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St. Petersburg.—Entomologische Gesellschaft; Kais. Russ. Minera• logische Gesellschaft; Statistitsheskii Tsentralnii Komitet, (Central
Skandinaviske Naturforskeres Forsamling, (Scandinavian Association of Naturalists.)
Barcelona.-Real Academia de Buenos Letras de Barcelona. Madrid.-Real Academia Española Archeologia y Geografia; Real Academia de la Historia.
Lund.-Physiographiske Forening, (Physiographic Association.)
Stockholm. -Bureau Central de Statistique de Suède ; Bureau de la Recherche Géologique de la Suède ; Kongliga Landbruks-Akademien, (Royal Academy of Agriculture;) Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Academien, (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.)
Upsala.–Kongliga Vetenskaps-Societeten, (Royal Society of Science.)
Bern.—Naturforschende Gesellschaft; Ökonomische Gesellschaft des Kantons Bern.
Chur.–Naturforschende Gesellschaft Graubündens.
Neufchatel.–Société des Sciences Naturelles.
Zürich.-Bureau Central Météorologique Suisse; Naturforschende Gesellschaft.
OUR INDUSTRIAL COLLEGES.
The last Annual Report of this Department contained a brief avstract of all attainable information relative to the Industrial Colleges which had been organized under the act of Congress donating lands for their encouragement and support. In that preliminary history was traced the progress of public sentiment, and of the efforts made in some of the States to promote the interests of those engaged in agriculture, especially of the efforts to awaken a desire for a more intelligent preparation for the vocation of the farmer. It is gratifying to learn that several States, which had hitherto done no more tban to accept the grant, have taken preparatory steps, during the past year, toward establishing agri. cultural colleges, either by making sale of lands alloted to them, or by organizing boards of trustees, and commencing the erection of the necessary buildings. Colleges already organized, and those in which a course of study has been marked out, have manifested a desire to per. fect their plans, and to render the institutions more complete and useful. While these institutions are thus giving evidence of progress, there has been exhibited, on the part of the public, a demand for such instruction as they are fitted to impart. Although these colleges are still in their infancy, their courses of study but imperfectly matured, their boards of instruction filled only in part, and in some instances by a temporary provision of teachers, and although they are not yet provided with suitable conveniences for students, still the attendance has been large, and the students have made gratifying progress in the branches to which they have given attention.
It is proposed to give such additional information as this Department has been able to procure; and the subject will be recurred to from year to year, until the colleges are all organized, and a list of the faculty and the course of study in each can be given. This will be done because it is believed that these institutions will become co-laborers with this Department in elevating the vocation of the farmer, and giving him scientific as well as practical instruction in his pursuits.
The object aimed at in the Sheffield Scientific School, in its “Course of Agriculture,” is to prepare the student for the successful management of a farm, by putting him in possession of a knowledge of the most approved methods of culture at present employed, and by explaining the reasons for these methods. This course is adapted to those who are already familiar with the employments of the farm. Lectures are given on the theory and practice of agriculture in all its branches, on chemistry, botany, geology, zoology, and free-hand drawing. Horticulture and forestry receive particular attention. Excursions under the direction of the professors are made useful to the students in the observation of plants and insects useful or injurious to the farmer. The course of agri. cultural instruction is under the direction of Professors Brewer and Johnson. The governing board of the Sheffield Scientific School consists of President Woolsey, Professors Dana, Norton, Lyman, Silliman, Whitney, Brush, Gilman, Johnson, Brewer, Eaton, Marsh, and Verrill. They believe it to be more serviceable to the State and the country to maintain a high grade of scholarship, and say: "We cannot expect to equal the special schools of agriculture in the very desirable work of training practical farmers, though we hope; by the prosecution of the science of agriculture, and by the training of scientific professors and agriculturists, to contribute to the progress of agriculture."
The last annual report of the Department of Agriculture contains an account of the liberal provision made for the Industrial University of this State. The legislature, on the 29th of March last, passed an addi. tional act, making provision for the benefit and completion of the insti. tution. Sixty thousand dollars were appropriated for this purpose, as follows: To the agricultural department, for the erection of barns, houses for farm laborers, for fencing and draining, teams, tools, fruit trees and forest trees, and stock of several breeds and varieties, $12,500 annually for two years; to the horticultural department, including buildings and structures, house for the gardener, tool-house, fencing and underdraining, fruit trees, shrubs, and plants, $10,000 per annum for two years; to the chemical department, $5,000; and for other apparatus, and for books, $10,000.
This appropriation indicates the appreciation, by the people of the State, of the importance of the new university, and augurs well for its future prosperity and usefulness.
Professor John S. Hougham has been called to the chair of agricultural science in the college at Manhattan. He had previously taught agricultural chemistry in Franklin College, Indiana, for several years. Eighty acres of the farın have been inclosed by a substantial stone fence, and about half the inclosed land was under cultivation during the last summer. An orchard, embracing sixty-three varieties of fruit, has been planted. One-fourth part of the land under cultivation will be planted and tilled under the special direction of Professor Hougham, and it is expected that an illustration will thus be afforded to the students of the best methods of culture in the various departments of farming, gardening, and horticulture. Miniature farming by the students will be encouraged under his direction, each bestowing his particular attention on the portion allotted to him, careful records of which will be preserved.
One hundred and sixty-eight students have been in attendance during the year, seventy-one of whom were ladies. The institution has already furnished eighty teachers for the schools of the State.
