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THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE

REFORMATION.

No. XVI.

own.

for him who had abandoned himself, yet they were reluctant to suffer a cause to fall, they had so long regarded as their

The greater part were disposed to The second flight of the pope added favour the cardinals. The latter, with fresh strength to the council and the the exception of the two who were emperor. The cardinals, finding no far- Frenchmen, D'Ailly and Pilastre, formed ther support in a leader who was desti one united body, actuated by one will. tute of courage, and unequal to any Their interests were closely bound to the resistance, perceived that, by isolating aggrandizement of the papal see, which themselves, they would complete their was now to be humbled. Here an imown destruction, and knew that they portant question as to religion arose, and should be stronger, by resisting in the doubtless many were influenced by lofty council, than while intriguing at a dis- motives, in their resistance to the emtance. They found themselves over peror and the three nations; they tremcome, and could only try to render their bled at the danger to which their church defeat less disastrous. The cardinals of was exposed, if the throne of St. Peter, Cambray and St. Mark must not be in which they regarded as its firmest stay, cluded amongst those wholly devoted to should be shaken. A small number, inthe interests of the Romish church. cluding Jean de Brogin, the cardinal de

Then appeared what can be done by Viviers, the usual president of the counşkill against strength, by persevering in- cil, kept aloof, under pretext of sickaction against active perseverance. If, ness, that they might avoid increasing, on the one hand, it was important to the by their presence, the authority of meaRomish party that the cardinals should sures which they disliked, and in which be present in the council, in order to de- they thought they could not stay. The fend it; on the other hand, it was not less others were more hopeful; they were preimportant to the emperor, and the party sent in the assembly, with an intention desirous of reformation, to associate the of protesting against the acts that were cardinals with them in their efforts, to too violent, thus to enfeeble or postpone bind them to their acts. For this pur- them. Their calculations were not unpose, Sigismund employed entreaties, ca- founded. resses, and menaces ; his firmness was The fourth general session was opened triumphant.

on March 30th, 1415. The cardinal Some stormy debates took place in the Jordan des Ursins presided. The empreparatory meetings which were held peror was there, and with him all the between the emperor, the cardinals, and princes and royal ambassadors. The the deputies of the nation, and which mass was said by the patriarch of Anpreceded the fourth general session. In tioch, and immediately after the religious these meetings, where the articles were ceremonies, Zabarelli, the cardinal of discussed which were afterwards to be Florence, rose, and read aloud the artisubmitted to the council, the cardinals cles which the nations, in their preparaobtained, that the pope should not be tory meeting, had resolved to adopt. accused of schism and heresy on account They began by stating, that the sacred of his flight; they asked much more, but Synod of Constance, legally assembled in without success, and the greater part the name of the Holy Ghost, forming a pledged themselves to the emperor, to be general council, representing the catholic present at the approaching session. church militant, has received immediately

The minds of men were prepared to from Jesus Christ a power, which every expect one of those events, the results of person, whatever may be his state or which resound through future ages. On dignity, even if papal, is bound to obey, one side, the emperor, and the great ma in all that concerns the faith, the extirjority of the prelates of the three nations, pation of the schism, and the reformation persuaded that the pope must be over of the church in its head and members. thrown before the church could be saved, Zabarelli read with a loud voice, but were inclined to give the popedom one of when he came to the last-mentioned clause, those terrible blows, after which it might which spoke of the reformation of the indeed rise again, but from which it could head of the church, he stopped. He wantnot recover. On the other part, the Italians ed either power or will to finish it; he were without a head, and appeared to also omitted two other articles, and mainbe divided. They dared not openly rally tained that these had been added against

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the general opinion. The first related to sembled, has already made, or shall make the degree of liberty the pope had en- hereafter, upon the matters above named, joyed at Constance; and the second, to unless he returns to subjection, shall be the punishment which his obstinate dis- liable to a proportionate penance, and obedience to the council had incurred. punished according to his deserts, re

Historians are not agreed as to all that course being had, if necessary, to other passed on this occasion. It is unknown methods appointed by law. whether Zabarelli, in this, acted volun Third article. The council forbids tarily, and of his own accord, or whether John xxii. to transfer elsewhere the he only performed what had been previ- court of Rome, its offices and public ously resolved on, in the secret council of officers, or to compel them, either dithe cardinals. The latter opinion seems rectly or indirectly, to follow him, withprobable, from the manner in which they out the consent of the council; ordainafterwards sought to turn this opinion to ing, that if he has already attempted, or their account. Thus the results of the should hereafter attempt this, his cenfourth session were annulled, which had sures, menaces, and bulls of fulmination occasioned the cardinals so much dread. shall be absolutely null, and that the · In the midst of the agitation the assembly said officers may, with full liberty, exerbroke up, but the defeat of the Romish cise their functions at Constance, so long party was only delayed a few days. as the council shall last.

