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o'clock and one. The spectacle thus which is valued at 100,0001. It has an afforded was unique in its kind; three area of 54,000 square yards, and a length hundred workmen, spread over an ex of quay-space of 1,613 yards. The dock tent of five acres, in some places fifty and its quays are enclosed by brickfeet below the observer, were displayed walls, having gates on the north, south, to view by the flickering glare of count and east. Between the western wall less torches. The result of the con and the river is the East Marine-parade, struction of this dock was most im- which is 700 yards long and eleven yards portant. New streams of commerce were broad, and protected on the side next to directed to the port, because new markets the water by a stone wall, three feet in were opened; besides, they furnished em- height, forming a delightful promenade ployment for a larger number of indus- when the tide is in. The Clarence trious persous,-and the “poor decayed Docks, named in honour of king William, town of Liverpool ” raised its head, and were first opened in September, 1830, claimed to rank with the great commer and are furnished with works of the cial ports of Tyre, Sidon, Carthage, most durable, and sometimes handsome, Venice, Antwerp, and, in our own coun- kind. A lofty and spacious shed extry, with Bristol, and even with London, tends the entire length of the eastern the great emporium of the merchandize side, and the whole of these works is of the world.

surrounded by a strong and lofty wall. " Thus did fair Commerce found the chosen place,

Most of the docks are intended for the And smiled approving on th' industrious race. use of, and are visited by, particular Lo! as she waves her hand, what wonders rise !

classes of ships. Thus the Brunswick Stupendous buildings strike the astonish'd eyes : The hollow'd rock receives the briny tide,

Dock is for vessels laden with timber And the rude ships secure from Neptune ride : from America; the Queen's, for West With busy toil, the crowded seats resound, And wealth, and arts, and plenty spread around.” | Indian, Baltic, and Dutch vessels; the

Coburg, for the large class of sea-going Other circumstances must now be steamers; the King's, for the tobacco glanced at. Francis Egerton, having vessels from the West Indies and North projected an extensive plan of canal navi- America; and the Prince's Dock, the gation, on coming into possession of his

most magnificent of all, for ships from title and fortune, as duke of Bridge- India and China, and for the largest water, proceeded to the execution of part class of American vessels. Each one is of his design. In 1758-9, he obtained differently arranged, with a view to the power for the construction of his first accommodation of the class of vessels for canal, which commenced at Worsley, which it is intended; and, in some cases,

miles from Manchester, and accommodation is furnished united with the Mersey at Runcorn, quay for unloading a particular kind of where barges from Liverpool enter. This cargo, and on the other side for loading was accordingly finished, and the annual for the return voyage. The cast-iron amount of tonnage arriving by the canals posts situated around the basins, with of the duke, the Manchester Old Quay, which to secure the vessels, reminded an the Weaver and Sankey navigation, intelligent foreigner of the manner in amounted in 1825 to about 1,000,000 which his countrymen, in their prometons. The dock of the duke of Bridge- nades at Bremen, jump over the entanglewater, called in honour of its constructor, ment of ropes by which the quays are was intended solely for the use of his flats. traversed, in order to fasten the vessel to This dock is small, but elegantly con the trees on the opposite side, certainly structed. It has a range of storehouses presenting a remarkable custom. The upon an arch, under which vessels may

warehouses surrounding the basins are enter and have their cargoes moved up worthy of notice; and situated around to the proper warehouses above.

