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accord with one over the throne, already | troduced figures, illustrating the orders of completed by Mr. Dyce, of the baptism knighthood, in rich canopied niches surof Ethelbert, the first Christian king of mounted by open tracery. The lower England.
canopy, on the right of the throne, is for Below the windows, on each side of the chair of the Prince of Wales, and the chamber, down to the gallery, the that on the left for the chair of the Prince walls are lined with panelling, elaborately Consort. On the back of these canopies carved. The railing to this gallery is are also blazoned the respective coats of brass, of characteristic design, and very arms, and appropriate heraldic distinchighly finished, ornamented at the bosses tions. with enamelled grounds of red and blue. "The queen's chair is of beautiful design Below the gallery the wall is also lined and execution, carved and gilt, richly with panelling, containing most delicate studded with enamels and crystals; the carving, surmounted by an enriched back and arms are covered with velvet, frieze containing the carved inscription, embroidered with the royal arms, etc. " Fear God, honour the Queen"-and The two side chairs are in the same style, intersected by slender shafts terminating though of smaller dimensions. These in carved busts of the kings and princes. chairs were manufactured by Webb, of Springing from this panelling is a trace- Bond-street. ried cove forming the support to the The floor of the throne is covered with gallery, and on the compartments of the a velvet pile carpet of deep red ground, cove are emblazoned, on gilt grounds, powdered with lions and roses, supplied, the arms of the succession of sovereigns with the other furniture, by Crace, of and their chancellors from the period of Wigmore-street. Edward 111., when the
Fronting the throne is the reporters' a separate house, to the present time, gallery, very commodiously placed and with the proper crests, helmets, and approached, and above that the gallery mantlings, and labels containing names for strangers.
The front of the former is and dates of appointments.
richly ornamented with panelling, conThe wood carvings, generally, require taining the royal badges painted on gilt special notice. A few years ago it would grounds, surrounded by diaper ornaments
. not have been possible to obtain such an In the cove under this gallery are blazoned amount of carving in England, of equal the arms of the different royal lines—the excellence, at any cost. By collecting a Saxon, the Norman, Plantagenet, Tudor, large number of the best examples of the Stuart, and Brunswick, and on either side fifteenth century (as many as two or three are placed the archiepiscopal and episthousand) for the constant inspection of copal arms, interspersed with mitres, pasthe operatives, they have been imbued toral staffs, sceptres, etc. with the true feeling pervading these The principal entrance is at this end of works, and enabled satisfactorily to carry the house, from the peers' lobby, through out the architect's wishes. The carvings a pair of brass gates eleven feet high and were all first bosted by Jordan's machine, six feet side, filled with open tracery work (a most important invention,) and then of beautiful workmanship, in a material finished by hand. Like the whole of the not used in England for such a purpose enrichments, it will be observed, they are for more than 300 years. The shrine and all heraldic and symbolic. The drawings gates in Henry the Seventh's Chapel are for the fittings and decorations were made amongst the best examples of such work by Mr. Pugin. The throne, situated at remaining to us. the south end of the chamber, is raised The floor of the chamber is covered on a dais of three steps. Both in design with a carpet of a royal blue colour, and workmanship it is truly beautiful. It dotted with gold. The seats for the peers, is a canopy in three parts, eighteen feet five rows on either side, accommodating six inches wide. The centre, rising much 235 persons, are covered with red moabove the sides, is for the chair of the rocco leather, and the woolsacks with red queen ; on the back of this part are
cloth. carved, gilt, and blazoned the royal arms, The chamber is lighted by thirty-two with the appropriate badges, emblems, branch lights, springing from the sides of etc. The ceiling is divided into small | the niches, burning gas on Faraday's venpanels, on which are painted the red rose, tilating principle, and by four splendid with white rays on a gilt ground. On the brass candelabra, two of them at the upper part of this centre canopy are in- throne end, holding each twenty-five
lights, and two at the bar end, holding were again brought forward at Constance, each thirteen lights.
and formed the principal grounds of the The length of the House of Lords in accusation. This important matter was the clear is ninety-one feet, the breadth laid before the council, and judged, but forty-five feet, and the height forty-five not discussed, during the eighth session. feet-so that it is a double cube. From This assembly was as solemn as any the north wall to the bar is twenty-one former occasion had been. The emperor feet. The side galleries are three feet was present, the cardinal de Viviers wide, having only one row of seats. The presided, and the patriarch of Antioch thickness of the walls is three feet one celebrated mass. The passage from the inch, with recesses at intervals. The gospel, wbich was selected and read on Victoria Hall, at the south end of the this occasion, was, “ Beware of false house, and the peers’ lobby, at the north prophets.” The sermon was preached end, are both fitted up in a style of cor- by bishop Vital. He took for his text, responding magnificence.
