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Geneva watches, but in the better sort of compensation curb was inefficient, as, bethose of English manufacture, it has been sides other defects, it interfered too much superseded by the duplex, and recently with the isochronism of the balance-spring, by the lever, which is nothing more than as the inventor himself was candid enough the application of Graham's dead-beat to confess that the balance, balanceescapement to the watch, though patents spring, and compensation curb, were not have been taken out by various persons contemporaneously affected by changes
have claimed the invention. The of temperature, since small pieces of metal most remarkable inventions of this period were sooner affected than large, and those were those of Harrison, consisting of his in motion before those at rest. Whence gridiron pendulum, the going fusee, the he was led to conclude, that if the provicompensation curb, and the remontoir sion for heat and cold could properly reescapement. In 1736, he appears to have side in the balance itself, as was the case completed his longitude watch, and re with his gridiron pendulum clocks, the ceived from the Royal Society their gold timepiece might be made much more medal; he ultimately received the govern perfect. This ingenuous observation is ment reward of £20,000, together with the more to Harrison's credit, as it was other sums from the Board of Longitude certainly his interest to conceal such a and from the Hon. East India Company. suggestion, being at that time a candidate
Notwithstanding his application of the for the government reward. The comcompensation curb to the watch, it was plexity of Harrison's time-keeper, and the still a subject of inquiry, and by many high price, £400, demanded by Kendall persons it was thought that the expan to make them after that model, still left sion and contraction of the metal, of the time-keeper to be discovered that would which the spring is composed, was the come within the means of purchase of prisource of variation in the equality of its vate individuals : for admirably as Harmotion under changes of temperature ;
rison had succeeded in the construction but the consideration that the change of those which had procured him his of rate in the clock, with a seconds, reward, and great as were the talents of pendulum, in passing from the winter to his assistant Kendall, yet, for practical the summer temperature, amounted only purposes, there needed an instrument of to about twenty seconds, while that of the greater simplicity, and to John Arnold watch exceeded six minutes and a half we are indebted for its invention. under similar circumstances, led careful Arnold is also celebrated for the manuobservers to infer that some other cause facture of the smallest repeating-watch must be assigned for the anomaly, and ever known; it was made for his majesty the loss of elasticity of the balance-spring George ., to whom it was presented on by heat began to be suspected, as appears his birth-day, the 4th of June, 1764. Alby the following passage in the Prize though less than six-tenths of an inch in Essay of Daniel Bernoulli, read before diameter, it was perfect in all its parts, the French Academy :-“I must not repeated the hours, quarters, and halfomit,” said this celebrated geometrician, quarters, and contained the first ruby "a circumstance which may be prejudi cylinder ever made. Indeed so novel cial to balance-watches; it is, that ex was the construction of this little specimen perimental philosophers pretend to have of mechanical skill, that he was forced not remarked that certain changes of elastic only to form the design and execute the force uniformly follow changes of tem work himself, but also to manufacture the perature. If that be the case, the spring greater part of the tools employed in its can never uniformly govern the balance." construction. It is minutely described That which Bernoulli only conjectured, in Rees's Cyclopædia, and also in the was in 1773 established as a matter of Sporting Magazine of that time, in which certainty, and the amount in loss of time, latter work it is correctly stated to be of due to each of the three conjointly operat the size of a silver twopence, and its ing causes, determined by Berthoud to weight that of a sixpence. The king was be-loss by expansion of the balance, so much pleased with this rare specimen 62 seconds; loss by elongation of the of mechanical skill, that he presented balance-spring, 19 seconds; and loss by Mr. Arnold with 500 guineas; and the the diminution of the spring's elastic emperor of Russia afterwards offered Mr. force by heat, 312 seconds, by an increase Arnold 1000 guineas for a duplicate of it, of 60° of heat of Fahrenheit's scale. We which he declined. have previously observed that Harrison's Arnold's model, though destined to
perform the same office as Harrison's, | for public trial at the Royal Observatory, was entirely different in its construction, Greenwich, for twelve months, and were and was as simple as his predecessor's observed daily. One of them made an was complex. By progressive stages of extreme variation of 86-hundredth parts improvement, it was brought by the in of a second, and the other of 57-hunventor himself to so high a point of per dredths only; but even this degree of acfection that it continues to be the model curacy, surprising as it is, is surpassed followed in the construction of the best by the performance of his best astronomichronometers of the present day. The cal clocks. It is therefore highly honourinstruments upon which Arnold experi- able to the English artists, that by their mented, are now in the possession of his ingenuity and skill they have accomsuccessor, Mr. C. Frodsham, and show plished the great object which had occuthe gradual progress of advancement pied the attention of the learned of made in the escapement, etc., until he Europe for nearly 300 years, namely, the arrived at that beautiful, yet simple, means of discovering the longitude at detached escapement, which is still fol It is not a little singular that Sir lowed, and known under the name of the Isaac Newton suggested the discovery Arnold escapement. He was the first of the longitude by the aid of an accurate watchmaker who introduced jewelling time-keeper. into watches and clocks, and in 1771 he If we go back to the period of Philip applied ruby pallets to the two clocks III. of Spain, we shall then see the inof the Royal Society by Graham and terest and importance attached to this Smeaton, and likewise to the transit great discovery. As early as 1598, this clock by Graham at the Royal Observa monarch offered a reward of 100,000 tory, Greenwich. In 1776 Arnold achieved
