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seventy-nine years to Noah. Again, | figures under them, show the generations 3. Adam could rehearse it for five hundred after them with which each was contemand thirty-five years to Mahalaleel, and porary, and the length of time. Thus Mahalaleel for two hundred and twenty- take the name Jared over the perpenfour years to Noah. 4. Adam had four dicular line of figures, and follow it down, hundred and seventy years to instruct and he will be found to have lived with Jared in those sublime facts, and Jared his son Enoch three hundred and sixtywas contemporary three hundred and five years and survived him, with Enoch's sixty-six years with Noah. Through son Methuselah seven hundred and thirtythese four distinct channels Noah could | five years, with Lamech five hundred and receive a direct account from Adam. forty-eight, and Noah three hundred and But again, 5. Adam lived till Methu- sixty-six. selah was two hundred and forty-three These two combined show the whole years old; time enough surely to obtain number of generations with which each an accurate knowledge of all those facts was contemporary. Thus, Adam was pertaining to the dawn of created exist- contemporary with none before him; but ence; and Methuselah lived six hundred | all after him down to Lamech. Again, years with Noah, and one hundred with take the horizontal name Methuselah, his three sons. And once more, 6. Adam and trace it along the horizontal line of lived to see Lamech, the father of Noah, figures, and you find him contemporary till he was fifty-six years old, and Lamech with all before him, till you come to himlived with Noah five hundred and ninety- self; then turn down the column under five years, and ninety-five years with his name and he is contemporary with all Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Through these after him down to the very year of the six channels the account could be brought flood, being one hundred years with Shem down to the time of the flood.
and his brothers. Now the directness of this communica In this way it will be found that all tion is the same as the following. My the generations from Adam to the flood grandfather was a sergeant in the revo were eleven. Of all these Adam was lutionary war, and was wounded in the contemporary with nine, Seth with nine, arm by a musket ball. How do I know Enos ten, Cainaan ten, Mahalaleel ten, that, seeing he died before my birth? Jared ten, Enoch nine, Methuselah He related it to his children, among eleven, Lamech eleven, Noah eight, Shem whom was my mother, and she to me. and brothers four. Thus there were never He was contemporary thirty years with less than nine contemporary generations her, and she twenty-five years with me, from Adam to the flood, which would and that fact is as well established, give, in one lineal descent, eighty-one distinct, and certain to my mind as any different channels, through which the recorded in history. Precisely such was account might be transmitted. the directness of Noah and his sons' in III. Another important point illustratformation relative to creation; and at the ed by this table, is the occurrence of the same time the certainty of accuracy was flood at the precise time, and the only increased by much longer periods of con time, when it could have occurred, withtemporary life, and a six-fold chain of out contradicting the sacred history, and testimony.
the chronological account. The reason II. This table shows how many oppor- assigned in sacred history for the deluge, tunities there were of comparing and was the great wickedness of men, for correcting different accounts. The per- which all were to be destroyed, except pendicular column of names shows how Noah and his family. Now, if the flood many, were contemporary with genera- had occurred ten years sooner than it did, tions before them, and the figures in the it would have involved Methuselah and horizontal line denote the number of Lamech in the destruction of the wicked; years common to both. Thus, Jared was for the former lived to the very year of cotemporary with Adam four hundred | the flood, A.m. 1656, and the latter within and seventy years, with Seth five hun- five years of it, A.m. 1651.