* The Spirit-he will guide you into all The main entrance to the house is truth;" and expressed himself so warmly through a grand archway, closed by the against the pope, as to pronounce curses elaborate brass gates already alluded to, on him from the pulpit. Finally, the surmounted by the royal arms and sup- archbishop of Genoa repeated the senporters on a panelled ground. There are tence of the Lateran council as to tranthree corresponding archways, also sur- substantiation, and read the forty-five mounted by shields; the whole of these articles attributed to Wickliffe, and preare painted and gilt in their proper viously condemned åt Rome. colours. In the side panels, correspond The articles thus censured may be ing to the windows, are painted the arms classed under a few chief heads. The of the peers called to the first parliament, greater part relate to the doctrines blazoned with mantlings and scrolls on a pointed out by Wickliffe, as additions to diapered gold ground. On an upper the simple instructions of the apostles, range of panels over the archways are only for the aggrandizement of the power likewise blazoned the arms of the six of the pope and of the clergy, namely, royal lines.
those which admit the validity of absoThe lobby is lighted by four large lution, or excommunication, without regothic candelabra, bronzed and gilt
. gard to the moral condition of the sinner, Some of the windows are filled with or of the priest, which refer to indulgstained glass, continuing the illustrations ences, canonization, the need of uniof the arms of the peers called to the first versity degrees to precede ordination, parliament. The remainder will be com which reserves to bishops alone the right pleted shortly. These windows were ex of confirmation, of consecrating sacred ecuted, like the one window in the House places, and of ordaining priests, and, of Lords, by Mr. Hardman. The pave- finally, the support or establishment of ment of the floor consists of encaustic the privileges of the Romish see, the extiles, by Minton, of lions, on a red ground, altation of the pope above other bishops, and initials on a blue ground, alternately, and his election by the cardinals. formed in squares by black marble mar Five articles contained violent attacks gins; and in the centre is a red and directed against the convents, monks, white rose in coloured marbles on a blue and all the orders that, under the guise ground, (reflecting a centre rose in the of poverty, collected riches for themceiling) surrounded by a margin of twin- selves, and which were the most indeing roses in brass on an enamelled blue fatigable champions of the privileges and ground. The marble work was executed abuses of the church of Rome; desigby Milnes, of Bakewell, in Derbyshire. nated by Wickliffe, as the synagogue of
Satan. One of the articles condemned under this head, was, that monks ought to gain their livelihood by the labour of their hands, and not by begging. This
proposition was declared to be false, FORTY-FIVE propositions, attributed to rash, and mistaken; because it is written, Wickliffe, and already condemned in that “the fowls of the air neither sow England, had been again censured at nor reap.” The council said, that by Rome, during a council in 1412, sum the birds was signified the saints who moned by John xxii. The same articles fly towards heaven!
THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE
Three articles opposed the Romish should, at the same time, have supported doctrine of the mass, and denied the cor doctrines which were subversive of all poreal presence of Jesus Christ in the its rights ? sacrament of the eucharist.
Nevertheless, the council of Constance Several had respect to the temporal persisted in attributing them to him, as possessions of the clergy, for which had been done already at Rome, and in Wickliffe saw no warrant in the gospel. declaring them to be rash and hereHis boldest declaration on this subject, tical. was in the fifteenth of the forty-five It was also attempted to prove that articles, in which, he says, it is permitted God himself was interested for the conto secular princes to deprive of their demnation of Wickliffe, and two articles goods and possessions the ecclesiastics were produced as contrary to the Divine who habitually live in sin. This article Majesty.
Majesty. One of these contained the was declared heretical and sacrilegious, germ of the famous doctrine of predestiand the council justified its condemna- nation, afterwards adopted by a considertion for strange reasons; declaring that able portion of the Protestant church, the property of the church is the pro- thus worded : That all things happen by perty of God himself, who, willing to absolute necessity. In putting forth this erect on earth a kingdom of which he principle, Wickliffe grounded it on the alone is the sovereign, has consecrated infinite wisdom of God, by which he certain temporal possessions for the sake cannot do otherwise than determine of its administration.
everything for the greatest general good, Another of the articles called in ques- according to his divine and according to tion, attacked the pretensions of the his infallible foreknowledge. Thus he Romish clergy, as to the absolute inde- revolved in his mind the greatest problem pendence of their spiritual jurisdiction. of the Christian religion, and of all reliWickliffe said, Whoever excommunicates gions, the tremendous mystery from which an ecclesiastic because he has appealed the veil can only be partially removed, to the king or his counsellors, is guilty unless the immense difference is settled of treason against the king. This state- which there is between determining bement was declared to be false, perverse, forehand and foreseeing. and scandalous.