In the quays are sheds, under which the 1796, the Queen's Dock was excavated, merchandize can be immediately rewhich closes the lists of the older docks, moved on leaving the vessel, and from and up to which time the cost of con which it can be packed in the wagons struction amounted to 120,0001. The that are to carry it away. These sheds Prince's Dock is the largest of all, and have side walls, consisting either of was completed in 1821, at an expense of wooden boards or of canvass, stretched 461,0591.-more than half of which was on iron rollers; and, being movable, expended in wages to the men employed can be put out of the way when the in excavating-exclusive of the land, weather is favourable, or they can be

seven

on

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restored to their places should a heavy to augment the commerce of Liverpool. rain come on, converting them at once into In 1803, an act was passed for allowing closely protected warehouses. The dif- goods imported from foreign countries ference in the situation of the houses to be warehoused without payment of here and in London, leads to a difference duty in the port of London; and in 1805, in discharging and loading ships; in the the privilege extended to such of the latter case it is performed by the servants other outports as choose to avail themof the different dock companies, and in selves of its privileges. The merchants the former by persons who undertake of Liverpool were not slow in comprethe employment, called “lumpers.” hending the advantages thus offered, These individuals have a number of fol- and this city soon became the second lowers, chiefly Irishmen, and they en-bonding depôt in the kingdom. The gage to load or discharge a vessel for a number of warehouses and vaults for specified sum, according to the nature and bonded goods are very considerable, and amount of the cargo, the lumper being there are a number of yards for bonded master and superintendent, and paying timber, as well as ample granaries under his men day wages, though sometimes it the government key for foreign corn. is a joint concern. The

expense of the The tobacco warehouse is a building of removal of goods is about sixpence per immense size, covering with its area ton each time they are changed; though three acres and a half of ground, and the hire of labourers for loading is not

the estimated value of bonded property charged to the ship, but paid by the in this port is nearly two millions sterowners of the goods. Every precaution ling, though there is considerable alteris made to prevent the accumulation of ation at particular periods. Merchandize mud in the docks; that which is un of various descriptions, the produce of avoidably admitted is removed by the every clime, is warehoused in these application of the steam-dredging ma- buildings, and consequently the duty, chines; while strict regulations, enforced which was formerly paid in cash preby a vigilant police force, are estab- vious to the landing of the imports, being lished to maintain good order, and to suspended under this system till the prevent both fire and depredations. The merchandize is taken out of bond for docks may be said generally to be the consumption, the merchant is enabled to property of the public; they are con carry on trade with less capital than was structed with money borrowed on the formerly required, and foreigners are insecurity of the rates levied, those rates duced to deposit their cargoes in Great being pledged by act of parliament for the Britain till an opportunity is presented payment of interest in the first place, for sale, whether in this country or and of the principal in the second.

elsewhere. By this improved arrangeThe trade with the sister island has ment of our fiscal department, the shipbecome of late years of great importance ping interest is greatly augmented. The to this port, for Ireland might, until very importance of Liverpool as a commerrecently, be denominated the granary cial town, is not easily conceived. In and storehouse of Lancashire. This 1834, its exports were considered to county, distinguished as it is by its amount to 19,700,0001., and its imports to manufacturing and commercial pros- 15,000,0001, which increased to about perity, has never ranked very high as an 40,000,0001. in its aggregate amount in agricultural district; and even if it had, in 1844. The mercantile marine beno degree of skill could ever have ren- longing to this port is inferior only to dered so limited an extent of country that of London, there having belonged, adequate to the support of a population on the 31st of December, 1842, 1,256 of upwards of a million of inhabitants. sailing vessels, of the aggregate burden For many years the thickly-peopled ma of 338,458 tons, manned by about 15,000 nufacturing districts of this country have seamen ; of these, 125 vessels, of the burbeen supported by the produce of York- den of 4,042 tons, were under fifty each. shire and Lincolnshire on the one hand, There also belonged to Liverpool, 46 and of Ireland on the other; the imports steamers of the aggregate burden of from the latter only, in 1833, amounting to 5,000 tons. These, however, have inmore than eight millions sterling, and creased to an immense extent, and some the increase since that period has been of the finest steamers in the world sail enormous. The warehousing or bond- from the port of Liverpool. The coming system has tended very essentially mercial bustle, the forests of masts, the

