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No. XV.




vature from within, responds to the voice terms, the past conduct of the pope and of nature from without. They cannot go cardinals, their breach of faith, their along with you, perhaps, in your

demon efforts to dissolve or fetter the council, stration of a principle; but they can accusing John xxii. of tyranny, simony, comprehend the principle itself. They and other offences; and finally exhorting can learn nothing from a laboured dis- the members of the council to judge him quisition on the beauty of virtue ; but according to his deserts, and according they can both see its beauty and feel its to what had been done with the concurattractions, if presented before them in rence of former emperors, in deposing action and character. Now, by becoming several popes. familiar with the history of holy men, Sigismund then caused the nations you will become familiar with the prin- again to assemble in the cathedral, and ciples of religion itself; for it is these, there, in the presence of all, once more in fact, you are required to contem declared that he would support the plate, embodied in obvious and striking council at the peril of his life. Delibeillustrations."--Dr. Harris.

rations arose, as to bringing back John xx111. to Constance, and constraining him

to abdicate. At length four deputies, REFORMATION.

namely, three cardinals and Regnaud de Chartres, archbishop of Rheims, were sent to Schaffhausen, to convey to him the resolutions of the council. But in

order to give efficacy to the measures OF GERSON, AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE

taken for reducing the pope to submission, others must be adopted, to subdue Frederick of Austria, the companion of

his flight, and his protector. For this. John XXIII. considered that the coun purpose, the emperor assembled all the cil was broken up by his withdrawal, princes, and in their presence denounced and it nearly was so in reality, if not in the archduke as a traitor to the empire principle. Several of the cardinals had and the council, and required them to already followed the pope to Schaff- unite their efforts to subdue him. All hausen. The Italians, who were almost yielded to his firmness; not a single entirely attached to his interests, and voice was raised in the defence of Frewho reckoned 300 votes, were inclined derick;


summoned to give to leave Constance, and of the three account of his conduct before the council, other nations, those who feared that and the emperor and Sigismund preJohn xxiii. would, on his return to free- pared to overcome him by force of arms. dom, resume his former authority, and The pope, terrified at the storm which others, indeed the most numerous part, was bursting upon his head, wrote to the either from feelings of discouragement, or emperor in submissive language, that he weariness, were equally inclined to retire. had arrived at Schaffhausen, unknown

Sigismund averted the danger; ani- to the archduke of Austria, not to avoid mated by his ardent zeal for the peace of fulfilling the promise to abdicate, which the church and the union of Christendom, he had given, but that he might freely immediately after the departure of the execute his promise, and without danger pope, he showed himself worthy of the to his health. Yet it was evident that title of protector of the council, and acted John XXIII. would yield only to force ; as became an emperor.

and after the emperor had successfully The day next following he appeared directed his temporal power against him, on horseback, attended by the elector the council resorted to other arms nó palatine, and all the princes of his court. less formidable. He paraded the city with trumpets The departure of the pope again exsounding, promising to every one the cited the great question already discussed, same security as before, declaring that and at one time settled, by the council the council was not interrupted by the of Pisa, as to the respective rights of flight of the pope, and that he would popes and general councils, and the supeshed the last drop of his blood in its riority of the one over the other. They defence. At the same time, he secretly had to decide as to whether the obstinate ordered that a writing should be every- resistance of a pontiff could annul the where posted, declaring, in energetic acts of an universal council, or if the


or the

latter, acting for the interests of the the pope, being accused, and required church, could not overcome a rebellious to answer, obstinately refuses to call and factious pope. From the moment together the church; or if a general when the council, in the absence of the council having decided that another pope, persisted in declaring itself a lawful council shall be held at a stated season, assembly, the solution of this problem the pope refuses to summon it; or, was no longer a matter of uncertainty. finally, if there is a schism or strife

