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on the surface of the water, in the same lantic, partially adopting the new plan of manner as gulls. Wicquefort informs breaking the enemy's line. Seven ships us that, excepting during the breeding of the line were taken, though the French season, the albatross lives entirely on fleet was superior in force. One of the the ocean, and at night, when pressed prizes, Le Vengeur, sunk at the close of by slumber, it rises into the air to a the action, with the greater part of the prodigious height, and then, putting its crew, who had hoisted the English flag head under one wing, beats the air with and in vain cried for assistance, which the other, and takes its rest. After a time would only allow to be given to the time, the weight of its body, thus par- captain and a portion of his men. There tially supported, brings it down; and it were several other naval actions between may be seen descending, with a mode- single ships, or small squadrons, during rate speed, towards the surface of the this year, in nearly the whole of which

Upon this, it reascends to its the English were conquerors, even when elevation, and thus, alternately ascend- smaller in force. The French, however, ing and descending, takes its repose. obtained one advantage from the action The correctness of this statement may be of June 1st, a large convoy with prodoubted by some; but when the power visions from America, reached their ports of wing enjoyed by this bird is remem- in safety, after passing the floating wreck, bered, it will not appear incredible, espe- which told that a battle had taken place. cially as few members of the feathered The French portion of the island of race float on the air with more ease, and St. Domingo had been occupied by the for a longer period, than this bird. English in the preceding year.

MarThe albatross is one of the fiercest and tinique, St. Lucia, and Guadaloupe, were most formidable of the aquatic tribe, now taken, but the latter was recaptured feeding not only on fish, but on some of by the French republicans, and the nethe smaller water-fowl. It preys, while groes whom they had declared free. The on the wing, in the same manner as the warfare in the West Indies was carried sea-gull, and pursues the flying-fish as on with a dreadful mortality of the Engthey leave the water to escape their old lish troops from the climate, so that the enemy, the dolphin. When we look fruits of their success were not lasting. abroad on the ocean, in the vicinity of In the Mediterranean, Corsica was these temperate regions, we see nothing taken by the British, principally by the but a dreary expanse, ruffled by winds, personal bravery of Nelson, and the exand apparently almost destitute of life. ertions of the naval forces. On all But the tropical seas present a different occasions the naval forces exhibited inaspect, displaying to us birds and fishes creasing energy, successful under every innumerable. Thousands of gulls are on sort of disadvantage. The army was the wing, hovering in every direction in still commanded by officers mostly inpursuit of those tenants of the waters efficient, or men of mere routine, and as which they can reach; while shoals of yet failed in nearly all military proceedings flying-fish leave the sea to seek shelter in to accomplish what was expected. This the air, where they fall a victim to the was especially the case on the Continent, rapacity of the gulls. These, in their where the republicans pressed forward turn, perhaps, are pursued by their power with an overwhelming and better orful adversary--the albatross, and forced ganized force, against the inadequate to relinquish their prey; so that the scenes efforts of the allies, who were soon driven presented by the pursued and the pur- from the Netherlands. On the frontier of suers form a continual variety. F. Germany, and in the north of Italy, the

French armies also successfully advanced.

In the course of the year some difficulties arose with America from enforcing the rules against neutrals trading with

nations at war; but Washington, then The year 1794 was distinguished by president, was 'moderate in his views. the first of that series of naval triumphs, À treaty satisfactory and advantageous to by which Britain was strengthened to both nations was concluded. withstand the rapid progress of French The king's speech, on December 30, conquest on land. After some mancu- 1794, admitted the failures and disapvring, lord Howe brought the French fleet pointments of the allies, but enlarged on to close action, on June 1st, in the At- the exhausted state of France, and urged

ENGLISH HISTORY.

active proceedings. The projected union | year and a half

, and of having acquired of the prince of Wales with his cousin, territory peopled with thirteen millions the princess Caroline of Brunswick, was of inhabitants. noticed. The majority for the ministers In England, during the debates of this was very large; Canning took an active session, there was much ground for the part in their support, but Wilberforce, complaints made by the opposition ; but much to his honour, though a constant it must be remarked, that in them, and advocate for the administration, strongly throughout the whole of the lengthened deprecated the language used by min- opposition by Fox and his party, during isters, which spoke their determination the long years of warfare, there ever was to continue the war until France was a disgraceful anxiety manifested to exalt again under its old government, or our the enemy, and to depreciate the efforts country should sink under its efforts to and successes of Britain, and to repreproduce such a result. He had been sent all and any attempts to resist France abroad, and had seen the state of things as utterly useless. It was on one of these under the old régime, and he could not as occasions that the arguments for the · Christian, and a well-wisher for his necessity of resistance were perverted fellow-men, desire its restoration. into an idea of conquering France, and

