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applicant to own forty acres, then he may enter one hundred and twenty acres graded at $125, or forty at $1 25 and forty at $2 50, if both classes of land should be found contiguous to his original farm. In entries of "adjoining farms” the settler must describe, in his affidavit, the tract he owns and is settled upon as his original farm. Actual residence on the tract entered as an adjoining tarm is not required, but bona fide improvement and cultivation of it must be shown for the period required by the statute.
Lands obtained under the homestead laws are exempted from liability for debts contracted prior to the issuing of patents therefor.
Pre-emptors, in all organized districts where surveys have been made, can pay for their tracts either in cash or with warrants, except as to double minimum or $2 50 lands, within the lateral limits of railroad grants, it being required for the double minimum tracts that the warrant shall be taken as half the consideration, and the residue be paid in money.
: UNITED STATES LAND OFFICES.
The following list shows the location of the land offices of the United States, in the respective public land States and Territories:
Wisconsin.—Menasha, Falls of St. Croix, Stevens's Point, La Crosse, Bayfield, Eau Claire.
Nevada.-Carson City, Austin, Belmont, Aurora.
California.–San Francisco, Marysville, Humboldt, Stockton, Visalia, Sacramento.
Washington Territory.-Olympia, Vancouver.
Minnesota.-Taylor's Falls, St. Cloud, Winnebago City, St. Peters, Greenleaf, Duluth, Alexandria.
Oregon.-Oregon City, Roseburg, Le Grand.
EXTENT OF THE PUBLIC LANDS.
Statement showing the area in acres of the several public land States and Territories, the quantity sold and entered under homestead laws, and the number of acres disposed of in each.
6, 790, 996. 17 11,574, 430. 18 104,538, 420.30 17, 424, 438. 19
1, 920.00 2,902, 528.06 42, 795, 589. 84 6, 582, 841.54 4,614, 078. 26 35, 534, 118.75 4,828, C69.11
1.483, 715.22 41, 624, 126. 40 67, 085, 697. 12
500.00 52, 518,014. 32
9,258, 627.33 369,529, 600.00 68,855, 890.00 62, 814, 234, 86 90, 986, 449.52 12. 150, 806. 49 44, 154, 240.00 86,904, 569.07 70, 705, 518.00 48, 976, 310. 20 41, 565, 717.53 39, 164, 787.80
THE STATE REPORTS OF AGRICULTURE
Annual reports of agriculture for the year 1867, have been received from the States of Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, embracing all the volumes issued by State agricultural societies or State boards of agriculture, during the year, so far as known to this Department. While it is impracticable to reproduce, even in the most concise form, the entire contents of these local publications, a brief digest of the more important features of each is herewith presented, though in some instances the suggestions of indi. vidual contributors may not merit the fullest indorsement. Practical results are of more value to the farmer than detailed theories or speculations; hence, in gleaning from these several volumes, more attention has been given to the statements of facts—the results of actual experiment-than to the lengthy essays; while the reproductions from home and from foreign periodicals have been passed over entirely.
MAINE. THE APPLE ORCHARDS OF NEW ENGLAND. In a paper read before the State Board of Agriculture by Calvin Chamberlain, it is stated that New England soil once sustained the apple treo to a vigorous old age, but that farmers, relying too much on the permanence of existing orchards, and taking no note of climatic changes induced by the removal of forests, have suffered this interest to waste away to an alarming degree. A few individuals saw the error in time, and gave the note of warning, which had some effect; but the hard winter ten years ago, by laying waste the labors of many orchardists, discouraged general effort and caused a rapid decline in production. That the climate has changed since the first orchards were planted in the narrow clearings of the forest is understood, and also that the soils of the orchard farms differ in their constituent elements from their primitive condition; and that destructive insects have greatly multiplied is equally certain; but, with a growing conception of these negative influences, there now appears to be an increasing inquiry for nursery trees. Nurseries seem to have declined as rapidly as orchards, however, and in many sections none exist.
The writer advises farmers to return to the practice of raising their own apple trees, as worth much more than when grown at a distance from the farm. Any family may save seeds enough from good apples to plant thickly in the garden, in the spring, at least one row a rod long. When grown one or two years these trees should be transplanted, at intervals of one foot, in rows three feet apart. The transplanting is best done by taking them up in the autumn, and packing the roots in earth in the cellar. They may be grafted at any time during the winter, and reset in the spring, or they may be reset when lifted, in fall or spring, and budded or grafted the following year; or they may be allowed to go to the orchard as seedlings, and such only be grafted subsequently in the branches as produce inferior fruit. No one should attempt to raise an orchard until he is ready to give his trees such care
is is requisite for the production of a crop of corn or potatoes, as the apple tree must have care in all its stages from the seed to the mature tree.
