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be well adapted to promote the ends which the institution has in view. It embraces the following departments:
Chemistry.—The elementary forces-heat, light, electricity, &c.; the laws of chemical combination; elementary substances, their history, properties, combinations, and uses; application of chemistry to the arts, analysis of soils, minerals, and manures; use of the blowpipe. In the study of analytical chemistry, the student spends three hours daily in the laboratory, under the direction of the professor of chemistry, securing in this manner a practical knowledge of the science. In agricul. tural chemistry, instruction is given on the formation of soils; the relation of air and moisture to vegetable growth; the nature and sources of food for plants; preparation of manures, with their application to soils.
Practical agriculture.-Laying out farms, arrangement of farm-buildings, farm implements, general principles of tillage, construction of drains, principles of stock-breeding, breeds of domestic animals, succession of crops, management of grass lands, care of animals and principles of feeding, fattening of animals, management of sheep.
Botany.-Physiological and systematic, the geographical distribution of plants, and their relative importance; the genera and species of those having agricultural, commercial, medical, or ornamental value, and those which are noxious or detrimental. Living specimens are dissected by the students, and the structure of plants is illustrated by diagrams and by the use of the microscope.
Horticulture.—The sophomore class is occupied during the year in the gardens and college grounds, and have ample opportunity to apply the instruction received in the class rooms.
Animal physiology.—Particular attention is paid to the anatomy and physiology of domestic animals, and the course of instruction is illustrated by anatomical preparations and diagrams.
Entomology.—The course in this department is illustrated by a valuable collection of native and of exotic insects. Special attention is paid to the study of species injurious to vegetation, and the best methods of checking their ravages.
Mathematics and civil engineering.-The course in this department embraces all those studies which prepare the student for the successful practice of surveying, leveling, bridge and road building, including field practice, under the supervision of the professor.
English literature. The course of instruction is by text-books and lectures, and is intended to be of such a character as will give the students an enlarged acquaintance with the best writers in the language, and fit them for the reputable performance of the duties which will devolve upon them in their future life.
Some steps have been taken toward organizing the agricultural college. A farm has been purchased near the college buildings, which will be inclosed during the coming season. A plan of organization is now being prepared by the trustees, who will also report a course of study to be pursued in the institution.
The New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, established in 1866, was opened to students in September, 1868. It has two terms, corresponding with the fall and the spring term of Dart
mouth College, thus giving opportunity to students to spend the summer months at home in agricultural or mechanical employment. Topics are given to them at the close of the spring term, on which papers are to be prepared, from observation, experiment, or studs, for the fall term. Farmers can thus give to their sons facilities for education in the most favorable seasons for study, and still enjoy the advantage of their services in the period of greatest agricultural activity.
Candidates for admission must be sixteen years of age, and pass a satisfactory examination in the branches of English study taught in common schools.
The course of study embraces three years: the first including mathematics, botany, physical geography, chemistry, physics, and book-keeping; the second, trigonometry, practical botany, organic and analytical chemistry, history, rhetoric, mensuration, zoology, geology, and mineralogy; the third, agricultural chemistry, zoology, astronomy, and meteorology, rural economy, political science, and intellectual and moral philosophy.
The library contains five hundred volumes of scientific works, purchased in Europe, about one hundred of which are from the private library of the late Professor Faraday. Students have access to the college library, cabinets, observatory, and gymnasium. A State museum of general and applied science is proposed in connection with the insti. tution. There are twelve free scholarships, covering the charge for tuition, one for each senatorial district. Tuition is fifteen dollars per term. The number of students in the first, or junior class, is ten.
The faculty consists of President Smith, and Professors E. W. Dimond, (agricultural chemistry,) T. R. Crosby, (animal and vegetable physiology, D. J. Noyes, E. D. Sanborn, C. A. Young, E. T. Quimby, C. H. Hitchcook, and C. F. Emerson.
The Cornell University, the institution which received the congressional grant, was opened for the reception of students in September, 1868. No doubt is entertained that the expectations of the public, re. garding the usefulness of this institution, will be fully realized. The board of instruction has been filled, in part, with professors of a high reputation, and an able corps of non-resident professors has been appointed, who will deliver courses of lectures on the subjects assigned them. The munificent endowment of its founder, the Hon. Ezra Cornell. with the princely addition of the congressional grant of lands, enables its trustees to open the institution with the fairest prospects of success and usefulness.
The faculty of the agricultural department of the university includes President A. D. White, and Professors G. C. Caldwell, B. G. Wilder, A. N. Prentiss, James Law, C. !. Hartt, and J. S. Gould.
In this department there are three courses of study, one of which requires four years for its completion, and entitles the student to the degree of bachelor of science; the other two are abridged courses, one of three and the other of two years, comprising all, or nearly all, the agricultural instruction given in the full course.