The Habeas Corpus_Act was again ridiculed as an imagination more foolish suspended. Sheridan, Fox, and Erskine and insane than any vision of the knight contended that the result of the late of La Mancha. The orator who indulged prosecutions for treason showed there in this mistaken ridicule did not live was no ground for alarm at the alleged to behold the event, but many who then conspiracies; while Windham and Adair heard him survived. They saw, and even loudly censured the verdicts of the juries. visited France as a conquered country; The army and navy were augmented. twice in two successive years occupied by Twenty-seven millions were required for the armies of the allies, and then obliged the expenditure of the year, eighteen of to taste, though but in a slight degree, the which were raised by loan. Among the bitter cup she had forced others to drink. additional taxes was one upon the wear The wretched infidelity of Fox and his ing of hair powder, a foolish custom then supporters caused them to despise the prevalent, which has now disappeared. Bible, or they might have recalled and This impost, having called the attention applied the memorable prophetic vision, of people in general to its dirty and when the seer was commanded to take the wasteful absurdity, was beneficial, and wine cup of Divine wrath, and, beginning the general effect upon the habits of per- at Jerusalem, to cause all the kingdoms of sonal cleanliness rendered it an improve- the earth, one with another, to drink. A ment of some importance.

similar day of wrath evidently was at The prospects of the war were not hope- hand. To the reflecting Christian it was ful. The rulers of Holland had found it plain that “ the Lord had a controversy necessary to make peace with France; with the nations; that he would plead with that country was rapidly occupied by the all flesh;" that evil would go forth from French armies during the winter, the nation to nation, and a great whirlwind rivers and lakes having been frozen be raised up from the coasts of the earth, over so as to bear the passage of heavy (see Jer. xxv. 32.) Why should men artillery. The English forces retreated, be so unwise as to close their Bibles, and and were embarked for England. The refuse to mark what has been, as it fully Stadtholder withdrew, and a Dutch revo- shews forth what will be, even to that lutionary government was formed; but period when time shall be no more? the people did not give way to the horrid Many who were individuals of note excesses even then prevalent in France. during the preceding years, departed this It was evident that Spain and Prussia life about this time. Among them were were likely to make peace. Austria was the historians Robertson and Gibbon, willing to continue the war, but required eminent for their writings;—the latter a loan, which in fact was a subsidy, of ever to be guarded against for his infidel four millions. This was acceded to, principles; and the former scarcely less though it was notorious that the money censurable for his indifference to those advanced to Prussia had been chiefly truths which he had engaged to set forth expended for objects connected with the as a professed minister of Christ. Lord subjugation of Poland. France boasted George Gordon, and earl Camden, also, of having won nearly thirty battles in a widely different characters, departed; and

a

Bruce, the celebrated traveller in Abys- pleasing in person, and careless in her sinia, after returning in safety from many dress and habits, yet good-natured, and perils, died from the effects of a fall down not difficult to manage. The negotiator the stairs in his own house! Sir William came to the conclusion, that “the prinJones, one of the few Christian statesmen cess, in the hands of a steady and sensiof that day, died in India, about this time. ble man, would probably turn out well;

Fox and his party failed in their efforts but where it is likely she will find faults to exaggerate the French power during analogous to her own, she will fail.” And the debates of this session, and little else it was a signal failure. Her journey to of moment passed, except the settlement England was attended with some difficulof the affairs of the prince of Wales, by ties and dangers. She had to leave the which he had revenue of nearly direct route, and, after some delay, to go 140,000l. per annum assigned, but half round by Hamburg, to avoid the adof it was to be set aside to meet his debts, vancing armies of the French. At length these amounted to 620,0001.

she arrived in England, on April 5th, The union of the prince of Wales with 1795, after a stormy passage.

