much larger than common, and the wheat weighed sixty-two and a half pounds per bushel. No other variety yielded anything like the Tappahannock.
Franklin County, North Carolina.-Two and a half pounds of Tappahannock wheat, sown on four hundred square yards of ground, poorly prepared, ripened eight or ten days earlier than other wheat in the vicinity, and yielded eighty pounds, or at the rate of about seventeen bushels per acre-sixty-two and a half pounds to a bushel. The grain was injured by the rains.
Chester, North Carolina.--The Tappahannock wheat is much esteemed by the few who have tried it; it is ten days later than the Alabama.
Earlesville, South Carolina.-The Tappahannock wheat will succeed better in this latitude than the Russian, and will prove a valuable acquisition.
Carroll County, Georgia.- The Tappabannock wheat sent by the Department yielded one hundred to one.
Belair, Georgia.-One quart of the Red-bearded Mediterranean wheat, sown on six and a half square rods, produced two bushels, weighing sixty-four pounds to the bushel.
De Kalb County, Alabama.-Two pounds of Tappahannock wheat were sown on a piece twenty feet square, the land being much worn, soil about three inches of dark loam, and stiff clay subsoil, cultivated with corn the previous year, and fertilized with four loads of stable manure, plowed under. The yield was two and a half bushels of the finest wheat ever seen in this section.
Claiborne, Mississippi.- The Tappahannock and Mediterranean wheats made a large yield. The former was a little injured by the rust, but the latter was untouched.
Washington County, Mississippi.—White Mediterranean and the Tap pahannock wheat, sown the 11th of November, were ripe the first of June, and yielded thirty-five bushels per acre.
Union Parish, Louisiana.—The Tappahannock wheat has been introduced into Union Parish, and has shown that wheat may be successfully grown in that part of the State. In most parishes the culture is considered impracticable, on account of rust. The season of sowing is the last of October and the first of November; of harvesting, the latter part of June.
Giles County, Tennessee.—The Tappahannock wheat, sown the 10th of October, ripened two weeks earlier than other varieties, and yielded one-fourth more of excellent wheat. Our correspondent thinks it will prove to be of great advantage to that section.
Smith County, Tennessee.-Two pounds of Tappahannock wheat, sowed on one twenty-fourth part of an acre, produced eighty pounds of very fine wheat. More than ten pounds of it were destroyed by Guinea chickens just before ripening. After this loss it yielded at the rate of over thirty-five and a half bushels per acre, more than twice the yield of the wheat commonly cultivated.
Haukins County, Tennessee.--Four quarts of Tappahannock wheat yielded one hundred and sixty-four quarts. The correspondent states that it was as fine wheat as he ever saw in this country or in England.
Daridson County, Tennessee.-The Tappahannock wheat has had a fair trial in this section. Last season one hundred and twenty acres were sown, and yielded thirty bushels per acre. From four quarts of Tappahannock wheat, received in 1866, enough was raised in 1867 to produce sixty-three busheis in 1868. Our correspondent says that its vigorous growth, hardiness, early maturing, freedom from rust and smut, and its abundant yield and fine flour, recommend it to all cultivators.
Coffee County, Tennessee.--Our correspondent is satisfied that the Tappahannock wheat will prove a success in this section. It stood well through the hard winter of last season, and made a large yield of beautiful wheat. The White Mediterranean and the White California grew beautifully, but did not stand the winter so well.
The Tappahannock wheat has become popular in Greene, Ilawkins, Union, Rhea, Monroe, Polk, and other counties, on account of its earliness, freedom from rust, certainty, and productiveness.
Braxton County, West Virginia.-Trials of the Tappahannock wheat, for the past two years, justify the conclusion that it is ten days earlier than any other kind, and that the grain is of better quality. It is free from rust and the weevil. The Tappahannock is also preferred in Marion County and Kanawha.
Benton, West Virginia.-A peek of Tappahanpock wheat sown last fall was sufficiently ripe to harvest the first of July; thought to be the best wheat in the neighborhood.
Kentucky.-The Wbite May and the Tappahannock wheat are preferred, the former for its early maturity and exemption from rust; the latter for its good yield, and for the preference given to it in market, being fifteen to twenty cents higher per bushel than other varieties.
Missouri, The Tappahannock wheat is popular so far as it has been introduced, being earlier, and yielding better flour than most other varieties. It is sown in September and October, and harvested from the middle of June to the middle of July.
Sedalia, Missouri.-One pint of Tappahannock wheat, sown two years ago, has produced five bushels, and the variety has done well thus far.