The requirements for aulmission to the first two of these courses are the same as for admission to the freshman class in the scientific course, namely, a good, sound English education, including algebra to quad. ratics; for admission to the third course of two years, a knowledge of algebra will not be insisted upon.
If any one should wish to attend one course or more of lectures in the department, and work in the laboratories or the garden, or on the farm, under the direction of the respective professors in charge, he may be permitted to do so, at the discretion of the faculty of the department. Of such a student it will be required that he pay the usual tuition fee of ten dollars, and also that his time be as fully occupied in study and work as that of other students.
In the instruction given, both laboratory and field practice are combined with the usual lecture-room work, to the utmost extent possible; to this end, land, laboratories, live stock, tools, models, and apparatus are supplied. With the aid of these appliances and means of illustration, and his own powers of observation, intelligently directed by his teachers, the student may become familiar with the chemical properties and relations of the substances composing soils, plants, and animals, with the domestic plants and animals themselves, and their conditions of health and disease, and with the best methods of agricultural praotice.
An entire change in the faculty of the Agricultural College of this State has recently been made. It is thought that, after a long struggle against adverse circumstances, the college is now in a position to effect the great objects for which it was established. Thomas H. Burrowes has been appointed president, and, in an address issued to the public, he says: “Each student shall be made to know thoroughly what he studies; he shall have the opportunity to acquire an education equal to any attainable elsewhere; he shall be prepared, as far as depends on careful instruction, properly to perform his duties as a citizen, and shall be informed in the principles of our common Ohristianity.” He also sets forth the general principles of the course of instruction which will be pursued.
Brown University has received the land grant for industrial colleges, and made provision for a course of scientific and practical instruction, extending through a period of three years. The first year embraces chemistry, physiology, geometry, and algebra, as required studies; and civil engineering, analytical chemistry, or the French language, as optional studies; the second, natural philosophy and rhetoric, with applied chemistry and civil engineering, at the option of the student; the third, moral philosophy, political economy, and geology, with the same optional studies as for the second year.
The requirements for admission include a knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, English grammar, and modern geography. Provision will also be made for lectures, especially during the winter months, embracing, among other subjects, the following: The action of air and water upon soils; the influence of drainage and a proper degree of pulverization; the preparation, application, and office of manures and other fertilizers; the elements which enter into the composition of vegetables; the form in which they are presented to the growing plant; the varying proportions in which they are required by different crops; the laws of climate, and the influence of situation and exposure; modes and principles of culture; noxious insects, and the means of their destruction; the general principles of metallurgy; bleaching, dyeing, and calico printing; principles of warming, draft, and ventilation; the composition and properties of mortars and cements; composition and properties of oils, paints, and varnishes; the manufacture of chemical re-agents; the art of kyanizing wood, and of preserving meats, fruits, and vegetables from decomposition.
In our last Annual Report was given the course of instruction pursued in the college of this state, and annexed is a list of the faculty of instruction in the department of agriculture: Paul A. Chadbourne, president; W. W. Daniels, professor of agriculture; John C. Davies, professor of chemistry and natural history; Addison E. Verrill, professor of comparative anatomy and of entomology.
The lands granted by Congress have been located, but are not yet sold. The college is now in operation as a branch of the University of Wis consin, and has the benefit of a farm purchased for it by the citizens of the State, at a cost of forty thousand dollars. The course of study is so arranged that instruction in the class-room can be completed in a single year 6by students already well acquainted with the physical sciences, while an opportunity will be given to those who desire it for extended laboratory practice, for a higher course in botany, and for instruction in conducting experiments in agriculture and horticulture, thus making a full three years' course of study."
A wide range of optional studies is given in this department in order that the students may combine thorough mental discipline with theoretic and practical knowledge of the relation of science to agriculture.
It will be the endeavor of the professors to modify their course of instruction so as to meet the wants of the people. Lectures are given by the president and resident professors, and also by non-resident professors, on subjects calculated to illustrate the studies and promote the intellectual and moral advancement of the students.
MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.
W. S. Clark, President of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, supplies the following facts in relation to the history and present status of that institution:
In the year 1850 ex-Governor Levi Lincoln, on behalf of the Worcester County Agricultural Society, of which he was then president, presented to the legislature of Massachusetts a memorial upon the subject of agricultural education. While admitting that much had been done to improve the modes of cultivation and increase the products of the farm, he says: “The advance has yet been rather experimental and for: tuitous than systematic, scientific, and instructive. The deep want ou the husbandman is instruction in those elementary principles which give the impress of mind to his occupation. * * agriculture be raised to the dignity of a profession rather than regarded as the destiny of condition, and the labor of man will be profited as largely as the character of society will assuredly be improved.”
In the same year, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, then president of the Massachusetts Senate, introduced a series of resolves concerning th: establishment of an agricultural school. These resolves authorized th: governor to appoint a board of commissioners to prepare a plan for suci