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The following tabulation is a summary of the statemeuts made on preiniums given by the society, in the years named, for the best native or mixed cows taken singly.” It will be seen, on a comparison and general average of these statements, that they show a decided increase as to yield of milk in later over earlier years, especially when the relative periods of the milking season and the leading circumstances are sufficiently paralleled. For instance, first premium cow of 1858, ten years old, gives during the first week in June, six weeks after calving, a daily average of 13.61 quarts, and during the first week in September a daily average of 9.55 quarts. First premium cow of 1866, ten years old, gives during the third week in February, one month after calving, a daily average of 22.6 quarts, and during the second week in June a daily average of 18 quarts. With regard to the year 1868, the cause of the relative positions assigned to the first and the second premium cows is not so clearly shown by the report as might be desired. It may be understood, however, that, as in neighboring societies, the size and form of the animal, indicating greater or less economy of keeping, the richness of the milk, and other circumstances, are taken into account in the adjudication of prizes.
Dnrbam, \ Alderney .... April 21 ....... Best of season, 22. Sept.,-week, 16. Grade Durham.
Dec. 1, 1863.... Feb., 1st week, 17.79. June, do. 15. Har.
do. 13.4.) | Alderney and Ayrshire... April 7........ June, 21 week, 16.11. Sept., 1st w'k, 11.
June 15.... June, last week, 20. Sept., 1st week, 15. Native (comes in, May,1865) Dec. 30, 1863... Mar., 1st week, 11.81. June, Ist week, 10.
September ....Mar., 1st w'k, 11.07. June, 1st w'k, 14.25.
June, 2d week, 15.07. Sept. 2d wk, 10.93.
June, 20 week, 14.43. Sept.. Ist week, 10.3.
Jan. 21 ....... Feb., 3d week. 22.6. June, 2d week, 18. Native ......
June 10 ....... June, last week, 19. Sept., 1st week, 16.57.
May 30, 1865 S June, '65 -w'k, 18. Sep. --w'k, '65, 14.29.
Sept. 20, 1866 June, 1866, -week, 4.93.
April 15.'..... June, 2d week, 17.71. Sept., 1st wk, 13.57. 4 Alderney, # Ayrshire... Dar. 21....... June, 2d week, 17. Sept., 2d week, 13,5,
Sept. 1, 1866.. Sant * Durhamn, 2 native........
6. Sept.-; Oct. (1866,) 20. June (1867,) 13.
Oct. 10, 1867.. native \ Ayrshire....... May 2........
June, 2d week, 21.82. Sept., 1st w'k, 15.57. INative ......
Mar. 13..... .
June, 2d week, 18. Sept., 1st week, 14. Grade Ayrshire ....
May 18..... June, 2d week, 21.71. Sept. Ist week, 13.29.
Mar 30........ June, 2 week, 18.43. Sept., 1st 'k, 12.5.
Th3 following table represents the averages of daily yield, at the period of largest product, in the years named. in 1858 only the first premium was bestowed, similar premiums having been withheld on account of unsatisfactory statements: .
Inspection of yield of the various animals at the second period of report in each respective year, which is generally equivalent to the first week of September, shows averages the relative proportions of which are similar to those exhibited at the period of largest yield.
Comparison of statements, as to the feeding of the cows, indicates an average improvement, during later years, in the manner of keeping. So far as the reports show, the two following animals appear to be fair representatives of the best feeding. The first premium cow of 1866, entered by J. P. Cummings, of Tyngsborough, yielding 22.6 quarts daily during the third week in February, and one month after calving; twenty quarts daily during one week in April, and eighteen quarts daily during the second week in June; was kept, during winter and spring, on "run" hay, corn fodder, eight quarts of shorts, and one quart of meal mixed, per day; in summer on common pasture. Second premium cow of 1868, entered by John Higgins, of Lowell, yielding 25.5 quarts daily, during the second week in June, two months after calving, and fifteen quarts daily during the first week in September; was kept in winter on good hay, with two quarts of shorts, and one quart of meal per day; in summer, on grass only.
AMERICAN DAIRYMEN IN SWITZERLAND.
American enterprise appears to be looking to other continents for new spheres of activity. A company of Americans have located a milk. condensing establishment at Cham, near Lake Zug, in Switzerland, intended to contribute to English consumption particularly. George H. Page, of Dixon, Illinois, is superintendent of the “Anglo-Swiss Con. densed Milk Company.” Milk from the Alpine region is celebrated for its richness and flavor. About 400 gallons are received daily from the peasants of the neighborhood, and manufactured so carefully that a specimen kept twelve months, as reported by Baron Liebig, has been churned into excellent butter.
MILK TRANSPORTATION IN FRANCE.