Hannibal, Missouri. –The Tappahannock wheat has been cultivated for two years. It gives an average yield of thirty-five bushels per acre; ripens about the same time as the Early May, but is a better wheat. It will be a valuable acquisition.
Hermitage, Missouri.—The Tappahannock wheat ripens about two weeks earlier than other varieties, and, for this reason, has always escaped the rust; does not yield quite so much as other wheat, but its full kernel and superior flour fully compensate for this deficiency.
Harrison County, Missouri.-One quart of the Mediterranean wheat produced forty pounds of good grain, though injured considerably by grasshoppers.
Baxter's Springs, Kansas.-The Tappahannock wheat, received from the Department, is superior to any other kind cultivated here.
Canton, Illinois.-One pound and a half of the Tappahannock wheat produced twenty pounds, fully equal in quality to that received from the Department.
Hardin County, Ohio.- One quart of Tappahannock wheat produced twenty quarts of handsome, plump grain, equal, if not superior, to the seed sent.
Portage County, Ohio.—The Tappahannock wheat is preferred in this county. It is sown from the 1st to the 20th of September; harvested from the 1st to the 12th of July.
Michigan.—The Tappahannock wheat holds a high rank for its early ripening, large yield, and fine quality of flour. White's Bald Mediter. ranean is becoming a great favorite.
Berrien County, Michigan.—The Tappalannock, the Tasmania, and the Chiddam wheat were sowed in equal quantities, side by side. The Chid. dam was entirely destroyed, while the others were not injured. The Tappahannock and Tasmania made a fair yield, but our correspondent thinks the White Mediterranean ahead of the other varieties. .
Washtenau County, Michigan.—The Tappahannock wheat, sown about the 1st of October, ripened nearly three weeks earlier than the Treadwell, sown at the same time and on the same soil. Seventy-four pounds of good, heavy wheat were raised from one quart sown, weighing over sixty pounds per bushel.
Luatie (vintis, lichigan.-One bushel of rery plump white wheat was raised from one quart of the Tappalannock variety, sown the 29th ci September.
Schoolcraft, Michigan.-Sowed five-eighths of an acre with the Tappahannock wheat; raised at the rate of thirty-two bushels per acre. The best wheat or other varieties did not yield more than twenty-five bushels.
Lerington, Michigan.--The Tappahanneck wheat, sent by the Depart ment, proved a complete failure. The clinate seems too severe for its growth; it was badly winter-killed, not withstanding the precautions taken.
Lapeer County, Michigan.-One bushel of the Tappahanneck wheat, sown the 20th of September, produced twenty-four bushels of as fine wheat as our correspondent ever saw; it weighed on an average sixtylive and a half pounds per bushel. It is not perfect proof against the widge.
Ingham County, Michigan.—Two quarts of Tappahamock wheat were sown on different farms. One lot was winter-killed on account of the wet condition of the soil ; the other grew finely, and produced twentyeight pounds of beautiful wheat.
Wisconsin.—The Tappahannock wheat has been received with much favor, but the Mediterranean, the Blue Stem, the White Wabash, and the Winter Club are preferred.
Monroe County, Wisconsin.-One quart of Tappahannock wheat, sown the 15th of September and harvested the 4th of July, yielded at the rate of thirty-two bushels per acre. It was not infested by insects as other varieties were, and matured twenty days earlier. It is the most popular grain in that part of the State, where the thermometer sinks to twentyeight degrees below zero.
Des Moines County, Iowa.-Å quart of the Tappahannock wheat, received from the Department of Agriculture, produced a hundred bushels at the third sowing it brought $1 per bushel, when sold for seed.
Another report from Iowa says: Forty acres, sown with Tappahannock wheat, produced one thousand bushels of fine grain. Average twenty-five bushels per acre.
Cuming County, Nebraska.—Two-thirds of a quart of White Mediterranean winter wheat were sown in the hope of making it spring wheat. It grew finely, and produced three pecks of excellent wheat.
Washington, Utah.-The Tappahannock wheat, sent by the Department, was harvested in May; it was full and plump, and will succeed well here.
Aurora, Verada.-The Tappahannock wheat is of good quality ; ripens early, which is an important consideration where the seasons are so short.
Ten London County, Connecticut.-On the 13th of April, one quart of Arnautka spring wheat was sown in drills on sandy loam, fertilized with horse inanure, hen manure, and ashes, scattered along the drills. The other package was sowed in a compact soil, in better condition, and mauured highly in the drills. Both did well, but that on the sandy soil did best. The yield was at the rate of twenty bushels per acre, of very nice grain. It proves to be a very valuable variety for that locality.
Baltimore County, Maryland.—The Arnautka spring wheat was injured