The opinion of Wickliffe on this subject All these articles were directed against may involve serious errors ; yet it is so the doctrines too favourable to the power held by him in common with a number of of the clergy, and excited the whole body great men both in earlier and later times, against their author. But it was im and in his view, it is not prejudicial to portant that the lords temporal, of whom the glory of God or to the freedom of several had votes in the council, should be interested in condemning Wickliffe, The second proposition was this, That and to them he was represented as the God must obey the devil. Wickliffe adversary of princely and magisterial never acknowledged this as his doctrine. authority, and two propositions were He himself declared that it was heretical. produced as extracts from his works, He protested that it was inserted in his which ran thus: 1. So long as a tem works by some strange hand, and was poral lord, or bishop, or prelate continues calumniously laid to his charge by false in mortal sin, he is neither lord, bishop, witnesses. His disowning this pointought or prelate; 2. The people may, if they to suffice, since it is confirmed by the please, correct their rulers when they whole tenor of his life. If there was commit any fault.
ground for this reproach, the bold asserDuring the life of Wickliffe these two tion would have been brought forward opinions had been imputed to him by the by Thomas Walden, who published a clergy. He strongly protested against refutation of the opinions of Wickliffe. the sense which was attached to them. There, on the contrary, is this very
differThey did not fully express his thoughts. ent proposition, “that the devil cannot He said his words had been taken im- tempt men beyond what God is pleased perfectly, and they were not interpreted to permit." Yet the erroneous statement with precision and fidelity. How, in was imputed to Wickliffe, and was condeed, could it be admitted, that he, who demned as his ! through his whole life had defended Finally, among the propositions attrithe privileges of the temporal authorities buted to Wickliffe, which were against the usurpations of the clergy, demned as false at Oxford, at Rome, and
in the universal council of Constance, | by him in the sense which his accusers there is one, which in the present day is supposed. admitted as true by Christians of all com When he asserted, that God cannot munions, both Catholics and Protestants, increase or diminish the world, or create namely, that which declares the decretals more souls than he has made already, his to be apocryphal. This article was cen opinion was, that God has made everysured as contrary to the decisions of the thing as perfect as it could possibly be church, and the decrees of several popes. made ; and when he said that every crea
The judgment of the council on this ture is of God, or is divine, he signified point, which, with all its decrees, after- only that in some degree or kind, howwards received the approval of a lawfully ever imperfect, every creature partakes of constituted pope, a judgment which is the unchangeable attributes of the Godnow universally condemned, would alone head. be sufficient to destroy all confidence in It is to be regretted that such statehuman infallibility, if evidence were suf ments could have been attributed to Wickficient against error deeply rooted in the liffe ; however, it is well known how easy mind by the double power of custom and it is to extract from the best of books prejudice.
certain passages, which, in the connexion The condemnation formerly pronounced where they are placed by the writer, are at Rome against the forty-five articles in no way objectionable, but which, if was confirmed by the council of Con- isolated, appear blameable.
Besides, stance, and a prohibition was enforced Wickliffe was a man, and, as such, he was by an anathema against teaching these liable to err; to make out that his errors articles, and against reading or keeping were crimes, he must first have been conthe books which contained them, or even victed of the still greater error of those speaking of them, unless it was to declare who condemned him-of having laid their condemnation. The books were claim to infallibility ! ordered to be cast into the flames, espe A reformer should be judged by the cially those entitled the Dialogue and whole course of his life and teaching as a Trialogue. Afterwards two hundred and Christian. The whole train of thought sixty other articles were read, and asserted in his writings should correct or modify to be other extracts from the same works. isolated expressions in the mind of the Most of them were repetitions or expla- writer or reader. There is not a man's nations of the preceding articles, especially life, there is not a single book, to which those relating to the pope, the monks, this rule is not applicable. This truth and the sacrament of the altar. Some of cannot be too often repeated, for it is conthese are, in the present day, generally stantly mistaken, and it may be feared received as the truth among Christians, that it always will be so. When the pasespecially that which does not exclude sions are silent, all agree to recognise the from the promise of salvation children principle; but when the time comes, no who have died without receiving baptism. one practises it. Is a doctrine called in Others are chargeable with forced and question ? Observe whether its general faulty exaggeration, several are capable of tendency is to bring the soul to repenta dangerous interpretation; for instance, ance, to regeneration, to faith and love these that God can annihilate nothing, toward God? But what avails this to that he can neither increase nor diminish those who think they are condemned by the world ; that he can create a certain it? Is the conduct of a man considered? number of souls, and no more, and that Is it pure and holy? This avails noGod is every creature.
