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by the midge, about one-fourth being destroyed. The injury was probably caused by late sowing. The wheat had a very beautiful appearance.
Washington, D. C.-Among the large number of varieties of spring wheat tested on the experimental farm, the Black Sea wheat, from California, proved to be the earliest and best. It was sown the 12th of March, and came into ear the 28th of May, in 'eighty-one days. The red Chili was sown at the same time, and was only about three days later in coming into ear. This is a very promising variety.
Timber, Illinois. -One quart of Arnautka spring wheat yielded sixteen quarts of good quality, making more and better flour than any other wheat.
Clinton County, Indiana.-Two quarts of Arnautka wheat were sown broadcast on common clay land, the 16th of April, at the rate of one and a half bushel per acre. It was harvested the 20th of July, and produced at the rate of twenty bushels per acre. It was not attacked by the weevil or rust, and is regarded by wheat growers as a success. There was only about one-fourth of a crop of native wheat.
Washington County, Minnesota.-The Scotch Fife wheat is preferred here, being less liable to rust than other varieties, and standing up better. The Black Sea is very popular. Little winter wheat is cultivated.
Le Sueur County, Minnesota.-One pound and three-fourths of Arnautka spring wheat was sown April 24. It grew finely and stood up well. When harvested, August 12, the yield was fifty pounds. Our correspondent says it appears to be a good kind of wheat, and well adapted to that soil (a sandy loam) and climate.
Dubuque County, Iowa.-One pound and a half of the Arnautka spring wheat was sown in drills, on three square rods of ground. Sixty-one pounds were harvested, being about fifty-three bushels per acre.
Johnson County, Nebraska.–One pint of Arnautka wheat, sown the 20th of April, produced twenty-five pounds of good wheat. It appears to be well adapted to Nebraska.
Aurora, Nevada.—Three table spoonfuls of the Arnautka wheat, sown in the spring for two seasons, has increased to six and a quarter bushels of large and plump grain.
East Maine, New York.-Two and a half bushels of the Swedish oats produced thirty-one bushels, weighing thirty-nine pounds to the bushel, although damaged at least twenty-five per cent. by drought. The Strausburg yielded well, but not so well as the Swedish.
Ashtabula County, Ohio.—The Poland oats, sent from the Department of Agriculture, yielded about fifty-fold, while the common variety produced only about twelve-fold.
Calhoun County, Michigan.-From a quart of the Potato oats, sent from the Department, two hundred bushels of fine, sound oats, weighing about forty-tive pounds per bushel, were raised from the second sowing. Our reporter considers one bushel worth two of the common oats, which weigh from twenty-eight to thirty-two pounds per bushel.
Sibley County, Minnesota.—The New Brunswick oats, sent from the Department of Agriculture, yielded forty-five bushels per acre, and averaged forty-seven pounds per bushel.
Cuming County, Nebraska.--A little less than a quart of white Swedish oats produced more than a bushel, weighing forty pounds per bushel. Iron County, Utah.-From eight ounces of white Swedish oats, a crop of seventy-six pounds was raised, being at the rate of one hundred and fifty-two bushels from one. The soil was a sandy loam, liberally dressed with barn-yard manure, plowed in.
Aurora, Nevada.—Three table spoonfuls of Swedish oats yielded one bushel of fine, plump grain.
Hennepin County, Minnesota.The Alsike clover proved true to its name, and bore last year a heavy crop ; smothered out the timothy; • will prove a valuable acquisition for Minnesota. The black and the Italian bees worked upon it from June to October.
Jefferson County, Missouri.-Sowed the Alsike clover received from the Department; growth very luxuriant; the best clover ever caltivated on the farm.
Montgomery, Texas.-After thirty years' experience with the most celebrated grasses, such as fescue, &c., none approaches in value the California clover. It grows well on any soil, affording two crops of hay innually, double the yield of any other grass. Once sowed, it grows perpetually. Cows afford more and better milk and butter when grazed on this, than on any other grass. It is thought that it would be a val table addition to the grasses of the middle and southern States.
RECENT FARM EXPERIMENTS.
The following statements, condensed from a mass of material gathered from various sources, are not presonted with a view to deciding contested agricultural theories, but rather as a compilation of the results of experiments, which shall be considered as Suggestive rather than authoritative; suggestive, particularly, to the many who liave not the disposition, or the time, for scientific discussion, but who may be interested in the accounts given by plain working farmers of the methods which they have tested.