Those who had, from motives of fear, between several popes." Gerson closed at first objected declare themselves in with these words: “The chu opposition to the pope, wisely proceeded general council, ought to seek the extirto deprive him of weapons which he pation of error, and the correction of would otherwise have turned against those who err, without any respect of themselves, and hastened to join the persons. The order and hierarchy of men who, led by conscience alone, re the church should be reformed upon the sisted the omnipotence of the papacy. model of the celestial hierarchy, by conAmong the latter, the representatives of forming to ancient rules. And there is the university of Paris were conspicuous, no more effectual method for the church and among the most eminent, their admi to attain this object, than by prescribing rable chancellor.

the continuation of general councils, On March 23rd, 1415, Gerson preached, without neglecting provincial councils." in the presence of the representatives of The university of Paris made use of the four nations, a celebrated sermon on still stronger and more energetic expresthis text,

“Walk while ye have the sions, in two memorials addressed to the light, lest darkness come upon you, council. One of these expressed, in subJohn xii. 35. His discourse was the stance, that the church is more necessary torch which enlightened the council. than the pope, because none can be saved In the words of the apostle, Gerson out of the church, but men may well be advised his hearers, “to keep the unity saved without the pope. The church is of the Spirit in the bond of peace. Let more useful and excellent, because the there be," said he, “but one body and pope is for the church, and not the one soul; one God alone, one faith alone, church for the pope. More honourable, one baptism only. Let us be united in because she is the spouse of Christ, the Christ, our Head, on whom every mem wife of the Lamb. More powerful, beber depends, and to whom all are bound cause the gates of hell shall not prevail and subjected.” From this primary against her, though by vices and heresies truth he deduced twelve propositions, of they often have prevailed against the which the chief were, that ecclesiastical popes. Possessing more understanding, union has reference to one Head alone, because she is adorned by many gifts, who is Jesus Christ; and that it is made which never were united in any one by a secondary head, who is called the pope. That it is from the church the sovereign pontiff, and who is the vicar pope receives the sovereign authority of Jesus Christ; and that in Christ the which habitually dwells in her, though church possesses a spouse so inseparable, she gives to the pope authority to exerthat he never can give her letters of cise it. To the church Jesus Christ has divorce ; but that, on the contrary, the given the keys of the kingdom of heaven, church is not so bound to the vicar of and the pope only holds them from her; her spouse that they cannot be sepa- and, when lawfully convoked, the church rated.

can use these keys to judge, to correct, The church, or the general council or to depose the pope, even as it has which represents it,” observed Gerson, power to snatch a sword from the hands “is an ordinance directed by the Holy of a madman; and that the church has Spirit, and appointed by Jesus Christ, not entrusted these keys to the pope to that every man, even a pope, is bound to destroy, but to build up. The conclusion hear and obey, or else to be considered of the memorial is, that, in many cases, as a heathen man and a publican. In the council is superior to the pope. many cases, the church or council has The cardinals had refused to listen to met, or may be assembled, without an the preaching of Gerson, and from that express consent or command from the time they kept themselves apart. They pope, even when his election has been felt, that in the state of things which canonical and his life regular. Such then existed, the acts of the council would cases are the following: for instance, if strike a serious blow at the authority of


the Romish church, of which they were retire, they were required to leave their the representatives; and their chief aim powers with those who remained. These was to restrict or shackle the decrees of clauses were to be observed under the the assembly.

penalties imposed by the canons, or any John xxiii., on his part, bad recourse others which the council might impose. to all sorts of means for his own defence. These articles were agreed to by the He addressed a letter of apology to the representatives of all the assembled king of France, the duke of Orleans, and nations. the University, protesting against the Nevertheless, the pope continued his validity of the acts of the council, and his intrigues; and the commissioners sent to reasoning, in some respects, was plausible. Schaffhausen, returned with words, in He said, that at Constance, the customs which the council could perceive nothing of the earlier councils had not been ob- but the wish to escape from the dangers served. The suffrages had been collected, of the moment, by holding out deceptive not individually, but by nations. All per- prospects. John xxii. said that he was