The cardinals imprudently demanded Fourth article. All the translations of that the articles omitted by Zabarelli prelates to other sees, the revocations, acts, should be again proposed for deliberation and sentences, passed, or to be passed, by in the private assembly of the nations, the said pope, to the prejudice of the before they were presented to the public council and its members, since the beginsession. It was only an endeavour to ning of the council, shall be absolutely temporise; they forgot that such mea- null, and are actually set aside. sures are more likely to irritate, than to Fifth article. John xxiii., as well as tire out an incontrollable power, and that the prelates and all the other members the exigency increases with the feeling of of the council, have enjoyed, and still increased strength. This they soon had enjoy, perfect liberty, and nothing to the to acknowledge. Their demand was re contrary has come to the knowledge of jected; and it was resolved, that in the the council, as they can testify before following session, the same articles should God and man. be again discussed, with increased force All these articles were unanimously and precision.

adopted, after which the emperor anSuch were the preparations for the nounced, that his troops should march fifth, and most memorable session of the against Frederick of Austria, and even council. In this, as in that which pre- offered, if it were the wish of the council, ceded it, the cardinal des Ursins pre to go to Laufenberg in person, and bring sided. Eight cardinals were present; the back the pope, in spite of the archduke. emperor and the princes also assisted in Sigismund received the applause and its deliberations. The bishop of Posnania thanks of the council. read the following articles :

The acts of the fifth session of the First article. The council of Constance, council of Constance have divided the lawfully assembled in the name of the whole body of professing Catholics into Holy Ghost, and forming a general coun

two parts.

The Gallican church has cil which represents the catholic church always defended these acts, justly remilitant, has received immediately from garding them as the grounds of her priJesus Christ a power, to which every vileges; the church of Rome, properly person, whatever may be his state or so called, has persisted equally in decrydignity, even a pope, is bound to obey, in ing them, as pernicious, and dangerous to all that concerns the faith, the extirpation the authority of the successor of St. Peter, of the present schism, and the general and, as such, null and faulty. The most reformation of the church of God, in its devoted adherents of the Roman church head and in its members.

afterwards tried to invalidate the authority Second article. Every man, whatever from whence these acts proceeded. They may be his condition or dignity, even if refused to acknowledge the council of papal, who shall obstinately refuse to Constance as a general council, although obey the decrees which this council, or its claim to that title was preferable to any other general council lawfully as the council of Pisa, on which they were

THE FIRE-WORSHIPPERS.

No. II.

A TALE FOR THE YOUNG.

obliged to bestow it. For to attack the emperor's soldiers, retreated before them, authority of the council of Pisa was to carrying with him, throughout his waninvalidate the eleetion of John xxIII., the 'dering and uncertain course, the lasting successor of Alexander_v., who was disgrace of the papacy, borne from place elected in that council. To all the cha- to place by a spirit of restless uneasiness, racteristics of a general council possessed seeking repose and safety even in the by the first, the council of Constance solitude of forests, and nowhere finding joined that of a canonical convocation; it peace, or an asylum. had been assembled by a pope legally elected, and its decisions were all confirmed by another, who was also legally appointed pontiff. Finally, although this controversy has given birth to innumerable volumes, and is not yet exhausted, it must be aknowledged that the whole of DURING the residence of the five Christendom admitted these celebrated Parsees among us, they wrote a volume, decrees of the fifth session, at the period containing an account of the manner in when they were passed, and, among all which they spent their time in England, the decisions of the general councils, and giving their opinions of the people, there are few which might not be con the climate, the different institutions of tested, if these are called in question, the country, and the various and novel

Assured of its strength, the council scenes which they saw. It was written vigorously urged on its advantages in the for their countrymen at home, and, next, the sixth session, held on April although published by a London book15th. It had decided that the pope was seller, was not intended immediately bound to obey its decrees. Now was to for English readers, and has had be considered how he was to be reduced little circulation in this country, It to submission, and it showed as much is an unpretending narrative, and is firmness in execution as in threatening, chiefly interesting, as showing the impres