And again, dred and eighty-two, Enos six hundred it would have involved a contradiction, and eighty, Cainaan seven hundred and for if the ark had been completed in fifty seventy-five, Mahalaleel eight hundred | instead of one hundred years, and the and thirty, and with himself nine hundred age of Methuselah and Lamech had been and sixty-two. The horizontal column given as it is, it would have brought their of names and the perpendicular line of death fifty years after the flood! And
there is not one year from the creation, / vens, felt the heaving earth when its deep at which the date of the flood could have foundations were broken up, and heard been fixed without involving such a con- the groan of a perishing world ! Yet such tradiction, till the very date given! This was the fact, as will be seen by comparis a very remarkable coincidence; and if | ing births and deaths in the second table. the accounts given are fabrications, a most Noah was contemporary with every genefortunate escape from a fatal blunder. ration after him down to Abram; Shem
The results of the second table are no down to Jacob; and Arphaxad down to less striking and instructive. Whoever | Isaac; Salah and Eber again down to imagined, without making the compari- Jacob, and probably Eber to the twelve son, that Noah lived to see Abram sixty sons of Jacob. years old, and that Shem lived to witness Every one disposed to do so, can trace all the glorious things transacted between the same facts in regard to the manifold God and Abram, and finally to see him channels of communication from the flood buried and to unite in the general mourn to Abram, Isaac, and Jacob, as we found ing for the father of the faithful! Who from the creation to the flood. We will would have supposed that Abram lived only notice here the whole chain from his whole lifetime, Isaac for one hundred Adam to the fathers of the Hebrews. and eight years, and Jacob for forty-eight Three narrations only were necessary to years, with those who for one hundred bring the account of creation to those years of their early life witnessed and fathers; and a part of the cords entwined assisted in the building of the ark; who in this “cable strong,” may be seen from were borne triumphantly in it through the following collation : the swelling flood, saw the opening hea. (Enos,
Isaac, Lamech, Japheth, Jacob, Three narrations bring the account to to have those scenes stereotyped on monuhistory commences; and when the art of come down to us. So that we have the inscribing upon papyrus and probably account, in a manner, second-handed upon parchment was understood. The from Shem. participators in the awful scenes of the We here leave this interesting field of food lived to see the Pharaohs, the pyra- observation to be pursued by the intellimids and obelisks of Egypt, and probably gent Christian at his leisure.
Table II.-From the Flood to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Noah ......... 950
1056 2006 950 Shein ......... 450 600
1693 2126 133
1757 1916 209 Reu .......... 221 239 239 239 239 170 239
1787 2026 239 Serug ... ... ... 189 230 230 230 230 165 207 230
1819 2049 230 Nahor ...... 158 148 148 148 148 67 148 148 148
1849 1997 148 Terah......... 130 205 177 205 205 100 130 148 205
1878 2124 205 60 175 148 175 175 78 101 49|175 175
1 76 75 75 180 2048 2228 180
16 15 15 120 147' 2108 2255(147
Biblical Repertory. It must, however, be remembered, that much of these remarks, and the dates in general, are based upon what is called the short chronology, which there is reason to believe was altered by the Jews after the birth of Christ. The dates appear to be more accurately given in the longer chronology, supported by Hales in his valuable work. A concise but full view of the subject, will be found in a note at the end of the Book of Genesis, in the Commentary published by the Religious Tract Society.
APPEARANCES OF NATURE.
and unregarded, yet, in due time, they have extended their little roots, and opened their tiny leaflets. Nor is this
vitality confined to a single season, for March, the month of "
seeds have been preserved during a great thers,” has now made its appearance, number of years. Centuries, even, have chasing away the cold and damp which elapsed, while they have displayed no have characterised its predecessor. The signs of vitality; and yet, on being words of Solomon convey a vivid idea of restored to a situation favourable to this period:
growth, they have vegetated, and at “ Lo, the winter is past,
length attained maturity. The three The rain is over and gone;
great agents in the development of the The flowers appear on the earth;
vegetative powers of plants are heat, air, The time of the singing of birds is come.”
and water; and if these essentials are The high winds which prevail at this wanting, the germination of the seed time of the year, perform many import
will not take place. ant offices. They bear away the clouds,
If we look at a young plant, we shall surcharged with rain, over the Atlantic's find that it contains in embryo two disbosom; promote the rising of the sap,
tinct parts, the one consisting of the by violently agitating the trees and root, and the other of the plume, or shrubs; and, drying the smoking earth,
stalk. The root holds the plant in the prevent the seeds from decaying which ground, and obtains nourishment for its have long been lying in the ground. So support, while the plume shoots into the beneficial, indeed, are their effects, as to open air, and fulfils, in its support of have occasioned the proverbial expres
animal life, an important office in the a bushel of March dust is worth economy of nature. It is by this proa king's ransom;" and they are also so
cess, of which but little is thought, that speedy, that a twelve hours' blow will the beautiful crops of corn, the sight of dry the surface of the earth till it is which cheers our hearts in the autumn,
are derived. almost dusty, without the assistance of
Intelligence and perseverthe sun.