crowns to any person who should diswhat was unquestionably his greatest cover the means of finding the longitude work, viz.,the invention of the cylindrical of a ship at sea; but what was the opinion spring and compensation balance, and then entertained of the nature of the task their application in the chronometer, to be accomplished by means of the which is the name that Arnold then first balance-watches then in use, may be employed to designate his time-keepers. gathered from an expression of Morin, This ingenious and valuable discovery who wrote about the year 1630, and who, introduced a new era in chronometry. in speaking to the cardinal Richelieu of Each part of the machine under the new the difficulty of constructing an instruarrangement performed unchecked the ment which should keep time to the office assigned to it. The escapement requisite degree of accuracy for that purwas completely detached, except at the pose, is reported to have said, “Id verò moment of discharge and giving impulse; an ipsi diemoni nescio, homini autem susthe balance-spring, no longer interfered | cipere scio esse stultissimum."*—Beckwith in corrections for temperature (as | mann's Inventions, by Francis and Griffiths. formerly) by the compensating curb, became a free agent and the generator of motion, in which state only it is capable
Some account of the celebrated Franof being perfectly isochronized ; the balance, by its expansion and contraction,
cis Xavier, who was an active and de
voted missionary of the Romish religion, varied its inertia according to the varied tension of the balance-spring by its in
may be found interesting, as giving some
idea of the efforts of the Jesuits in the creased or diminished elastic force in changes of temperature, while the office east, at an early period, and exhibiting of the main-spring was reduced to that of character of no common order, calculated
both the right and wrong features of a a simple maintaining power. This beau
to serve as an example, and also as a tiful discovery, together with the law of isochronism and other important im- warning to others. His history is little
known to the generality of Protestants, provements in the modification of the
and among Papists it has been mixed compensation-balance, procured for him
with foolish and fabulous legends. The and his son, John Roger Arnold, the reward from government of the sum of Hough’s “Christianity in India :"-"One
chief facts are as follows, being stated in £3,000. The accuracy with which chro
of the first and best of Loyola's disciples nometers keep time is truly astonishing ;
* "I know not what such an undertaking would in 1830, two chronometers constructed by
be even to the devil himself, but to man it would, Mr. Charles Frodsham were submitted
undoubtedly, be the height of folly."
THE ROMISH MISSIONARY XAVIER.
was Francis Xavier, whose zeal and human nature. Ignatius, Francis, and charity would have done honour to any five other converts, solemnly dedicated cause, had they been directed solely by the themselves, on the summit of Montmarword of God instead of the interests of tre, to the service of the pope, and the his exclusive order and intolerant church. church of Rome; and faithfully did XaHe was born April 7th, 1506, at the vier perform his vow, to the last moment family castle of Xavier, which stands at of his life. the foot of the Pyrenees, seven or eight “ After several years spent in active leagues from Pampeluna. At a very labour and patient suffering, performing early age he manifested a contemplative long and perilous journeys on foot, in the mind, and took much more delight in depth of winter, and exposing himself wandering alone amid the wild mountain to hardships that nearly brought him to scenery of his native land than in the the grave, he and his five companions sports of the field. He was carefully were called by Ignatius to Rome, and educated at home under able masters, introduced to the pope, who encouraged and made considerable proficiency in the them to act under his direction. Xavier classics. He removed to Paris in 1524, was afterwards appointed to proceed to when eighteen years of age, to prosecute India. His farewell to Loyola was very his studies at the celebrated university of affecting : . It is impossible for me to that metropolis. Here he entered with forget you, Ignatius, or not to recall to ardour into the study of philosophy, and my memory
that sincere and holy obtained great credit by his lectures on friendship which you have shown me. Aristotle. But he was soon to be diverted Father of my soul, when I am afar, I from his literary career. Ignatius Loyola will think that you are still present, and (the founder of the society of Jesuits) that I behold you with my eyes; write to came to Paris to complete his studies, me often. The smallness of my talent is and hearing of Xavier's fame, determined known to you; share with me those to become acquainted with him. He abundant treasures which Heaven has drew so impressive a contrast between heaped upon you." the wisdom and honour of this world, "On his arrival at Lisbon, finding the and of religion, as to cause the determin- next fleet for India was not to sail before ation of Xavier to waver, but he could the spring, he employed the intermediate not yet consent to forego the temporal time in visiting the beds of the sick, and ease and advantages within his reach. the dungeons of the inquisition. The king
“At that time there were several Lu- and queen offered him apartments in the therans at Paris, in whose conversation palace; but he preferred lodging in the he appeared to take greater interest than hospital of All Saints', where he was surin that of Loyola; and there can be little rounded by the sick and dying. doubt that what he learned from them “ The fleet arrived at Goa, May 6th, had some influence on the formation of 1542, when Xavier waited on the bishop his character, though he was dissuaded with his credentials, and was received from adopting their sentiments.