Snares his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick, had were laid for her on her arrival. Lady important influence on the subsequent Jersey was appointed one of her attendhistory of Great Britain. It fully shows ants, and actually sent to meet her! that while God brings good out of evil, The prince was evidently prejudiced and he frequently, even in this life, causes disgusted. On her being introduced, he those who forsake his word to punish said barely one word, turned round, and themselves. The rigorous law, passed retired. The marriage, however, took especially at the instance of George 111., place; but a separation soon followed. to limit the marriages of the royal family, One child, the princess Charlotte, (born has been already noticed; the determi- January 7th, 1796,) was the only fruit of nation of the king evidently was, that his this unhappy union. The mother was an children should not marry among his object of pity, but not of respect-insulted subjects. Assuredly, such unions were by her husband and his paramours, withlikely to promote political discords and out discretion, forbearance, or wisdom to party proceedings, but the object of the meet the difficulties of her position, or king seems to have been to prevent

real friends to advise her prince unions which he considered derogatory, refused to treat her as his wife; the king though many of the English nobility were was almost her only advocate; the queen superior in every respect to the petty was induced to take the part of her son. A potentates of Germany. This feeling had separation soon took place, when the evils led to the wretched position of the prince to the nation from such a state of things of Wales with Mrs. Fitzherbert, and sub- speedily began to appear. It has been too sequently to a still more scandalous pre- truly said, Unhappy couple! victims ference of lady Jersey, the wife of one of of defective education, mismanagement, the officers of his court. The prince was and the dangers and temptations of an now urged to marry some foreign Pro- exalted station. Surrounded by all the testant princess; he consented, but, ap- glorious things of earth, possessed of parently, his main object was to get his everything which the mean man envies, debts paid. At first the niece of the and the poor man longs and struggles for, queen (Louisa of Mechlenberg) was pro- they were two of the most pitiable, miseposed, who became the revered queen of rable beings in the world.” Yet still Prussia, that sank under the troubles of more miserable were those by whom they her land; but the king decided for his were designedly misled ; and plain is own niece, Caroline, daughter of the duke the lesson, that those who become comof Brunswick. A worse choice could panions of fools are not wise; let it not hardly have been made, or a more un be forgotten, that in the sense of Scriphappy union formed.

ture, folly is wickedness!

A previous Lord Malmesbury was sent to conclude marriage of the duke of Sussex with lady this match towards the close of 1794. Augusta Murray, at Rome, in 1792, much The preliminaries were soon settled, but displeased the king, who absolutely rethe negotiator has left decided evidence, fused his sanction; therefore, although that from the first he had strong mis- | in every other respect a correct, and not givings as to the result. The princess an undesirable union, it was set aside in Caroline was an uneducated, frivolous the ecclesiastical courts by a suit in the woman— the creature of impulse, not king's name!

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Great part

The proceedings against Warren Has- | the affairs of India were more fully tings were at length brought to a close. known in England, and the rulers of They had been resumed in February, 1792, India saw the need of increased caution when his counsel proceeded with his de- | in their proceedings. fence in legal form. One of them spoke In March, earl Fitzwilliam was recalled for five days, without going farther than from being viceroy of Ireland. It was the first charge: twenty days were occu considered inexpedient to proceed with pied by these speeches and evidence. the nieasure called “Catholic EmancipaThe trial was then adjourned till February, tion,” to which he was pledged, the delay 1793, when Hastings shortened the pro- of which, he said, would raise a flame ceedings on his part, closing them by that could only be extinguished by miliproving that the property he brought from tary force. The society of United IrishIndia was not more than £72,400; but soon began rapidly to increase. the managers of the prosecution obtained The known progress of the disaffected delay until the following year. The pro- caused additional efforts from the Orangesecutors, after various wranglings, closed men, a name given to the bulk of the their additional evidence and replies on Protestants there, from a political assoJune 16th, 1794, when Burke spoke for ciation in which they were united. nine days. But all was not yet over As the year 1795 advanced, the failure there were matters to argue in the House of the alliance against France became of Lords, so that it was April 23rd, 1795, clearly manifest. The conduct of the when the Lords assembled for pronouncing sovereign of Prussia was disgraceful, and judgment, sixty out of the one hundred paralyzed the confederation. and sixty who had been present at the of his troops were withdrawn from the beginning of this memorable trial having confederate army, while those who redeparted this life. Only twenty-nine mained, in consideration of a heavy subattended on that day, and of them only sidy, were secretly ordered not to give six pronounced Hastings guilty. He efficient assistance to the Austrians. To was then called to the bar and discharged. Russia, mainly, this