A form was first prepared for the abdi-sion which England and the English cation of the pontificate. It was agreed would make on an intelligent oriental that this should be presented to John visitor. The book is marked throughXXIII., and deputies were named for each out by a grateful and amiable disponation, who, with the cardinals of St. Mark sition, a readiness to be pleased, a and Florence, were charged to convey to slowness to take offence, and a polite the pope the decrees of the council. At courtesy to all. length, by the seventh session, the pope

These Parsees left the shores of was cited to appear within nine days, to Bombay,

the 29th of March, perform his oath relating to the extinc- 1838, and entered the English Channel, tions of the schism, and the reformation of and marked with joy the Eddystone the church in its head and its members. Lighthouse, on the 20th of August. Also, to justify himself from the accusa From thence they proceeded to the tions of heresy, schism, simony, mal-ad- Thames, and the following remarks ministration of church property, and of occur, on their first sight of the river of other heavy crimes. He was told that a our metropolis. Here,” say they, safe-condact was granted to him and his we were greatly surprised to see the adherents, by which they should be se- amazing number of ships going out and cured whilst attending the council, as far pouring into the Thames, and steamers as justice would permit.

every now and then running backwards The pontiff was no longer at Laufen- and forwards; we cannot convey to our burg. In his fright he had left the re- countrymen any idea of this immense fuge precipitately, to shelter himself number of vessels, and the beauty of the within the ramparts of Fribourg. But sight. You will see colliers, timber-ships, the decrees of the council had struck his merchantmen, steamers, and many other partizans with terror; the imperial troops crafts from all parts of the world, hastenmet with little difficulty; the archduke ing, as it were, to seek refuge in a river, was affrighted at his own boldness, and which is but a stream compared to the inclined to submission. At length the Ganges and the Indus, or the still larger deputies, charged with the orders from rivers of America.” Nor was their surthe council, drew near to Fribourg. John prise less, when they entered the crowded XXIII., who dreaded them more than the streets of our metropolis. “ It was nearly

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dusk," write the Parsees, “when we came the delightful wonder of the rail. arrived at London-bridge, notwithstand-roads—all so new and strange to the ing which, an immense number of per- inquiring travellers. “ We travelled to sons flocked round us, to view our cos a place,” say they,

" called Slough, tume; for, in addition to our two selves, twenty-five miles in fifty minutes. Only we were accompanied by our friend, and think, within an hour, seated quietly in also by two of our domestics; and five a beautiful carriage, we were twenty-five individuals in the Parsee costume col- miles from London! We did not feel lected quite a mob, through which it that we were passing so rapidly through was difficult to pass to our carriage; we the country when we looked at distant think quite a thousand persons were objects; but when we looked upon anycongregated together. We proceeded thing near to us, we but saw it, and it through the city of London to the Port- vanished; and when the other train of land Hotel, where arrangements for our carriages passed us, it was almost as if a reception had been previously made; flash of lightning had gone by-we and from the immense number of people, could not distinguish any one of the carand vehicles of every description, which riages." we saw hurrying along, apparently in London afforded great delight to the great haste, and from the increasing Parsees, by many of its public and benenoise, we were apprehensive that some volent institutions, as well as its exhibipublic commotion had taken place, or tions of art and science. They visited, that there was some grand spectacle to be during their stay, all the popular places witnessed, towards which they were thus of our great city, and its neighbourhood: hastening. But yet it appeared so odd, The British Museum, the Houses of that there was as much haste and desire Parliament, St. Paul's Cathedral, the to get forward in those who moved east- East India House, Windsor Castle, and ward, as in those who were progressing Frogmore Lodge, all received due attenwestward. Every street down which we tion; nor were the markets, the parks, looked, appeared to be pouring out the exhibitions of art at the Lowther countless multitudes to swell the throng, Arcade, nor the waxwork figures of and we were lost in conjecture, as to Madame Tussaud, mentioned in their what this bustle could possibly mean; journal without praise. Several pages but when we were afterwards informed are devoted to describing our bazaars, that this constant tide of human beings where the Parsees were pleased to find, was to be witnessed every day, for twelve that a person may walk about as long or fourteen hours, we were, indeed, lost as he pleases, without being importuned in amazement, at the myriads that must to purchase, and where waxen flowers exist in London, to furnish out of doors were to be seen, so natural that you such an exhibition of people.”