with kindness and confidence. His first “ When Xavier had once fairly entered attention was given to the Portuguese, on his new career, he followed the whom he found in a demoralized condispiritual exercises of Ignatius, with cha- tion, and, in a short time, it is said, he racteristic ardour, subjecting himself to had the satisfaction of observing a general all the privations which they enjoined. improvement in their conduct. His teacher does not appear to have Although thus actively employed, he directed him to depend on the Holy was not inattentive to the primary object Spirit to mortify the flesh with its affec- of his mission-the conversion of the tions and lusts, and there is no reason to heathen; and he availed himself of every suppose that he was actuated by the pure opportunity to prepare for the work. and disinterested motive of love to Christ. Natives were flocking to Goa from all Ignatius had contrived to conciliate his parts of India, for purposes of trade, and confidence and regard, and to communi- from these he obtained information recate to him no inconsiderable share of specting their languages, customs, and his own enthusiasm. Nothing could be religion. He visited no less than thirty more entire than his voluntary renun- villages along the coast, and thus deciation of all that the world presents to scribes his mode of proceeding : 'I went captivate the young and ambitious, and about with my bell in my hand, and his adoption of everything repulsive to gathered together all I met, both men
and children; I instructed them in the that he told them to believe and do, Christian doctrine. The children learned which the Roman church inculcates as it easily by heart, in the compass of a the first duty of her children. This she month; and when they understood it, I calls Christian humility; and these poor charged them to teach it to their fathers people were, in this respect, as humble as and mothers, then to all of their own could be desired. In fact, they were too family, and even to their neighbours. dependent on the Portuguese, to think of
""On Sundays I assembled the men withholding their assent from whatever and women, little boys and girls, in the their preceptor told them to believe. We chapel; all came to my appointment are not surprised, then, at his numerical with an incredible joy, and most ardent success, nor that he himself at last became desire to hear the word of God. I began ashamed of the converts he had taken with confessing God to be one in nature, such means to instruct. and triune in persons. I afterwards re “ He spent fifteen months among these peated distinctly, and with an audible thirty villages, giving, upon an average, voice, the Lord's prayer, the angelical about a fortnight to each, and he placed salutation, and the apostles' creed. All over the congregations formed in this of them together repeated after me, and manner, the most intelligent persons he it is hardly to be imagined what pleasure could find among them. These he taught they took in it. This being done, I re to repeat what he had translated; which peated the creed distinctly, and, insisting appears to have been their principal, if on every particular article, asked if they not their only qualification. really believed it. They all protested to "Obtaining three companions, and me, with loud cries, and their hands across having assigned to each of his colleagues their breasts, that they firmly believed it. a district on the coast, he penetrated My practice is, to make them repeat the further into the country alone. He thus creed oftener than the (other) prayers;
wrote to Mansilla, one of his colleagues : and I declare to them, at the same time, You may judge what manner of life I that they who believe the contents of it lead here, by what I shall relate to you. are true Christians.
I am wholly ignorant of the language of “ From the creed I pass to the ten the people, and they understand as little commandments, and give them to under- of mine, and I have no interpreter. All stand that the Christian law is comprised I can perform is to baptize children, and in these precepts, that he who keeps serve the sick—an employment easily them all, according to his duty, is a good understood, without the help of an interChristian, and that eternal life is decreed preter, by only minding what they want.' to him. That, on the contrary, whoever “ His attention was next directed to violates one of these commandments is a Travancore,—the rajah of that country bad Christian, and that he shall be having been induced, at the solicitation of damned eternally in case he repent not the Portuguese, to allow him to preach of his sin. Both the new Christians, and in his dominions. There he found a more the Pagans admire our law, as holy and numerous population; and pursuing the reasonable, and consistent with itself. same course as with the fishermen on Having done as I told you, my custom the coast, he met with even greater sucis to repeat with them the Lord's prayer He writes, that in one month he and the angel's salutation. Once, again, baptized with his own hand ten thousand we recite the creed, and at every article, idolaters, and that frequently in one besides the paternoster and 'the ave day he baptized a well-peopled village. maria, we intermingle some short prayer He says, also, that it was to him a most —and almost in the same manner, we pleasing object to behold, that so soon as run over the ten commandments. The these infidels had received baptism, they false doctrines which are implied in these ran, vieing with each other, to demolish the statements need no comments.