It is hoped that the examples here given may induce others to experimental effort, with increased knowledge as to what is needful to render such effort valuable to themselves and to the public-there being great necessity for more care in conducting farm experiments and for greater precision in the statement of results. In making these selections, many similar statements, apparently valuable at first glance, have been rejected on account of the omission of important facts. Failure to state the character of the soil on which the trial was made; the quantity of seed sown; the nature, amount, and cost of manures applied; the product from a given area-omission, or at best, want of precision in the statement of one or more of these and similar points, is so frequent as to be rather the rule than the exception. The constant occurrence of such inaccuracies is indeed not surprising; but not the less is it to be regretted, and not the less should effort be made for its avoidance.
Frequent, careful, and practical field trials are especially desirable in the present agricultural condition of this country. There is a class of European agricultural experiments, very valuable and made at large cost of time and money, which are so distinctively scientific as to serve our agriculturists often rather as oracular authorities, whose decrees must be translated for the uses of actual process, than as direct guides to ecouomical methods of farm culture, Says Professor Voelcker of the Royal Agricultural Society of England-one of the most thorough scientific experimentalists of the age: “ The scientific experimenter is not neces. sarily interested in the economical result of a field trial; direct profit is not his aim, but rather the establishment of general principles which may be applied by the practical farmer." He adds: “It is for the farmer to keep these general principles in view, and to determine for himself what practical bearing such principles have on the cultivation of his crops in a particular locality."
W' I EAT. The following statements are condensed from the reports of the several competitors for the premiums offered by the Athens (Georgia) Wheat Club, the report in each case having been made upon one acre of wheat entered.
No. 1. Report of Dr. J. S. Hamilton.-Land, light gray or sandy sur. face soil, with red clay subsoil; brought into cultivation in 1867, and planted in corn and peas, producing about 12 bushels of corn. Norember 7, the lot was plowed and replowed at right angles, close and deep, with a scooter plow; 70 bushels of cotton seed were then spread and
turned in with a two-horse plow, breaking the soil to the depth of six or eight inches. November 12, a mixture of 385 pounds each of Peruvian guano and dissolved bone (the latter of Georgia manufacture, two parts bone to one of acid, with equal weight of ground pine charcoal) was spread very evenly. November 13, 137 pounds of Tappahannock wheat, steeped in a solution of salt and bluestone, was sown and plowed in with the fertilizer, and then barrowed and rolled. A topdressing of two sacks of ammonia phosphate was applied about the 1st of March. Cost of 70 bushels cotton seed, $14; guano and dissolved bone, $49 08; ammonia phosphate, $7 28; total, $70 36. Yield, 45 bushels 30 pounds.
No. 2. Report of J. W. Nicholson.—Land very poor; cultivated but once in six years, when it was sown in oats. The field was plowed three times with a scooter plow, and wheat harrowed in a red-bearded variety, slow in maturing and not prolific, but said to escape rust. Seed sown October 15; quantity, two bushels. Manure applied-seven twohorse loads stable manure, 20 loads of half-rotted chips and leaves, three loads of well-leached ashes, 1,000 pounds of Phenix guano, and eight loads of clay; the whole valued at $63 50. Top-dressed, March 10, with 250 pounds of Peruvian guano. Wheat cut June 4. Yield, 21 busbels 30 pounds. The drought killed more than one-half as it sprouted, and storms blew the plants down when in bloom and heading out, and one-third were flat on the ground when cut. Little damage from rust, but rabbits and dogs injured the crop one-fourth.
No. 3. Report of R. L. Bloomfield. The acre was poor upland, uncultivated for fifteen or twenty years. Land was broken up with a two. horse plow followed by a scooter in each furrow, and then thrown up in beds sixteen feet wide, leaving water-furrows between the beds. The beds were then furrowed with a turning shovel, and cotton seed sown and covered with the next furrow, the latter process being continued until 70 bushels of the cotton seed had been applied. Cost of 320 pounds of guano used, $16; 70 bushels of cotton seed, $14; 15 loads of stable manure compost, $20; total, $50. Wheat sown the second week in December, a bearded variety, one and a quarter bushel. A top-dressing of five loads of compost was applied in the spring with great advantage. Crop cut June 17. Yield, 32 bushels 464 pounds. The season was wet until the wheat bloomed, afterwards dry until the crop ripened.