splendid harbour, and the docks, form a commercial intercourse with the western spectacle unequalled in the world with coast; while to the north extends a long the exception of London, and in some line of shore, without a single harbour respects, even the docks of the metro. accessible to ships of considerable size. polis are inferior to those of Liverpool. It is not only the port of south LancaIn London, for instance, when docks shire, and the West Riding of Yorkshire, were thought of, it was impossible to but of Cheshire, Staffordshire, and even move away half a town, so the new of Warwickshire. Thus the foreign works had to make way for the old ones; trade of these districts is concentrated but in Liverpool, a convenient site was here, and the manufacturing skill, mining made from the first for the docks, and wealth, and general industry supplies the custom-house, the exchange, and the the rest. Through the port of Liverpool counting-houses of the merchants, were are poured into the interior the raw grouped round them. In London, when materials of our manufactures, and all a merchant wishes to transmit an order the various commodities which minister to his ship in the docks, he has frequently to the wants and wishes of a wealthy to send his clerk a considerable distance, and highly civilized people; while through perhaps part of the way by railroad ; the same medium every quarter of the while in Liverpool, a merchant might globe is supplied with those products of almost make himself heard in the docks, British ingenuity which render England out of his counting-house window. The the workshop of the world. Contemwhole length of the river side at Liver- plating the commercial prosperity of pool is occupied with harbour works, in- Great Britain, of which Liverpool poscluding an extent of more than two and sesses so important a share, it appears

of a half English miles, and a breadth of stupendous proportions. Not a breeze from 250 to 500 yards. Basins are cut that fans the cheek, not a wind that blows in the rock, and then lined with solid from any point of the hemisphere, but masonry, around which admirable quays is made available for some of our richlyare constructed. There are entrance laden barks in their progress to the desdocks and canals, provided with various tined haven. The heats of summer and kinds of locks, and crossed by handsome the destructive blasts of winter are but iron bridges or by wooden pathways. materials for our use, and Britain's comIf the Mersey is visited at low water, a mercial power influences to an immense lofty sea wall will be observed along the extent every quarter of the civilized whole extent of the river side, while the world. It is this that has made princes basins behind appear filled with ships. of our merchants, and has raised EngThe quays crowded with busy workmen, | land to the position she enjoys among engaged in loading and unloading mer- the nations of the globe. That her power chandize, with the imposing warehouses, may be as just and benignant as it is exand the not inelegant residences of the tensive, must be the sincerest wish of officers of the docks, complete the scene, every philanthropic mind!

F. The unrivalled advantages possessed by Liverpool over the other western ports of the empire'are worthy of notice.

LETTERS OF REV. JOHN NEWTON. Placed at the mouth of a deep and navi An interesting volume has lately been gable river, easy of access to those ac- published, consisting of one hundred and quainted with the navigation of the port, twenty-nine original letters, from the Rev. and affording safe anchorage to commer J. Newton to the Rev. W. Bull, of Newcial vessels of every size, it was ad- port Pagnell. The following are two of mirably adapted, even before the forma- them : tion of its docks, to attract ships visit My dear friend,—I have been witness ing the north-western coast of England. to a great and important revolution this Since the decline of the port of Chester, morning, which took place while the it has become, however, not only the greatest part of the world was asleep. best, but the only outlet and inlet of the Like many state revolutions, its first commerce of the northern and central beginnings were almost undiscernible; counties which is directed to the western but the progress, though gradual, was coast. To the south, the mountainous steady, and the event decisive. A while districts of Wales cut off the central ago, darkness reigned. Had a man then counties of England from the sea, and dropped for the first time into our world, give a northern direction to all their he might have thought himself banished

into a hopeless dungeon. How could he soul and body. How industriously is Satan expect light to rise out of such a state ? served! I was formerly one of his most And when he saw the first glimmering active under-tempters. Not content with of dawn in the east, how could he pro- running the broad way myself, I was mise himself that it was the forerunner indefatigable in enticing others; and had of such a glorious sun as has since risen? my influence been equal to my wishes, I With what wonder would such a new would have carried all the human race comer observe the bounds of his view

with me.