On the French railways the milk-can is filled full of milk, and so stoppered down that there is no room for the least motion to churn the milk and separate its buttery particles. In hot weather the can is covered with a textile wrapper which is watered with a fine sprinkler before the train starts; and in a long journey the watering is repeated at intervals. The effect of the whole system, as carried out in these and other particulars, is that the milk is conveyed without deterioration. The
police in France and Belgium are empowered to test, with a lactometer, any milk on sale in dairy or street, and to seize such as is found to be diluted.
PRESERVATION OF MILK.
The method of M. Mabrun for the preservation of milk is to warm the milk to a moderate temperature in a tin vessel furnished with a leaden tube, for the expulsion of air; the tube is then compressed and closed with solder. A committee of the French Academy of Sciences, to whom M. Mabrun subjected his process for examination, reported that the milk thus preserved possessed, six months after being put up, all the properties of fresh milk. A prize of 1,500 francs was awarded to M. Mabrun.
A correspondent of the Departinent in Niagara County, New York, speaking of the fruit crop of 1867, in that county, says that one man in Lockport was offered $1,500 for the pears grown on one acre. He sent them to New York, where they were overkept, and he realized only $1,000 for them. One school district in Newfane received over $40,000 for fruit. The sales of apples, as taken from the books of the various buyers in the county, foot up 200,000 barrels, at an average price of $2 60, making probably the most money ever received for any one crop of any kind ever gathered in the county.
Pears.--Mr. P. T. Quinn, of New Jersey, gives the following as the amount of seven years' sales of the product of a row of thirty Duchesse d'Angoulême pears, the seven years' crops being the yield of nine years: The first crop, the trees eight years old, $120; second, $139 41; third, $156 17; fourth, $202 28; fifth, $267 49; sixth, $310 20; seventh, $705; total, $1,900 55. The row, in 1868, produced ninety-four bushels of marketable fruit, which sold at higher prices on account of the smrcity of peaches.
Strawberries.-From Ulster County, New York, $100,000 worth of strawberries was shipped, in 1867, to New York markets, and at least $200,000 worth of whortleberries from the Shawangunk mountains. From $400 to $1,000 worth of small fruits was sold from an acre.
Red raspberries.-The slaty soil of Marlborough, Orange County, New York, is especially adapted to the production of the Red Antwerp raspberry. Not less than 500 acres are cultivated in the town, giving a gross product of $300,000 per annum. An acre of Antwerps in full bearing is valued at $1,000. Good Antwerp land is worth $200 to $500 per acre.
Oranberries.--An experienced cranberry cultivator states that one improved cranberry bog on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has yielded a paying crop nearly every season for fifty years. It should be remarked that the continued success of a cranberry field depends very greatly on the readiness with which water can be flowed upon the surface or withdrawn from it. New Jersey is the chief cranberry-producing State, and, according to the official report, its bogs and “ savannas” supply at least onehalf of the cranberries raised in the United States. The area of these fields is constantly increasing. Ocean County, in 1867, sent into market about 45,000 bushels, mostly the product of cultivation. It is claimed that two gentlemen have, by their operations in cranberry cul. ture, doubled the taxable property of one township in this county during the last six years.
Small fruits in New Jersey. In the western part of Burlington County,
New Jersey, there were, in 1867, about 1,400 acres of strawberries in bearing, 700 acres of blackberries, and 150 acres of raspberries.
Peaches.--A correspondent of the Department, in Newcastle County, Delaware, says: “ The peach flourishes finely, and makes our State noted for its production. It is stated that 300,000 baskets of the fruit were shipped from Middletown alone during the last season, (1867,) all produced in the lower sections of the county." "Kent county is famous for its fine peaches, immense quantities of which are shipped to New York and Philadelphia in the season. Some orchardists have as many as 15,000 trees in bearing, and one claims 60,000. The average yield of a healthy, well-grown orchard is about two and a half baskets of fiveeighths of a bushel, to a tree, and fifty cents per basket in the orchard is considered a paying price."
The Scuppernong.- A letter received by the Department from Louis Froelich, of Kenansville, North Carolina, November 1, 1868, says the Scuppernong gives the surest crop of grapes he has ever found or heard of in any wine-growing country, and adds: “At my old home on the Rhine we had, in each five years, two entire failures, two seasons of inferior wine, and only one perfect crop; and I have found nearly the same results in Austria, Hungary, France, and Italy, and in the northern or northwestern part of the United States. Indeed, we have not in this country a single variety except the Scuppernong which is not liable to injury from frost, or in danger of not ripening through unfavorable seasons or the various grape diseases. With this variety, however, we may calculate with certainty each year, as to both quantity and quality. It requires only one-fifth the labor and expense attending the cultivation of other varieties. The average yield for a three-year old vine is one peck; five-year old, two bushels; full grown, ten-year old vine, twenty-five bushels." Mr. Froelich has had ten years' experi. ence in the culture of the Scuppernong grape.