No. 4. Report of Captain H. A. Gartrell.The field was red valley land, in constant cuitivation for many years, and in wheat the previous two years. When the crop was cut the stubble was turned under with a bushel of peas; and, October 1, the green pea-vines were plowed under. Three weeks afterwards the ground was broken with a subsoil plow, fourteen inches both ways, and 400 pounds Baugh's phosphate, 200 pounds Peruvian guano, and 200 pounds gypsum applied. October 22, two bushels of inferior wheat were sown and plowed in, harrowed and rolled. No top-dressing used. Harvested May 26. Yield, 21 bushels 20 pounds. Season unfavorable; frequent rains with high winds, fol. lowed by lot sunshine. Wheat blown down in spots two or three times. Crop cut short one-half by rust.
No. 5. Report of A. P. Dearing.--Soil thin and gravelly, on a ridge sloping to north and west; one-fourth partially fertilized as the resting place of cattle; ten years in cultivation, the last three seeded to wheat The lot was plowed with a turning plow, followed by a scooter in the same furrow, after which 100 busliels cotton seed, 500 pounds Peruvian guano, and 600 pounds dissolved bone were applied and plowed in. Norember?, Urce bushels of Tappahanrock wheat were sown and harroved
in; and in February a top-dressing of 100 pounds salt and 20 bushels ashes was applied to three-fourths of the acre, and in April about 100 pounds of salt, 100 pounds Augusta fertilizer, and 100 pounds Peruvian guano, to the same area. Yield, 40 bushels 23 pounds. When in bloom, one-fourth of the acre was prostrated by frequent storms. Rust on the blade from the time it commenced to fill; stalk, before cutting, entirely bare. . When cut, in June, one-fourth was badly tangled, and flat on the ground. The portion treated with ashes and salt did not fall.
No. 6. Report of General W. M. Browne.Soil poor, gray surface, and red clay foundation; an old second-growth pine field, cleared in 1866 and seeded to wheat in 1866–07. After the harvest of 1867 the land was plowed thoroughly across the old furrows, and peas sown and plowed in. The last of September, the peas were sprinkled with lime and turned under with a two-horse plow. In a few days thereafter 100 bushels of cotton seed were turned under with a Brinley plow, followed in the same furrow by a scooter, breaking the soil six or seven inches. Fertilizers used : 100 bushels cotton seed, 250 pounds Peruvian guano, and 250 pounds Reid's superphosphate, costing $13 75. No top-dressing applied. Wheat sown November 1, after soaking in brine and a solution of bluestone. Harvested May 1. Yield, 38 bushels 521 pounds. Much rain and high wind in April and May, and considerable rust on the blade.
No. 7. Report of Colonel D. C. Barrow.-Gray land, thin and poor, utterly exhausted by repeated croppings. A very poor crop of wheat taken from it last year. In the summer two bushels of peas were sown, and in September turned under with a two-horse plow. The first week in November, 100 bushels cotton seed were spread and plowed under. the soil being pretty well pulverized, but not thoroughly. Two bushels of Tappahannock wheat, 1,150 pounds Reid's phosphate, and 250 pounds Peruvian guano were sown and plowed in together, and the field then dragged smooth with brush. Two gallons of clover were also sown. Cost of 100 bushels cotton seed, $20; 1,150 pounds phosphate, $28 75; 250 pounds guano, $12 50: total, $61 25. Harvested June 3. Yield. 27 bushels. In the gullies and clayey places the stand was injured by winter-killing; and there was some loss from rust on the blade.
No. 8. Report of Colonel B. 0. Yancey.-Soil poor; in cultivation many years; produced last season, without manure, seven bushels of wheat. Land broken in October with a two-horse Brinley plow, followed by a sub-soiler; cross-broken with a two-horse plow, and then harrowed and rolled before sowing. About 60 bushels of cotton seed, two barrels bone flour, 750 pounds Peruvian guano, and one barrel land plaster were used as fertilizers. December 3, three bushels of Schley wheat were sown; top-dressed in the spring with two bushels of salt and eight bushels of ashes. Value of fertilizers, $77. Harvested June 16. Yield, 39 bushels 16 pounds. Winter rather wet and peculiarly unfavorable to the locality, which was level upland, receiving surplus water from adjoining slopes of rising land. In addition to leaf mold, the crop was damaged by rust on the stem from June 3 to June 16. While sprouting a severe freeze injured the stand. The opinion is expressed by some Virginia farmers that the use of plaster produced the rust, the season having been wet. Colonel Yancey thinks an excess of guano and bonedust was used.
No. 9. Report of Major A. L. Dearing.-Gray land, with red clay foundation; inclined to be sandy; in cultivation five years. The field was plowed with a turning plow, followed in the same furrow with a long bull-tongue plow; crossed in the same manner, and harrowed twice.