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woods, and the tomahawk may be busy | Pipe of Peace Dance, such as takes place on the prairie, but here, all is peace. when a treaty of peace has been solemnHere, say the Indians, the Great Spirit ized. The hostile warriors, with calumets killed his buffaloes, and their blood turned or pipes of peace in their hands, join in red the rocks below. Here he assembled the dance. The chiefs smoke; those the tribes, and commanded them all to who are sitting around, who one by one make their pipes of the stone. The war are pulled up to mingle in the dance. club and the scalping knife were ever to Another change! With ugly masks on be harmless at the spot. As he took his their faces, the Indian group are engaged last whiff of his great red pipe, and just in the Buffalo Dance, just as it is danced when the dark clouds rolled over the when buffaloes are scarce and famine multitude, the rocks were melted in a stares them in the face. They chant a blaze of fire, and the Great Spirit vanished wild prayer-song to the Great Spirit, imaway. The red man believes in the tra- ploring him to send them herds of buffaditions of his fathers, and the supersti- loes, and promise him the fattest and the tions of his tribe are as a part of his best for his pains. Now they are grobeing. Thus will it be till “the day tesquely jumping about to the music of break and the shadows flee away.”. the drum, and imitating the buffalo.

Pamaho, equally ready to swim rapidly A lodge or wigwam made of the in the river, to hunt the buffalo, to attack painted skins of buffaloes spread over the

enemy, or to join in recreation, is high poles, cut from the Rocky Moun- the most active in his movements, and tains, stands on the border of the prairie. the most unwearied in the dance. Chiefs and braves are assembled within it, and weapons of war, dresses, and musical instruments are seen hanging up The prairie, yonder, for miles, is a garor arranged on the floor; gay dresses of den of fruits and flowers. Endless clusters coloured skins, fringed with scalp locks of delicious grapes; hundreds of acres of from the heads of their fallen foes; war heavily laden palm-trees, wild currants, clubs, tomahawks, bows, and quivers of gooseberries, strawberries, rose-trees, and arrows, spears and shields, with robes, myriads of odour-breathing flowers, are mantles, war - eagle and raven head- rivalling one another in sweetness and dresses; belts, pouches, mocasins, to- profusion; but every earthly paradise has bacco sacks, whistles, rattles, and drums. its serpent. The eyes of the copper-head Pamaho and a few others have arrived glisten among the fruit! the folds of the with a message from their tribe, which is rattlesnake are seen among the flowers ! now being considered. Two of the chiefs The “black drink" has been freely taken are very tall, their medicine bags are of to prepare the red men for the season of the skin of the ermine, they wear war green corn. The Green Corn Dance has eagle head-dresses, and their hair reaches been duly performed, the first kettle of to the ground. The untutored Indian maize has been offered up to the Great is as fond of finery as the more polished Spirit with a song of thanksgiving. The inhabitants of the world ; and see him, riot and excess are over, and the tribes are lance in hand, on horseback, or on foot, pursuing their wonted occupations. In fully painted, arrayed in his flowing buf- a large tent sits a chief, receiving prefalo robes, his necklace of bear's claws sents from a young Indian who is about over the skin of the white wolf; his to marry his daughter. The presents are head-dress of war-eagle quills; his scalp received, the chief gives his daughter to locks, leggings, mocasins, and medicine the young Indian, who strikes the palm bag, and few Europeans would cut a finer of her hand with his own. This is the figure.

whole of the marriage ceremony. The

bride receives presents from those who Four mystery men have sat smoking attend, among whom is Pamaho, and the through the night to the Great Spirit, marriage dance is performed by the joythe ball-play is begun, and hundreds of ous throng. And how did the young spectators are assembled. The contend- Indian win his bride? for he has neither ing parties, painted of different colours, polished manners, nor wealth, nor fine are catching the ball with their webbed clothes. True ; but he has showed sticks, and striving to urge it beyond the the scalp-locks of his foes ! He has goal. The ball-play is changed to the killed the wolf, the bear, and the buffalo;





The very

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and she knows that he has a bold heart, in the extremity of their fright; and and a hand strong to defend her. on! on! rolls the overwhelming flood of

fire! A band of mounted Indians have A buffalo herd ! a buffalo herd! The burst through the flaming barrier, and horned animals are many.

are flying over the dark and smoking prairie in one direction is blackened with prairie, where the conflagration so lately their number. This is a sight that the raged. Pamaho leads the band, prompt red man loves to see. Pamaho and and self-possessed, for he is no stranger a hundred others, well mounted, and to a prairie on fire. armed with bows, arrows, thin spears, and a few rifles, are cautiously following The swift runners, carrying their red the trail. The herd have taken the alarm; pipes, have hurried through the tribe; loud is the trampling of flying hoofs, and the young men have smoked through the a cloud of dust is rising from the prairie. reddened stem, and thereby volunteered Pamaho, with unerring aim, has dis- for war. A council has been called. The charged the two barrels of his rifle, and chiefs, and braves, and mystery men is now galloping alongside a buffalo bull, have deliberated. Their resolution is which is trying to escape.