And doubtless some have peenlarging, and the distinctness of objects rished, to whose destruction I was greatly increasing, from one minute to another; instrumental, by tempting them to sin, and how well content would he be to and by poisoning and hardening them part with the twinklings of the stars, with principles of infidelity; and yet I when he had the broad day all around was spared! When I think of the most him in exchange! I cannot say this with whom I spent my unhappy days of revolution is extraordinary, because it ignorance, I am ready to say, I only am happens every morning; but surely it is escaped alive to tell thee. Surely I have astonishing, or rather it would be so, if not half the activity and zeal in the serman was not astonishingly stupid. vice of Him who snatched me as a brand

Such strangers once were we. Dark- from the burning, that I had in the serness, gross darkness, covered us : how vice of his enemy. Then the whole confined were our views! and even the stream of my endeavours and affections things which were within our reach we went one way: now my best desires are could not distinguish. Little did we continually crossed, counteracted, and then think what a glorious day we were spoiled, by the sin which dwelleth in me. appointed to see what an unbounded Then the tide of a corrupt nature bore prospect would, ere long, open before us. me along: now I have to strive and swim We knew not that there was a Sun of against it. The Lord cut me short of righteousness, and that he would dawn opportunities, and placed me where I and rise and shine upon our hearts. And could do but little mischief; but had my as the idea of what we see now was abilities and occasions been equal to my hidden from us, so at present we are heart, I should have been a Voltaire and almost equally at a loss how to form any a Tiberius in one character-a monster conception of the stronger light and of profaneness and licentiousness. " Oh brighter prospects which we wait and to grace how great a debtor !” A comhope for. Comparatively we are in the mon drunkard or profligate, is a petty dark still : at the most we have but a sinner to what I was. I had the ambi. dim twilight, and see nothing clearly; tion of a Cæsar or an Alexander, and but it is the dawn of immortality, and a wanted to rank in wickedness among the sure presage and earnest of glory.

foremost of the human race. Thus, at times, it seems a darkness have read this, praise the Lord for his that

may be felt broods over your natural mercy to the chief of sinners, and pray spirits. But when the Day-star arises that I may have grace to be faithful. But upon your heart, you see and rejoice in I have rambled. I meant to tell you, that his light-you have days as well as on Sunday afternoon, I preached from nights; and, after a few more vicissi Why will ye die ?” Ezek. xxxiii. 10, 11. tudes, you will take your flight to the I endeavoured to show poor sinners, that regions of everlasting light, where your if they died it was because they would, sun will go down no more. Happy you, and if they would they must. I was and happy me, if I shall meet you there, much affected; for a time I could hardly as I trust I shall. How shall we love, speak for weeping, and some wept with and sing, and wonder, and praise the From some, alas ! I can no more Saviour's name !

draw a tear or a relenting thought than Last Sunday, a young man died here from a millstone. of extreme old age at twenty-five. He You bid me either write or come. Come, laboured hard to ruin a good constitu I cannot; and therefore I obey you in tion, and unhappily succeeded, yet the alternative. Partly, because it is my amused himself with the hopes of recovery bounden duty to obey Mr. Bull; and almost to the last. We have a sad knot partly to coax you out of a letter, which of such poor creatures in this place, who will be very acceptable, especially if it labour to stifle each other's convictions, be a good long one. The Lord has and to ruin themselves and associates, watched over us night and day since you

When you

me.

THE OCEAN.

were here, and we are in health and and therefore cannot fill up my paper as peace. We join in love to you and usual. I wish the bearer may bring me Mrs. Bull. Come and see us as soon and a better account of you.

May the Lord as often as you can, and always think of fill you with his peace. We join in love me, and pray for me, as your very affec- to you and Mrs. Bull. I am constrained tionate friend and brother,

to subscribe myself in haste, affectionately John NEWTON. yours,

JOHN NEWTON, Olney, 27th October, '78.