Tbe farm connected with the College of Agriculture and the Me. chanic Arts is situated in a populous county, and near the geograph. ical center of the State. It has a sufficient diversity of soil and aspect to render it suitable for experimental purposes. It is especially suited to fruit-culture and horticulture. The dormitory building has been completed, the rooms of which are large and well ventilater. A chemical laboratory, modeled after that at Brown University, has been erected, and, when completed, will afford superior facilities for instruction in
analytic chemistry, and its application to agriculture and the industrial arts. Professor Fernald, a graduate of Bowdoin College, has been elected professor of mathematics, and has entered upon the duties to which he has been assigned. Samuel Johnson, also a graduate of Bowdoin College, has been appointed farm superintendent. Thirteen students have received instruction who, during the hours allotted to labor, have rendered valuable assistance in grading the grounds and in farm work. One-fourth to one-half the expenses of the students has been defrayed from the avails of their labor.
In arranging the course of study two leading ideas are kept in view; first, to prepare the students to become good citizens by a right moral and intellectual, and social training; and, secondly, to attend to “those branches of study which are directly connected with the various industries which form the basis of the wealth and prosperity of the State." The trustees intend that the instruction given shall be “ of such a character as to secure to the student the discipline of mind, and the practical experience necessary for entering upon other callings." It will be a special object of the trustees to counteract the increasing disinclination towards manual labor, and to vindicate its dignity by showing that it is compatible with intellectual culture and social refinement.
The course of study will occupy four years. Its essential features are indicated by the following outline: “ English language and literature, mathematics, including trigonometry, surveying, civil engineering, drawing, chemistry, animal and vegetable physiology, botany, horticul. ture, the veterinary art, entomology, stock-breeding, book-keeping, history, and moral and intellectual philosophy. The French and German languages will also be taught."
The act of the legislature organizing the college requires the trustees to “encourage and, with reference to other exercises, to require all the students to engage in actual labor upon the lands and in the work-shops with which the college may be furnished, and shall provide suitable oversight and direction in such labor, so that they may become habituated to skillful and productive industry." It will thus be seen that the charter makes provision for labor, and that the trustees intend to combine practice with theory-manual labor with scientific culture. They desire 66 to preserve habits of industry where they exist, and to encourage stildents to form them where they do not exist."
Tuition and room-rent are free to all students from the State.
During the first twelve months from the opening of the college, ninety. six students were admitted on written examinations, seventy-four of whom were acquainted with farm-work. Their average age was eighteen rears. The college-farm, consisting of four hundred acres, is well adapted to the uses of the institution, containing a diversity of soil and aspect, and is well fitted for farm-culture, for forestry, for the formation of plantations of fruit trees and forest trees, for the cultivation of botanical plants, and for horticulture. On a portion of it, an arboretum will be planted, in which all the varieties of trees suited to the climate will be grouped according to their natural affinities, and the principles of landscape gardening. Professor Snell, who temporarily, during the last year, gave instruction in mathematics with entire acceptance, now gives place to a permanent professor in that department, Mr. S. F. Miller, who is a graduate of Amherst college, and who has had several years' expe. rience as a civil engineer. Mr. C. A. Goessmann, a graduate of the University of Göttingen, has been appointed professor of chemistry. Hon. C. L. Flint lectures on dairy-farming; Dr. Calvin Cutter, on the laws of health; Dr. J. H. Stickney, on the diseases of domestic animals; Dr. Jabez Fisher, on market-gardening; Dr. Edward Hitchcock, on compar. ative anatomy; and Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, on the culture of fruits and flowers. Hon. Levi Stockbridge is farm-superintendent and instructor in agriculture; and President Clark is also professor of botany and horticulture, and director of the botanic garden.
The annual report made to the legislature of the State represents that there is an abundant demand for the education which this institution is designed to afford. The students have manifested a deep interest in their studies, and their progress has been commendable. It is highly desirable that students should pursue and complete the regular course of study; but provision is made for those who choose to follow a select course adapted to their circumstances and necessities.
The last year was a prosperous one for the State Agricultural College, · at Lansing. The number of students was eighty-two, representing twenty-six counties of the State. Sixty of the number were sons of farmers. Three hundred and fifty acres of the farm are now cleared, and a large part freed from stumps. Roads and fences have been built, and a large amount of grading and ditching has been done. The organic law of the college says: “ Three hours of each day shall be devoted by every student of the college to labor upon the farm, and no person shall be exempt except for physical disability.” The officers of the college personally superintend the work, and illustrate in the garden or the field the principles learned from the books. The junior class work, during their entire year, under the direction of the professor of practical agriculture, and the sophomores work under the professor of botany and horticulture: The students do not find the labor irksome, but are interested by its variety and its relation to their studies. They have actual practice in the laboratory, in the use of the compass and level, in grafting and budding fruit trees, and in the work generally of the garden and the farm. The trustees regard the labor system as succeeding better every year.
The lands donated by Congress, and which are located within the bounds of the State, are now in the market, but no income from this source has yet been received. It has, thus far, been supported by the State. The minimum price of the lands, established by law, is $2 50 per acre. When the sale is effected, a large fund will be created, which will greatly aid the college in giving increased facilities for instruction.
The faculty of instruction is constituted as follows: T. C. Abbott, president, and professor of mental philosophy and logic; Manley Miles, professor of animal physiology and practical agriculture, and superintendent of the farm; R. C. Kedzie, professor of chemistry; W. W. Tracey, professor of botany and horticulture, and superintendent of the gardens; George T. Fairchild, professor of English literature.
Several years' experience in giving instruction in the State Agricultural College has convinced its officers that a " defined course of study should be insisted upon." Students are not permitted to leave, at will, a study half-completed. At the same time various courses of study are presented to them, agreeing in the main, yet sufficiently divergent to meet the wants of those who have in view particular departments of labor in future life. A regular course of study extends through four years. It embraces a wide range of study and inquiry, and appears to