He cau

taken ; their plan agreed upon; the war tiously poises his long, thin lance, making dance is at its height; and anger, reoccasional feints till he sees that he can venge, and cruelty have entered into the inflict a mortal wound, then plunges heart of the red man.

Excited by exerthe pointed spear deep into the hapless cise and warlike music, all are wild in buffalo, near the shoulder, and, soon their demeanour. Every eye is glaring after, the bulky beast is rolling on with bitterness and rage; every bosom the plain. At least a score buffaloes panting after the scalp locks of the foe. have already fallen, and a score more Brandishing their war clubs, they leap will shortly be added to their number. about to the music of the drum, and vioIndians, with carts and sledges, are fol- lently strike the reddened post, while lowing in the trail of the flying buffaloes, the mystery man wildly chants the song to bring home such as have been slain. of death. Black paint is rubbed over

their faces; again they brandish their On the rude and broken ground by weapons around the reddened post, and the high bluff, near the river's side, a scream the war-whoop in their rage. And party of armed Indians have met a huge now the preparation will be made for the grizzly bear and killed him. They have approaching struggle; the arrows will be left the shaggy monster where the death straitened, and feathered, and pointed; grapple took place, to follow a deer which the quiver refilled; the best bows chosen; has taken shelter in the weedy wilder- the war-club, the tomahawk, and the

The high grass, springing up six scalping-knife duly prepared. Soon will or eight feet from the prairie, and the the warrior band, under cover of night, rough sedge are dry as the burning sun and the shelter of the forest, steal silently can make them : hardly would tinder on their unsuspecting foe. more rapidly take fire. A wandering stealthily creeps the panther towards his Trapper has dropped his pipe, and in prey than the Indian on his enemy. picking it up has left some of its burning Pamaho is the first in the war dance, the contents in his path. It smokes, it first in the warlike preparations, and he sparkles, a little flame runs along a dry will be first in the onslaught of death. blade of grass; it has reached the stem; it has mounted half way up it, setting An Indian village stands where the other blades and stems on fire; the flame wood and the prairie meet.

All is still ; has burst forth ; it gathers strength; the the accustomed sounds of even are hushed wind from the west bears it onward. in the repose of night. Not a movement Fearful! Fearful! The prairie is on is heard in the melon ground; not a fire! See how it rushes forward ! Hark, breath of air rustles the leaves of the vines. how it bellows in its course ! The fire- Silence reigns around, and darkness rests fiend is abroad in his rage, and woe to upon the face of the prairie. But see! those he overtakes, for he spares neither A flame has burst forth! A wigwam is man nor beast. Birds are rising on the on fire! and hark! the shrill war-whoop wing; buffaloes and deers are forcing is ringing in the air! Dark forms are their way through the grassy forest rising from the ground, and armed men




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are leaping forth from the gloom into the or brave, or warrior, he must die. This glare. `Pamaho takes the lead in the is a solemn hour, for an aged Indian fierce attack. The war-cry bursts from a chief is drawing near his end. He has hundred voices ! the death grapple is summoned around him the warriors of begun! A hundred redskins are engaged his tribe, and Pamaho is at his right hand. in the work of destruction, and the massy He has arrayed himself in his richest club, and the murderous tomahawk spare mocasins, his scalp locks, leggings, his neither the warrior nor the wife, the old robes, his belt, and his head-dress of war man nor the babe. The contention goes eagle plumes. He has half painted his on; the scalping knife is at work; but face, and his hands are vermilion red. now the village is aroused, and the assail He has armed himself as if for war. He ants are outnumbered. They make a bas grasped his comrades firmly by the hasty retreat, but not till the wigwams hand, and bidden them farewell; and now, are wrapped in flames. The word of God with a smile of triumph, and the air of has taught the white man mercy, though a conqueror, calmly crossing his hands, too often he neglects the lesson; but and holding his tomahawk in one of them, with the red man, revenge is virtue.