Olney, 7 Sept. '79. My dear friend, I could have wished for a more favourable account of your

BOATSWAIN BILLINGS; OR, SCENES ON complaint, but you are in the Lord's hand-in the hand of him who loves you better than I do, better than you can The wide-spread world of waters is love yourself. He will therefore order all leaving to and fro; dolphins are sportthings concerning you, and give you ing in the waves; a lonely albatross is strength according to your day. This winnowing his way above the bounding great Physician can support and heal, billows, and a distant sail to the south is when other physicians are found to be of seen on the horizon. We call the ocean no value.

green, but it is blended with all huesI am waiting with suspense for a fur- green, blue, slate-colour, silvery white, ther account of the fleets. You will hear ebon black, glittering like gold, and sooner than we. If the news prove un

sometimes of all colours at the same favourable, it will come soon enough to moment, as the light, the sunshine, the us all. Now perhaps is the crisis, or

clouds, and other causes, affect it. At perhaps before now the blow is struck. one time the sun blazes on the billows, My soul, wait thou only upon God; he and at another the dark clouds fling their directs the storm, and he can hush it into inky shadows on the deep. Now the sea a calm. He loves his people, and num is calm, now adorned with narrow ledges bers the hairs of their head. Whatever of snowy white foam, now rushing onward may be his purpose towards the nation, in huge curling ridges, and now heaving he says to his own people, shall be wildly in fearful commotion, headstrong, well with them.

mountainous, boundless, grand, magnifiHere I was interrupted by a visit cent, awful, and sublime. The mighty from Mrs. Foster; she has just left us, voice of ocean is like the wallowing of a and I am just going to the great house, * river and the windroar of a forest, some

times low and sometimes loud, but ever * What is called the great house, was an ancient fitful, restless, incessant, and eternal. mansion, then unoccupied, and now pulled down, in which Mr. Newton rented a room, where meet

O Lord, how manifold are thy works! ings were held for prayer, and exposition of the in wisdom hast thou made them all: the

In this room my father sometimes preached for Mr. Newton. I have by me a list of

earth is full of thy riches. So is this names, in the hand-writing of the author of these great and wide sea, wherein are things letters, of the persons who engaged in prayer; and creeping innumerable, both small and it is interesting to observe among them the frequent recurrence of the name of the poet Cowper, great beasts,” Psa. civ. 24, 25. from the year when he came to reside at Olney, to the year 1773, when a dark cloud came over his How dread the frown on ocean's angry brow! mind, and peculiar views of himself unhappily pre How great, how dread, O God! how infinite art vented him from entering a place of worship to the end of his days. So strictly conscientious was this interesting man, that I have frequently seen him sit down at table when others have risen to implore The good ship Mary Anne is lying at a blessing, and take his knife and fork in hand, to signify, I presume, that he had no right to pray.'

anchor, all right and tight from keel to - Prove to me” (he writes, in a letter to my father) sky-scraper, and from stem to stern. "that I have a right to pray, and I will pray with Look at her masts, sails, and rigging, out ceasing, even in the belly of this hell, compared with which Jonah's was a palace, a temple of the

and at the fine build of her bows ! The living God." --Southey's “ Cowper," vol. iv. p. 235. master is a true sailor, though the mate

Two of the "Olney Hymns," "On opening a place for social' prayer,” one composed by Mr.

is hardly to be trusted. The crew are Newton, and the other by Mr. Cowper, were most bold fellows, but the best seaman on probably used when this room was first set apart board is Billings the boatswain. Billings for this purpose. See “Olney Hymns,” book ii. hymns 43, 44.-The following names occur in the

can reef, rig, and steer with any one, and paper above referred to:--Raban, Cowper, Kaye, every yard, sail, block, brace, and rope'sSamples, R. Stanford, J. Harris Chater, Hulí Clifton, Percy, B. Nind, Halward, Jones (curate of

end in the Mary Anne is an old acClifton,) Trinder (Northampton.)-ED.

quaintance to him. He has joy in his

word of God.

thou!

*

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