Gardening in Florida.-A correspondent of the Department, in Putnam County, Florida,.states that the culture of vegetables for the early northern markets, recently initiated in that State by northern men, is being attended with very flattering success. “But," he adds, “ the attention of our people is mainly directed to the culture of fruits, especially those of the orange family, embracing the orange proper, the lemon, lime, and citron, all of which thrive well in this latitude. As yet, there are but few groves that have begun to bear, but the young trees of one or two years' growth promise well; and the number of those that have been set out during the past two years, between this place and Jacksonville, will not fall short of 250,000.”
Michigan.--Thé secretary of the Lake Shore and Western Michigan Horticultural Association writes of the Grand Haven fruit region: " The upward tendency of prices in fruit lands is a sure indication of the increasing interest attached to fruit-growing in this vicinity. Large tracts of land around the city, purchased less than a year ago for $5 to $11 per acre, have been selling rapidly, in ten acre lots, for $25 to $100 per acre for fruit lands."
California products. The southern counties of California are peculiarily suited to the almond crop. In this portion of the State, also, grows in great abundance the citron, the peel of which, when prepared, is so well known in commerce. According to a statement made a few months ago, nearly the whole production is annually allowed to rot, no attempt having been made, so far as known, toward its preservation either for general domestic use or for export.
Luscious pears, grapes, figs, peaches, melons, plums, strawberries,
lemons, limes, &c., were mentioned as being in great abundance in San Francisco market, October 15, 1868. Pears were three to six cents per pound; peaches five to twelve cents; native grapes four to ten cents.
The following items of production, in 1867, are given concerning the farm of Gen. John Bidwell, Butte County, California: Acres sown with wheat 2,000, yielding 33,751 bushels, the season having been, in some respects, unpropitious. Number of bearing fruit trees on the farmı about 3,000, from which were sent to market, during the year mentioned, a hun. dred tons of green and fifteen tons of dried fruit.
Returns of county assessors in California for 1867 give the following items respecting fruit trees in that State: Apple trees, 2,249,473; peach, 984,621; lemon, 3,700, (Malaga and also Sicily varieties,) of which Los Angeles has 2,300; orange, 17,397, of which Los Angeles has 15,000; olive, 14,812, of which Santa Barbara has 12,000.
The foregoing returns afford the following statistics with regard to the number of vines cultivated in the State, and the product of wine and brandy: Vines, 21,372,334, of which Los Angeles had 3,838,000; wine, 1,876,429 gallons, of which Los Angeles gave 760,000 gallons; brandy, 165,360 gallons, of which Los Angeles gave 77,000 gallons. It is generally conceded, however, that these returns fall considerably short of the actual facts. The wine crop of 1868 is thought to be the largest ever made, being estimated from unofficial data as high as 7,000,000 gallons, of which the estimate for Los Angeles is 1,500,000, and for Sonoma 900,000 gallons.
Large grape cluster.-Mr. Fowler, gardener to the Earl of Stair, recently exhibited in Glasgow a cluster of grapes weighing seventeen pounds two and a half ounces-a fine white variety.
Fruit growing in Ohio.-A special committee of the Ohio Horticultural Society, on the deterioration or failure of orchard crops in that State, report that the decline of the apple crop has been pretty general throughout Ohio, though less in the lake region on the north and among the hills of the coal sections of the southeast than in other portions. Causes reported are: 1, exhaustion of the soil; 2; neglect and improper culture and pruning; 3, increasing severity of summer droughts; 4, deficiency and variability of atmospheric humidity, consequent on the disappearance of forests; 5, increase of injurious insects; 6, increase of fungous diseases. The turning of hogs and sheep into orchards was indicated as effective toward the prevention of insect ravages.
The vineyard products for 1867, in the region around Sandusky, Ohio, and including the neighboring islands, were as follows: 1,822,000 pounds of table grapes; 4,860,000 pounds of wine grapes. The average price realized from the table grapes was twelve and a half cents per pound; from the wine grapes six cents per pound; making the total value of the grapes $519,350. The average yield per acre of bearing vineyards in fair condition was two tons, value $227.
HIGII PRICES OF FRENCII VINE LANDS.
Romana-Conti, a Burgundy vineyard of three acres, producing an unrivaled quality of wine, was offered for sale, at auction, at a minimum limit of 110,000 francs, or $20,625. Also Vouzeot, a vineyard of about 134 of our acres, yielding a superior wine, was also offered at a limited price of 2,000,000 francs, or $375,000. The celebrated Chambertin vineyard realized for 1 hectare 92 ares (4.74 acres)* 80,000 francs, or $15,000; for the second lot, 1 hectare 68 ares (4.15 acres) 74,800 francs, or $13,925.