cannot tell them from nature.” They The rumbling of carriages, making a much enjoyed their visit to the “Bluenoise so different from the sounds of coat School,” and give in their narrative oriental cities, must have almost deafened a very particular account of the manner the strangers on their first arrival. “One in which it is conducted. But, perhaps, of the things that struck us with astonish- very few of my young readers will agree ment,” say they, was the immense with their opinion of the dress of the number of carriages of different descrip-boys, which we generally regard as an tions, that are to be made use of in antiquated and untasteful relic of other London for conveyance of passengers

days. “ The boys,” they remark, from one part to another; and the largest, a sort of livery, consisting of a long blue which are called omnibuses, first claim coat, reaching to the ankles, and fastened our attention. A carriage of this descrip- round the waist with a leather strap; a tion is in the possession of Framjee yellow worsted petticoat worn underCowasjee, esq., at Bombay, which, we neath, yellow stockings, and a small believe, he ordered to be made in England, black cap, which they very rarely wear: for his own use, a few years ago. Where and we have often wondered, when we they all came from, where they were all saw the boys walking the streets of Longoing, where the people could be found don, with their heads uncovered, how to fill them, how the owners, drivers, they escaped catching cold. The uniform, and conductors were to be paid, seemed we think, is very picturesque, and more a mystery to us; and we diligently sought so than the ordinary dress of England ; for information upon this subject.” Then there is something very pleasing to the

wear

eye, and indicating 'gravity and serious- | The thirtieth of September is regarded by ness in it."

them as their new year's day, and the Soon after their arrival in England, travellers were accustomed to spend this the Parsees placed themselves under the day in great festivity and rejoicings, and instruction of a clergyman residing at had planned that a tour which they were Egham, in Buckinghamshire, and they going to make, to visit the most celebrated retained a grateful recollection of his naval arsenals in England, should begin kindness and instructions. They after about that time. “We had previously,” wards spent many months at Chatham, say they, "obtained permission from the in order to learn more fully the mode of Honourable Court, and were now preparbuilding steam-ships ; and they looked ing for our journey, when, to our great upon the government dockyard there as dismay, one of the domestics became very their professional school. While pur- ill, and we had the misfortune, on the suing the means of improvement, they day of the ship-launch, to see the other, had opportunities of familiarly visiting and our friend, share the same misforseveral English families, and passed much tune. The following was our new year's of their time in the society of well-edu- day, and we were in the hope of enjoying cated English people. They could visit it, as well as we could, in a strange only at houses of which the masters country; but this unforeseen circumwould allow the Parsee servants to make stance marred all our pleasures, and inuse of the kitchen to prepare their meals, stead of festivity and mirth, which we and they were accustomed to carry with always have on the occasion, our house them to their friends' houses the various had more the appearance of an hospital.” utensils necessary for preparing and serv- They add, with great simplicity, "We ing up their food. During the course of two were left to manage our meals as their voyage, they had often expressed well as we could, and this we could but to each other many apprehensions, lest ill perform; in addition to which, we had they should meet with some difficulties to look after the invalids, which, indeed, in England, in procuring private apart- we never did before in our lives. This ments at the inns, where they might misfortune put us strongly in mind of perform their devotions, and where their home, and we could not help thinking own servants could prepare their food, how comfortable and happy we should according to their wishes; but at the have been if we had been in Bombay Portland Hotel, where they stayed on that day, and how much we might have their first arrival, they soon found that enjoyed it in the bosom of our families ; they would meet with no opposition to however, we contented ourselves with their desires in this respect. In private

the anticipation of being at home that society, most were willing to oblige men day twelvemonth.” It was a fortnight so unassuming, and so ready to value the before the illness of the party was suffismallest act of kindness; and the travel ciently removed, to allow of their comlers gratefully record, that in no instance mencing the anticipated tour. were their religious services interrupted The Parsees, of course, found the clior ridiculed.

mate of England very cold; but, by the It would, indeed, have shown a great precaution of wearing warm clothing want of feeling in any Englishman who under their loose flowing robes, they had should have offered any impediment to generally good health while they remainthe performance of what the Parsees ed here. They were much pleased with considered as worship. If, indeed, their the varieties of natural appearances, affriends could have directed them to the forded by our change of seasons, and true faith of God, if they could have their remarks on the peculiarities of the led them, from an ignorant worship of different months are often amusing. Of the Supreme Being, to an enlightened the opening month of our year, they knowledge of God, as he is revealed in remark : " In January, usually, the the gospel of Christ, then, indeed, they ground is covered with snow. In Januwould have been the means of conferring ary, 1841, we saw it very many inches on the fire-worshippers the greatest bless- deep, completely changing the appearings which human beings can receive. ance of the country; and, oh, how beauti

But though the Parsees experienced fully white it makes every place! When generally but little inconvenience from the sun, which in England, in that their peculiar customs, yet one occasion month, has not much power,

shines

upon presented a difficulty connected with them. it, nothing we can say can convey an.

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