he draws his last breath. No sigh escapes

him: no struggle is visible. He is moPamaho, and the warriors, painted and tionless. The aged chief is departed. armed, are assembled to perform the scalp dance in celebration of victory. As the red men of the forest and Screaming aloud, they form themselves prairie live in different kinds of lodges, into a circle, wildly dancing, and bran some in movable tents covered with dishing their war clubs, while the squaws skins; some in wigwams of bark, flags, or women in the centre hold up the and reeds; and some in more substanscalp locks which have been taken in tantial earth-covered dwellings, so do battle. Then they hang up the medicine they dispose of their dead in different bag of a slain companion, opposite the ways. Some bury them, some float them lodge of his widow, singing to it, and on the water, and some deposit them on giving offerings to the widow. Now their elevated scaffolds, leaving them till they song and their dance are ended. A fall through decay. The body of the wounded Indian is lying in a tent, writh- aged chief, wrapped in skins, has been ing with agony, and drawing near his end. borne with solemnity to the buryingThe bystanders are bemoaning him. But ground, and deposited on a high scaffold, hark! a rattling and scuffling noise ap- with a due allowance of provision. A proaches! It is the medicine, the mys- thousand whitened skulls placed on moss, tery man, or conjurer, for he is called by or grass, or scented herbs, surround the all these names, and he comes to cure place. The moon is up, and a shadowy the wounded man of his ailment. Here form is standing thoughtfully beside the he is, with his looking glass, his drum of scaffold of the aged chief. It is Pamaho. deer skin,-his rattle of antelope hoofs, But think not that he is reflecting on and the skin of a yellow bear flung over the white man's heaven ! Worthy the his head and shoulders. He chants a Lamb" is a song which has never reached wild air ; he dances round the patient, his ears, and the “ great multitude increasing continually the violence of his that no man can number, clothed with gestures. He paws the dying man, and white robes, and with palms in their repeats his incantations and mummeries, hands, are equally unknown to him. He but all in vain. The wounded Indian believes that as the aged chief has been a dies, and the medicine man, shaking his hardy hunter, and bold in battle, slaying rattles, and growling hideously, makes many enemies, that he has a beautiful

lodge in a beautiful country, where he

will for ever follow the chase with sucAll must die ! The civilised and the This ignorance will be done away, savage; the white man and the red!

for the gospel will prevail, the heathen The sentence has gone forth to the ends be enlightened, and the grave of the red of the earth, “Dust thou art, and unto man bear the inscription, “ I know that dust thou shalt return.” Though the my Redeemer liveth, and though after foot of the Indian be swift as the ante my skin worms destroy this ody, yet lope, and his frame strong as that of the in my flesh shall I see God," Job xix. 25, grizzly bear, he must dię. Be he chief, 26.

his escape.



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to resorte. Good marchandis at Lyrpole,

and moch Yris yarn that Manchestre The rise and progress of Liverpool, men do buy there.” In 1570, we find from an obscure and mean condition to Liverpool particularly noticed, the Merone of almost unparalleled commercial dis

sey being designated a little creek sutinction and wealth, is full of interest. Its bordinate to Chester," and the matter early history appears to have had but little

was obstinately contested in the Duchy attention, and perhaps deservedly, from Court of Lancaster, in consequence the insignificance of the object. For of Chester seeking to engross the trade what was Liverpool ?

with Spain and Portugal, to the pre"Where Mersey's stream, long winding o'er the led to the first recorded deputation on

judice of the Liverpool merchants. This plain, Pours his full tribute to the circling main, commercial matters from that town to A band of fishers chose their humble seat;

the government, who waited on the earl Contented labour bless'd the fair retreat: Inured to hardship. patient, bold, and rude,

of Derby, and requested his interference They braved the billows for precarious food : for the adjustment of the question. On Their struggling huts were ranged along the its being referred to the Master of the Their nets and little boats their only store." Rolls, he gave his judgment in favour of

Liverpool, and a hogshead of wine was In the reign of Henry vir., Leland the expression of acknowledgment to the thus notices this little town: “Lyrpole, arbitrator by the merchants, a subscripalias Lyverpoole, a pavid towne, hath but tion being made for the purpose of dea chapel, Walton a iiii. miles of, not far fraying the expense. Towards the close from the Se is paroche chirch; the king of the sixteenth century, the improvehas a castelet there, and the earls of ment of the town appears to have been Darbe hath a stone house there. Irisch much impeded, and the inhabitants, in marchauntes cum much thither as to a petitioning queen Elizabeth for an exgood haven; after that Mersey water cum emption from certain impositions, deming up to Runcorne, in Cheshire, liseth scribed themselves as belonging to her among the commune people the name, majesty's poor decayed town of Liverand iš Lyrpole. At Lyrpole is smaule poole ;" and it is ascertained, that at that custume payd that causith marchauntes period it contained only one hundred

May, 1847.