ance have in vain attempted to solve the The arrival of spring, which nominally problem, how all this is effected; and commences on the 6th of March, is
we must be satisfied with bowing to that hailed by every one connected with rural wonder-working Hand which has proscenes as an event of great interest, and duced such results, conscious of our our poets may well delight to express designs of God, even in the humblest
the depths of the their sentiments on so animating a scene. Mrs. Hemans thus gives utterance to the plants. voice of spring :
“'Tis pleasant on the ground to pore,
And with discerning gaze explore "I come! I come! ye have called me long,
The leaves that mat the coppice dank, I come o'er the mountains with light and song;
The pathway side, or hedgerow bank, Ye may trace my step o'er the wakening earth,
Chequering the now prolific inould, By the winds which tell of the violet's birth,
With fine mosaic, manifold By the pr stars in the shadowy grass,
In figure, size, and tint, inlaid,
A carpet green by nature made,
From her rich loom the blooming flowers." chain; They are sweeping on to the silvery main,
With buttercups is associated the They are flashing down from the mountain brows, primrose, which “shines like an earthThey are flinging spray on the forest boughs, They are bursting fresh from their sparry caves, star from amid the grass by the brook And the earth resounds with the joy of waves." side, lighting the hand to pluck it."
The preservation of the seeds during “Oh, who can speak his joys when spring's young the severity of winter, and the develop
From wood and pasture opened on his view, ment of the vegetable creation, are worthy
When tender green buds blush upon the thorn, of consideration. Hitherto, the grains And the first primrose dips its leaves in dew." which are to cover our land with their produce, to deck the landscape with its There, too, is our sweet little favourite beauteous carpet, and to command our flower, “the violet that on the mossadmiration on a thousand occasions, have bank grows." been lying dormant, and apparently
“She lifts up her dewy eye of blue, dead, under the cold, wet sod, unseen To the younger sky of the self-same hue."
"From the streams and founts I have loosed the
How unpretending is this sweet flower | months past, in large flocks; but those of spring, hiding itself under the sur- prodigious flights, with which at partirounding leaves, and yet how delicious cular seasons we have been visited, espeis its fragrance! We are informed, by cially in some of the fen districts, are the author of the “Flora Historica, considered as an accumulation from fothat it was a violet that induced John reign countries. They often associate Bertram, a quaker of Pennsylvania, with other birds, not hesitating to feed to study botany. He had employed his with the rook, the pigeon, or the daw; time in agricultural pursuits, without and sometimes, though the friendship is any knowledge on this subject; but not very cordial, with the fieldfare. They being in the field one day, he gathered chiefly roost, however, with their own a violet, examined its formation, and families, 'preferring some marshy situation, reflected on it, till he became so prepos- where reeds will afford protection. They sessed with its beauties, that he dreamed very much dislike separation; and if one of it. This circumstance inspired him becomes accidentally separated from its with a desire of becoming acquainted companions, it will sit on some emiwith plants; he therefore learned as nence, and disconsolately pipe, till joined much Latin as was necessary, and soon by others. Not content, if small parties became the most accomplished botanist of only are formed, they continually call the new world.
for associates, with their fine clear note, There, too, is the cowslip, with its which may be heard at a considerable saffron tints. Its contemplation recalls distance. They delight, on a fine mornto the mind of the old man a thousand ing, to sit basking together on the sumpleasing associations connected with mit of a tree, chattering in a low songyouth, when life appeared to him an like voice. Their evolutions, too, when unlimited horizon; and as he now leans on the wing, are deserving of noticeupon his staff to warm himself with forming themselves into long pear-shaped the invigorating beams of a spring sun, figures, then expanding into a sheet, or he remembers that
wheeling into a ball, with a promptitude
of movement more like soldiers on paIt is the very scent,
rade, than the amusements of birds. That bland, yet luscious, meadow-breathing sweet, As the breeding season advances, these Which he remember'd when his childish feet, With a new life-rejoicing spirit, went
prodigious flights separate, and, finally Through the deep grass with wild flowers richly subdividing into pairs, form their sum
blent, That smiled to high heaven, from off their verdant
mer settlements. Many of them, how
ever, leave the kingdom, and travellers But it brings not to him such joy complete.” inform us that they abound in Persia
and the Caucasus. Their nests are formed The lambs, which now appear in great in church steeples, under eaves, in holes numbers, are, with their ewes, a source of houses, often in cliffs, and sometimes of continued anxiety and toil to their in pigeon-houses. In consequence of
The shepherd does not go to the starling choosing a situation in the his bed from the lambing-pen till late dove-cote, it has been accused of all the at night-and few are the hours allotted injuries which pigeons experience, and by him to sleep. The weakly lambs must these birds are not unfrequently shot for be nourished with warm milk; the dis- deeds they never comunitted. After the position which some ewes display to ill- young ones leave the nest, the parents treat their young must be counteracted; and offspring unite, and gradually form foster-mothers must be provided for the flocks, feeding on grass lands, often in orphans of the flock, by clothing them in company with the rook, and seeming the skins of the dead lambs; while, where to prefer the company of the sheep and no foster-mothers can be found, or where cattle. Their food consists of worms, lambs are wry-necked, they are generally snails, and insects. reared by the assistance of cow's milk, and The thrush now charms us with his are called cades, or pets. If you go into song; he commences early in the spring, the little field close by the farm-house a continues at intervals till autumn, fremonth hence, these little lambs will run quenting small woods, plantations, and towards you, in anticipation of their shrubberies, and seeking food on the meal, and bleating, with their usual lawn, in the garden, and the meadow. mournful tones, if they are disappointed. This usually consists of insects, worms,
Starlings may now be observed, as for and garden snails, the shells of which he
" It is the same.