temples of the idols." No less than forty" This is a fair specimen of Xavier's five churches were immediately built for usual mode of proceeding with the na
the use of these converts. Those who know tives, whether heathen, or nominal Chris- the care and patience required to incultians. How he can have expected them cate Divine truth upon the Hindoo mind, to comprehend this confusion of doctrine will be able to estimate correctly such and precept, is unaccountable. Perhaps rapid and wholesale conversions. Instead he did not expect it, and sought only to of improving by experience, and taking obtain that implicit acquiescence in all more pains to instruct the Malabars, than
lie had bestowed upon the Paravar (fisher He visited Malaya, Java, Japan, and men,) he seems to have thought that they many of the adjoining islands. Some of required even less preparation for bap- his converts, at least, evinced sincerity in tism, and was satisfied with their demoli- their Christian profession, suffering losses tion of the Hindoo idols and pagodas, in of property, and even death, from their proof of their sincerity. But all this beathen superiors. But it would be needintemperate zeal naturally aroused the less to pursue the history of his labours, anger of the Brahmins, who regarded though it is interesting to know that his the missionary as an invader of their pro- last effort was an attempt to reach China. vince, and laid snares for his destruction, But his course was run. from which he narrowly escaped.
“When they had proceeded on the Xavier appealed to the universities of voyage as far as the isle of Sancian, he Europe, and particularly that of Paris, was taken ill, and desired to be put on but with no other effect than to call forth shore. His request was complied with, one general burst of admiration. The indeed; but the officers and crew of the warm admirers of his zeal and diligence vessel shamefully neglected him, for they had no ambition to follow his example.
left him to die in a miserable shed, exIt is impossible within these limits to posed to the beams of a vertical sun by record many of the incidents that were day, and to cold winds by night. He connected with his journeys, but one anec- expired December 2nd, 1552, and was dote must not be omitted. Xavier once immediately put into the ground, without “ embarked at Cochin, and one of his much ceremony. But, at the request of fellow-passengers was a Portuguese gen- his two friends, and ashamed, probably, tleman--a libertine and atheist, who glo- of having paid so little respect to the rified in his infidelity. Xavier determined remains of so distinguished a man, they to make his acquaintance, with a view to disinterred his body, for the purpose
of his conversion; and, by his courteous transporting it to India. At Goa it was remanners and conversation, they soon be- ceived with due solemnity, put into a coffin came intimate. But the man would not enchased with silver and precious stones, allow the missionary to speak to him and enshrined in a monument of exquisite about his soul, and whenever his sins art. Thus terminated the career of this were touched upon, he flew into a rage. extraordinary man, at forty-six years of The vessel in which they sailed touching age, ten and a half of which had been at Connamore, they went on shore toge- spent in the east. ther, and took a walk in a wood. They “What an appalling instance does he had not been long there, before Xavier present of the thraldom of a noble spirit stripped himself to the waist, and inflicted under a system of darkness. As a minion himself so severe a chastisement, that ster of Christianity, he had great faultshis back and shoulders were soon covered the faults of the system which enthralled with blood. He then cried to his com his mind. His personal character appears panion- It is for your sake that I do to have been unexceptionable, and this this, and it is nothing to what I would may be fairly attributed to the instructions cheerfully suffer for your soul. But you and impressions he had received in early have inflicted a much severer penalty on life through his Protestant associates at Jesus Christ. Will not his passion, nor Paris. His missionary character, in some his death, nor all his blood, suffice to respects, is worthy of admiration. For soften the hardness of your heart?' Then, bold fidelity to persons of the highest, and lifting up his voice, he said, 'O Lord, be engaging condescension to men of the pleased to look on thine own adorable lowest estate—for unwearied devotion, blood, and not on that of so vile a sinner self-denial, and renunciation of the world, as I am. All this produced the desired he has left behind him an example which effect, for the man immediately threw few have surpassed since the apostles' himself at the father's feet, entreated him days. Could this pure metal have been to forbear, and promised to confess and detached from the dross with which it turn from his wicked course.” That was mixed, and cast into the mould of Xavier could resort to the practice of God's word, he would have formed one such penance, how benevolent soever his of the brightest and best instruments ever intention, is another evidence of the pros- used to deliver mankind from the bondage tration of his understanding-his abso- of Satan, and restore them to their rightlute subjection to the carnal ordinances ful Lord.” of his church.