were indiscriminately admitted, ready to appoint representatives, to make whether religious or secular, married or the resignation he had promised; then he unmarried; whether they had taken added, as pope, that he would issue a degrees or not, whether or not they were bull for the reformation of the church, of honourable stations. All these things and required that he might still be had been done, although, according to attended by a court, and especially, that the canons, only cardinals, patriarchs, and nothing might be undertaken against prelates had a right to deliberate and Frederick of Austria, who alone protected vote in councils. The pope accused the his independence. king of the Romans of having assumed Provoked by these evasive replies, an authority at Constance which did not Sigismund increased his efforts to subdue belong to him, while he himself was the pope, both by the decrees of the deprived of all liberty. He concluded council and the arms of his soldiers. He by avowing the assistance of the duke of caused still stronger articles to be preAustria, which lie had denied in his pared, to be read in another session, even letter to the emperor; and while thus more precise than those which had been negotiating with foreigners, he redoubled adopted by the preceding assembly. his efforts to withdraw from the council These articles stated, that recourse had the Italian nation, the cardinals, and all been bad to all the measures sanctioned who by their interests or fortune were by the canon-law for constraining and united to the see of Rome.

punishing such as obstinately refused to Sigismund, supported by the three obey the decrees of the council, or of other national bodies, overcame all resist any other general council lawfully assemance by force, and on March 23rd, he bled. They also declared that the pope, caused the third general session to be and every other member of the council, opened, which was the first after the had enjoyed perfect liberty. Gerson flight of John XXIII. Two of the cardi- caused a strong declaration to be appended nals only were present; these were Zaba to these articles, which were presented relli, cardinal of Florence, and Peter by the bishop of Tolentino, and declared d'Ailly, cardinal of Cambrai, who both, that the flight of the pope caused strong especially thelatter, manifested unfeigned suspicions of heresy and schism, and that zeal for the extinction of the schism, yet he could not allege any fears as a suffiat the same time desired to preserve the cient excuse, since it was his duty to privileges of the Romish church.

sacrifice his life for his flock. The cardinal of Florence, at the com The fourth general session was anmencement of the session, read an act, nounced for March 30th, and its formidby which the council declared, that it able preparations filled John xxu. with was not dissolved by the withdrawal of terror. He was no less dismayed to see the pope and most of the cardinals; but the imperial armies in motion, and he that it remained, in all its power and felt himself no longer secure at Schaffauthority, whatever might be said, either hausen, so near to the council and the in present or future time, to express a emperor, and accordingly quitted that contrary opinion. Every prelate and place of residence; while already several member of the council was forbidden to princes and cities, terrified at the storm withdraw without lawful cause. As for which threatened his protector, the archthose who had obtained permission to duke, had severed the feudal ties which

bound them to him. Messengers arrived | joining walls, and with the heads under from all quarters, bearing evil tidings; the wing they all go to roost. They are and the reports of such fallings off, says extremely voracious, and devour every a contemporary writer, were as wings or sort of animal substance they can find, spurs to John XXIII.

however filthy it may

be. They are not He turned his course towards the in the least degree shy, for they hop castle of Laufenbourg, situated on the about among men and cattle in the most banks of the Rhine, where he arrived in populous places. The Turkey vulture is the evening But he was scarcely out of far more lively, and its movements are the walls of Schaffhausen, when, calling more light. It flies faster and continues for a notary and for witnesses, he dictated longer on the wing than the black-headed to them a retractation of all that he had gallinazo. It is, however, more timid. done at Constance, protesting that when It nestles in sandy rocks and uninhabited in the council there, his promises and islands. The female lays three or four oaths had only been the result of violence whitish eggs, which are hatched in Feb. and fear, and that, in consequence, he ruary and March. The common gallinazo was not to be considered as bound to the usually builds its nest on the tops of performance of such promises. His houses, churches, ruins, and high walls. secretary relates that he repeated this The female lays three or four eggs, which protestation in various places; yet, regu are whitish brown and speckled, and are lating his words not by the truth, but by hatched in the same months as the eggs the inclinations of those to whom his of the Turkey vulture.— Tschudi. epistles were addressed, he wrote several in a very different style, thus constantly giving himself the lie in a shameful



Let all the churches know what the THE TURKEY VULTURE.