breaks against the wall
, detaching the strange sounds. To some her cry is mefood with great dexterity. He will some- lancholy, and a kind of dread of the pretimes regale himself on a bunch of cur diction of evil is entertained by many rants, or a stray gooseberry; but no one ignorant and superstitious minds; so will grudge this, who is delighted by his that if one of the larger species happens music. There seem to be no regular notes to cry beside the cottage door, not a few in his song, and sometimes the voices would anticipate the death of the owner, of several may be easily distinguished by a slow consumptive disease, or that so voluntary are the notes of each. Some- the favourite “ bairn” would be laid times a strain will break out, perfectly under the cold sod. Many are those, dissimilar from any preceding series; however, who love to hear her voice-it and yet a hearer may wait a long while brings serious thoughts into the mind, for any repetition of it. An intelligent which may be productive of much good. naturalist informs us, that he heard a One of the amusements of the people song-thrush, which frequented a favourite of the world, at this season, is coursingcopse, after a certain round of note, a practice of great antiquity. The intel" thrilled out most regularly some notes, gence evinced by the hare is not usually that conveyed so clearly the words considered as great, but much sagacity is ladybird! ladybird !' that every one displayed when she flees, and secretes near observed the resemblance. He herself from her numerous enemies. survived the winter, and in the ensuing Fearful as she naturally is, kindness has season, the ladybird !' ladybird ! was induced many hares to display much still the burden of our evening song; it boldness, and they have become entirely then ceased, and we never heard this domesticated. A French naturalist states pretty modulation more. Though merely that he had one living in his house, an occasional strain, yet I have noticed having lost all fear of its inmates, disit elsewhere-it thus appearing to be a playing it only when strangers appeared. favourite utterance." The blackbird usu În winter it sat before the fire, on the ally associates with the thrush, frequent- best terms, with two large Angora cats ing hedges, thickets, and plantations. and a sporting dog. Cowper’s favourites His voice is much mellower than that of are well known. He says: the thrush, but is considered to have less variety and power of execution.
Has never heard the sanguinary yell
Whom ten long years' experience of my care in the old grey tower, and if you scram
Has made at last familiar. ble through the wilderness of large grey For I have gained thy confidence, have pledged twisted thorns, low-spreading mossy ma
Thy unsuspecting gratitude and love. ples, yews, and crabs, and thread your If I survive thee, I will dig thy grave; way through the blocks of old masonry And, when I place thee in it, sighing, say, which have fallen, you may discover its place of abode. There you may see the
Spiders now emerge from the holes in four or five oval white eggs, or the young which they have taken shelter ; ants ones which have issued from them, covered with a thick white down, which begin to show themselves from their
subterranean caverns; the burying, or protects them most efficiently from the sexton-beetle, will be found embedded cold. Or, if you watch at sunset, you in the dead bodies of small animals; may perhaps see the old birds issue from the smaller stag-beetle may be seen in the nest in quest of food, as they are flapping gently along the lanes, hedge and the March moth have left their cry
rotten trees; while the orange underwing rows, orchards, or near out-buildings. In salides, and are fitting from spot to spot. some parts, if we stand on an eminence,
Such are some of those scenes which we may observe them beat the fields over, like a setting-dog, and often drop down this most interesting season.
are presented to our contemplation at
But in our in the grass or corn. Their food consists consideration of these objects, let us not of young rats, mice, shrews, small birds, forget the First Great Cause of all; for and insects, and they have even been seen to catch fish.
“Nature is but a name for an effect, The barn-owl screeches, but does not generally hoot; and in the solitude of her residence, she loves to utter her On every hand are the evidences of his
“ One shelter'd hare
All that is human in me to protect
I knew at least one hare that had a friend.'"
Whose cause is God."