The successful efforts of a gentleman in one of the eastern counties of Maine, in apple tree culture, practically illustrates the possibility of reviving the earlier interest and results in orchards in that section of the Union. The soil of the orchard referred to was naturally very poor and thin, being composed of a coarse, cold, and loamy gravel, lying on a light pan inclined to clay, and full of schistose stones. Six or seven acres were underdrained, four and a half feet deep. Three experiments were tried in planting the trees. In No. 1 the holes were dug eight feet in diameter and twenty inches deep, and filled with alluvial soil taken from a low island in the river. In the holes thus prepared one hundred trees were planted, twenty feet apart. In No. 2 the land was plowed in ridges twenty feet wide, the dead furrow coming where the rows were to stand. An ox-scraper eight feet long was passed across these ridges, and the contents dropped in each dead furrow, returning in the same line, drawing the other side in. These cavities were then plowed and scraped a second time, and an ox-cart load of black-ash swamp mud and about one bushel of slacked lime, well mixed, put into the holes. Some rich top soil was mixed with this deposit, and one hundred trees planted in the soil, when the field was plowed level. In No. 3 an acre was selected which had been cultivated with potatoes, corn, &c., and about one hundred ox-cart loads of muck and lime and about thirty loads of manure were spread upon it. A road-plow was then drawn through the land twenty inches deep. The following spring, the stones having been removed, the land was again manured, and plowed six inches deep, and one hundred trees planted upon it, not in it, the holes being not more than three or four inches deep. The land has since been dressed with muck, three-fourths of a cord to each twenty feet square, though not all at once, and the soil has been kept under cultivation. The other trees were planted in the ordinary method. The best trees are on field No.3, on the deep plowing. Most of them have been planted since 1857, many of them since the spring of 1860. This season more than 150 barrels of apples were gathered by hand, and 100 bushels of cider apples picked up, the land at the same time yielding a large quantity of small crops50 bushels of barley and about 800 bushels of potatoes. The gentleman referred to concludes that the same variety of scions will not grow in all trees; that a tree may be planted upon any soil, even a stiff blue clay, and be made to grow and do well; that all soils holding or retaining water must be underdrained, and if clay the drains must be under the trees; that a tree must be fed with those elements constituting its substance, and that such are contained largely in the muck upon which hard wood is growing, mixed with ashes; that the great enemy in our orchards is grass, which must not be permitted to grow in the same field with the trees; and that the orchard, at least in the region referred to,. should be kept in constant cultivation. These observations do not apply to trees standing upon rock maple land.
PRODUCTS AND VARIETIES OF FRUIT.
Apples.-Joseph H. Smiley, of Vassalborough, has about one and five-eighths acre in orchard, raised from the seed and grafted principally with the Baldwin, Greening, and Tolman's Sweeting. About 140 trees have been in bearing several years, the remainder just commencing to bear. His crop in 1863 was 106 barrels, sold for $266; in 1864, 50 bar.
rels, sold for $162; in 1865, 104 barrels, sold for $616; in 1866, 160 barrels, sold for $667; each year reserving six or eight barrels for family use, uot included above. Land formerly pasture; broken up in 1848, and planted with corn and potatoes, the trees being set the following spring. The orchard was planted and sowu to grain alternately for six or seven years, and then seeded to clover; since that time it has been pastured with sheep, the trees being protected with stakes and laths.
Jacob Pope, of Manchester, sold from his orchard of sixteen acres 250 barrels of first quality of apples at $4 to $4 50 per barrel; thus harvesting over $1,000 worth from a rough piece of land, portions of which had never been plowed, but used for sheep-grazing. The trees were mostly the Baldwin, Roxbury Russet, and Rhode Island Greening.
Nathan Foster, of Gardiner, recommends the following list for general cultivation in that locality: 'Apples-Red Astrachan, Sidney Sweet, Moses Wood, American Summer Pearmain, Winthrop Greening, Somerset, Holmes's Sweet, Gravenstein, Fameuse, Tolman's Sweeting, Bellflower, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy. Pears-Doyenné d'Été, Rostiezer, Beurré d'Amaulis, Flemish Beauty, Nickerson, Fulton, Nouveau Poiteau, Belle Lucrative, Urbaniste, Winter Nelis, and Lawrence.
S. N. Taber, of Vassalborough, recommends the following apples for a family orchard: Early Harvest, Early Sweet Bough, Sons of Wine, Williams's Favorite, Gravenstein, Somerset, Porter, Queen's, Starkey, Hurl. but, Rhode Island Greening, Franklin Sweet, Sawyer Sweet, Baldwin, Golden Russet, Northern Spy, Tolman's Sweeting, and Bellflower.
THE USE OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
Mr. Chamberlain, in a report upon this subject, argues that health and economy require more atteution, on the part of our farmers, to the production and use of garden vegetables and fruits; and urges the reduction of the consumption of meat, and a greater reliance upon the former for the table, especially in the warm season, not only as a natter of health, but of economy. The kitchen garden should become a general and an important appendage to the farm, being made an object of annual and daily care. In support of the economical view it is stated that a growing animal, or a cow in milk, consumes daily of good bay about three per cent. of its own weight; that it takes 11 pounds of milk to increase the weight of a calf one pound; that 315 pounds of potatoes, 548 pounds of beets, 676 pounds of turnips, and 386 pounds of carrots are each equivalent to 100 pounds of hay; that an ox weighing 1,300 pounds will keep up his weight upon about 22 pounds of good hay per day; but, put up to fatten, he will require 44 pounds, upon which he will gain about two pounds per day. Substituting equivalents for onehalf the hay, we have 69.3 pounds of potatoes, 120.4 pounds of beets, 148.7 pounds of turnips, or 84 pounds of carrots, added to 22 pounds of hay for daily feed, to produce two pounds of beef, live weight. An experiment in feeding hogs, from Boussingault's Rural Economy, is given: Four animals, each nine months old, weight 458.2 pounds; at the end of twenty-one days they weighed 620.8 pounds, increase 102.6 pounds; to attain which they consumed, of barley 151 pounds, beans 140.8 pounds, malt grains 440 pounds, equivalent in nutrition to 1,229 pounds of hay, or 3,871 pounds of potatoes, so that the quantity of nutritive matter, represented by 100 pounds of hay, produced 13.21 pounds of live weight. Otherwise expressed, 64; bushels of potatoes produced 102.6 pounds of live hog. In another experiment, seven hogs, fifteen months old and in good condition, were put up to fatten, their weight being