word of God's patience is, and observe

and keep the same; for, saith our Saviour FOREIGNERS, when they visit the coast to the church of Philadelphia, “ Because of Peru for the first time, are much sur thou hast kept the word of my patience, prised at the immense number of birds I will keep thee from the hour of temptof the vulture species which they meet ation, which shall come upon all the with about the roads and on the roofs of world; and him that overcometh will I the houses. In Callao and in all other make a pillar in the temple of my God, ports, the Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura, and he shall go no more out,” Rev. iii. Illig.) is frequently seen. It is called by 10–12. He that overcometh is the same the Spaniards Gallinazo á cabéza colorada that keepeth the word of Christ's patience. (red-headed vulture.) Farther in the Wbat is that? In all times there is some interior of the country it is frequently truth, which is the trying, suffering seen, though there it is less common than truth. In Luther's time, the doctrine of the black gallinazo (Cathartes foetens, justification by faith alone was the word Illig.) The colour of the mer is dark of God's patience; in queen Mary's time, brownish-black; the unplumed head and that truth which opposed transubstantiathroat are red; the throat is full of tion was the word of God's patience; in wrinkles and warts. The latter is very Athanasius's time, the doctrine of Christ's like it in size and colour, only the head Deity was the word of Christ's patience. and neck are greyish-black. These birds There is always some truth or other, the are the size of a turkey-cock; but they profession and owning whereof saith, are lanker and more angular in form. “Here is the patience of the saints." The black-headed gallinazo is inactive, Now if the churches keep that word, and heavy, and seldom flies far. When seek overcome in the keeping of it, the Lord ing food he hops about on the ground in Christ will make every member of them short regular springs. When he wishes as a pillar in the temple of God, that to move faster forward, he helps himself shall go no more out.-William Bridge. with his wings, but without flying. Its

[Is not the truth that opposes bapcry is seldom heard, and never long con tismal regeneration

" the word of God's tinued. At noon, sometimes from sixty patience" now?] to eighty of these birds perch themselves on the tops of the houses or on the ad

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Fire place in an English Baronial Hall and other large Apartments.


No. I.

be learned, from the remains of the constructions of those periods, even if his

tory had been silent. Their principal An elaborate delineation of the

strength consisted of a tower, or keep, “ Halles ful heygh, and houses ful noble, the walls of which were from six to ten Chambers with chymnes, and chapels gaye,”

feet thick, the windows being only holes in which our fathers resided, would be of one or two feet square, placed at irremore suited for the architect or the anti- gular intervals. The floors were built on quarian than for the general reader. arches; the roof was flat, and battleStill, a sketch of their general domestic mented with notches in the parapet, from arrangements will be not less interesting which the retainers of the chieftain might than improving.

defend themselves with instruments of The whole art of building, according war. Around, or in front of the main to certain proportions and rules, was tower, there was usually a court-yard, determined and regulated by various cir- protected by a high wall; the arched cumstances. In its early history it appears entrance was carefully sheltered by a mude in the extreme; but it is remark- portcullis, and frequently by a wet ditclia able, that in all countries it assumed a As the times became less barbarous, character suited to meet the wants of the the houses less resembled castles, but people. The wooden hut was the first were still firmly constructed. They occutype or model of architecture ; and the pied a large space, in consequence of Greeks, working upon it, transferred to being of one ground-floor, often comstone the forms of an assemblage of car- prising a large square court. Many of pentry; giving rise to the orders of the apartments, however, were occupied architecture which are, at this day, the by the retainers of the household ; and ornaments of our buildings. The first the remainder, which were more particutrees driven into the ground, for the larly the baron’s habitation, comprised purpose of bearing a covering for shelter, one great and several little rooms. The were the precursors of the insulated great chamber contained the armory, columns of the portico of a temple : and while the weapons of his fathers, the to other objects equally simple we trace gifts of friends, and the spoils of enethe various details of this interesting and mies, were disposed around the walls. most useful art.

In the sixteenth century, the mansions The early baronial mansions of this of the nobility began to relax from forticountry were adapted to the character of fied castles into social halls; and as selfthe times; and much of the restless and defence was not so immediately the obwarlike disposition of the people might ject of thought, convenience took its


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