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and thirty-eighty householders, whose country, that powers were obtained for principal wealth consisted in the posses- the construction of canals; and the Irwell, sion of twelve small vessels, navigated Mersey, and Weaver rivers underwent by seventy-five men. Though gradually considerable improvements. Meanwhile recovered in some measure from this de- the population increased to 10,446, and pression, yet, in the reign of Charles I., theaggregate burden of the ships amounted it was inferior to most of the other com to 8,326 tons. mercial towns; as it appears from the It should here, however, be mentioned, statement relative to the ship-money, that that the rapid advancement of Liverpool Liverpool was rated at 251., while con is chiefly attributable to the improvement tributions to the amount of 261. and which took place, during the eighteenth 10001. were respectively demanded of century, in the manufactures of ManChester and Bristol. On the establish-chester. Up to this period, the merment of the commonwealth, Liverpool chants had obtained their inferior comwas put under the command of colonel modities from Scotland, which they disMoore, who fortified it with a strong posed of on a very limited scale in Africa mud wall and a ditch, while a strong and the West Indies; for in all the more castle commanded the neighbourhood. important places, the merchants of BrisIt was, however, invested by prince tol were able to undersell them. When, Rupert, in 1644, and after a month's siege however, the productions of the Manit was taken. The forces of the parlia- chester looms were rendered superior to ment again recovering possession of the those of Scotland and the continent, place, a grant was made of five hundred they soon became of the greatest importtons of timber, for repairing the edi. ance to Liverpool. It is an indisputable fices which had suffered in the siege. fact, that Liverpool being the port through From this period the commercial in which Manchester, Oldham, Bury, Bolterests of the town appear to have been ton, Ashton, and other great seats of on the advance, and towards the close of the cotton manufacture, are supplied, the seventeenth century, further accom- they have augmented, to a prodigious modation for the shipping was deemed extent, the wealth of the town; and it advisable; as the land being low, the is no exaggeration to affirm, that the ships in the Mersey were exposed to wonderful inventions and discoveries of every gale. It was therefore determined Arkwright, Hargreave, Crompton, Cartto apply to parliament for power to con- wright, and others, have been, though struct the old dock, which was the first not so direct, almost as powerful in their erection of the kind in England, for keep- effects at the docks of Liverpool as at the ing vessels afloat; and by the act of queen mills at Manchester. In the year 1730, Anne, 1708, which created the dock- three hundred vessels entered the port of estate, the corporation were empowered to Liverpool, and in 1734, an act of parliaconstruct the works, and to receive the ment authorised the construction of Saltduties from June 1710 till 1731, at the ex house Dock. On this occasion the corporapiration of which time, one-fourth only of tion gave, in addition to the land, a donathe duties then paid were to be chargeable. tion of 10001. towards the expenses. It The corporation accordingly furnished was opened in 1753, being chiefly used for the ground free of charge, and the dock Levant vessels, and lying north of the was constructed, the site of which is de- Bridgewater Dock. Its form is irregular, scribed in the act, as "in or near a cer- | being on the east side about 300 yards, tain place called the Pool, on the south side at the south end 80, and on the north of the said town of Liverpool.” It was end 150 yards; the whole, with the passoon found advisable to apply to govern- sage, comprising an extent of area of ment for further powers, and these being 23,025 square yards. Salthouse Dock granted in 1717, the dry dock was con has recently been altered, in consequence structed. It is of irregular proportions, of a deficiency in its depth, and there communicating with George's Dock at being a wish to correct a peculiarity of the north end by means of a canal. On form. In order to accelerate the works, the eastern side is a magnificent pile of relays of workmen were appointed, rewarehouses, with an extensive piazza lieving each other every twelve hours, for the accommodation of foot passen- the labour being continued night and gers. These improvements were found day. Those who worked by night slept by to have so beneficial an influence on the day, breakfasting at eight o'clock in the commercial interests of the town and evening, and dining between twelve

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