failure of the allied But his property was gone. He was only efforts was owing. Bitterly in after years saved from a prison by a yearly pension did that power suffer for its dishonest of £4000 from the East India Company, and selfish policy. A treaty of peace and granted for eighteen years, afterwards alliance between Prussia and France was extended for his life, with a loan of concluded in April, 1795. The partition £50,000, to enable him to pay the law of Poland evidently was the absorbing expenses. Thus ended this extraordinary object with the rulers of Russia, Prussia, affair. There certainly were grounds for and Austria ;-it was a public crime for arraigning his conduct; but these pro- which they were chastised. But the evil ceeded rather from the position he was policy of those rulers was only in unison placed in, and the line of conduct he was with the mistaken feelings then prevalent required to pursue, than from any per on the continent. In October, 1794, a sonal disposition to tyrannize; and, al- few months previously, Lord Malmesbury though acquitted, he suffered no light described the rapid progress of French punishment from the long and expensive opinions in Germany, adding, “The noprosecution. It was one of those cases bility, the gentry, and large capitalists in which the English law punishes the cannot be made to understand the danger accused, while ultimately it declares him with which they are threatened, and not guilty. He lived till 1818 in retire- which is at their very gates. They are ment, amusing himself with a country all clamorous for peace, and, by the most life. In his latter days he was treated fatal error which ever perverted the human with much respect.on several public occa- understanding, attribute the evils of war, sions. Of the managers of the impeach- and its duration, not to the enemy who ment, it is unnecessary to say more than is endeavouring so strenuously to destroy that it is not easy to suppose they were them, but to the very powers who are actuated only by principles of rectitude endeavouring to rescue them from dein their violent proceedings; party spirit, struction. They are in a manner stunned to say nothing of more interested motives, into security; and it is as impossible to bad 'much influence over their conduct. awaken them to a sense of their danger, Burke, probably, was the most honest of as it is to rouse in them a due spirit those concerned in the affair ; certainly, of resistance and indignation." Thus some good resulted from his vehemence; early had the continental rulers been

punished by the spirit they had sought to wasteful expenditure of warfare. In July, excite.

Aour rose to 70s. a sack, and the quartern Spain concluded a treaty of peace with loaf to a shilling; but a plentiful harvest France, in July, 1795. The grand duke followed, when the prices somewhat deof Tuscany had done so previously. Swe- clined. This was followed by a season den and Switzerland, with some of the comparatively mild, the average warmth smaller German states, also recognised of the month of January, 1796, being the republic. On the other hand, Russia more than twenty degrees above that of entered into alliance with Britain and January 1794. The effect of extreme Austria, but was too far distant from the cold to increase mortality also appeared. scene of operations, and too busy in com- The number of burials in London, within pleting the subjugation of Poland, to take five weeks during the former period, any active part against France.

exceeded 2800; in January, 1796, they In England much distress was occa were only 1470. In December, 1796, and sioned by scarcity, chiefly arising from January, 1797, the cold was again unfavourable seasons.

There were riots in several parts the kingdom, but they were soon put down. The winter had

PATRIARCHAL CONTEMPORARIES. been very severe, and inclement weather in the spring injured the crops, and de As appropriate to biblical history, and stroyed many thousand sheep. The rise as interesting in themselves, we here inin prices was also occasioned by the in- sert two tables relating to the early chrocreased monetary circulation, and the nology of the world. Table I.- From the Creation to the Flood, exhibiting-1. The number of years that

each Patriarch was cotemporary with the other ; 2. The years of the world in which each was born and died ; 3. The age of each.

severe.

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Adam
930

1 930 930
Seth
800 912

130 1042 912
Enos
695 807 905

235 1140905
Cainaan ... 605 717 815 910

325 1235 910
Mahalaleel 535 647 745 840895

395 1280 895
Jared
470582 680 775 830 962

460 1422 962
Enoch..... 308 365 365 365 365 365 365

6221 987/365
Methuselah 243 355 453 548 603,735 300 969

687 1656 969
Lamech
56 168 266 361 416 548 113 782 777

874 1651 777
Noah

84 179 224366 600 595 950 1056 2006 950 Shem, etc. ......

100 95 450 600 1556 2156 600 The Flood ......

1656

From this table several very valuable points the idea that the story must have passed of information are gained. The thought through many narrators, and that few has probably arisen in the mind of every opportunities of comparing and correcting liberal student, “Is there not reason to one account by another were enjoyed. apprehend that the account of creation Look at the table as illustrating these and of the early events in the history of points. the world, such as the garden of Eden, And first, the number of times that the temptation, fall and expulsion of our the story must be repeated by different first parents, etc., would be greatly cor persons. Noah and his three sons could rupted by passing through so many gene- receive the account of creation at the rations, when there were no letters to second rehearsal, and that through several perpetuate a historical event? Would distinct channels. 1. Adam could relate not the imaginations of men and the love it to Enos for six hundred and ninety-five of the marvellous intermingle much of years, and Enos to Noah for eighty-four fancy with truth, in the account trans- years. Or, 2. Adam, during six hundred mitted to subsequent generations ?” and five years could discourse of it to

This sceptical suggestion arises from Cainaan, and Cainaan one hundred and

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