thing to those who are thirsting for his It must be confessed, that Wickliffe blood. was not wholly exempt from that lament Wickliffe, when fairly judged, notwithable habit, manifested by so many men of standing his mistakes, has a claim, from cousideration and revered in the church, his talents, his courage, and the whole of assigning limits and modes of action course of his life, to the gratitude of all to incomprehensible and infinite wisdom, who protest against the enslaving of the a boldness which caused it to be said with consciences of men, against the yoke of reason to St. Bernard, “they search into priestly and spiritual despotism-of all the inmost recesses of the secrets of God." who acknowledge Jesus Christ as the However, let us hasten to add, that the only Mediator between God and manstatements selected from the writings of in a word, of all who regard the circulaWickliffe were by no means understood tion of the word of life as the greatest of
blessings, and the inward sanctification of field and flowery mead the butterfly is man, as the chief end of Christianity. seen as it wings its undulating flight from
The council was exceedingly wrong in flowers to flower. The bee continues, condemning the whole mass of his works, with its grave hum, its busy search for and by its sentence confounding the good food; and it has been said: and the bad, truth and error, but this was not all. It ordered that the remains of
“ The poetry of earth is never dead;
When all the birds are faint with the hot sun, Wickliffe should be disinterred, and com
And hide in cooling trees, a voice will run mitted to the flames. It ransacked a tomb, From hedge to hedge about the new-mown mead:
That is the grasshopper's !” and raged against a dead body! However, while we blame the barbarous edict, the As, too, the evening approaches, the rudeness of the times must be remembered, and when indignant at the ven
gnats geance of the priests, the manner in which
“Their murmuring small trumpets sounden wide." Wickliffe had provoked them must not be forgotten. His works contained the germ The yellow appearance of the rye inof the great revolution of the sixteenth dicates that it is almost ready for the century, and the boldness of the attacks, sickle. The wheat and barley are of a and the severity of the wound, explain dull green, for their ears, as they bow the atrocity of the sentence. It was exe before the breeze that gently sweeps the cuted in England, more than thirty years field, are all that is now seen in the disafter the death of the reformer. Tradi- tance. The oats are whitening apace, tion relates, that his bones, exhumed, and and the grains supported on their quiverburnt to ashes, were cast into a brook ing stalks, hang like rain-drops in the air. (Swift) near Lutterworth. To use the The dark rich green of the turnip-fields, beautiful comparison of Fuller~"Thus relieved by the scarlet poppy which has the brook hath conveyed his ashes into intruded, presents a pleasing contrast Avon, Avon into Severn, Severn into the with the dry surface of the fallowe, up narrow seas, they into the main ocean; and down whose broad face the team is and thus the ashes of Wickliffe are the slowly passing: emblem of his doctrine, which now is The green lanes have their peculiar dispersed all the world over.”
beauties at this period of the year. The hedges that inclose either side, and the dry banks and ditches teem with vegetation, presenting so beautiful a variety of flowers that they are noticed by the most superficial observer.
There, for instance, The heat of summer is now experi- is a great bird-weed thrusting out its
the enced to its full extent, especially as the elegant snow-white flowers days are longer than in the following neighbouring plants, but carefully conmonth. The ground is cracked in con cealing its leaves and stem in the thicker sequence, and the roads are dry and shrubs which yield its support. Near dusty. The pleasant shade of the wood the ground, and more exposed to view, is sought, but the rill that purled along its the common red and white convolvolus bank is almost exhausted. The cattle appears; while all along, clinging to it and sheep seek the foliage of the trees to tightly, the various coloured vetches, and protect them from the mid-day sun. The the woody night-shade, hang their flowers leaves are becoming of a deeper hue;
-the first exquisitely fashioned in a
manner somewhat resembling the pea; “The fading many-coloured woods,
and the other elaborate and beautiful in Shade deepening over shade, the country round Imbrown;"
structure, with its rich purple petals and the oaks, being latest in leaf, form turned back to expose a centre of deep noble canopies, and have a richer appear- looks, that warn the observer of its poison
yellow, but still with strange and sinister ance from their contrast with the pale blue sky: But we miss the varied and after those bunches of scarlet berries
ous nature. This plant will yield heredelightful songs of our feathered friends. which hang so temptingly in the autumn
“ No warbling tongue within the reach of little children, and Talks now unto the echo of the groves."
which it often requires much argument Insects, however, appear in their greatest to prevent them tasting. In the midst variety and beauty, and on every corn- of, and overhanging all, the woodbine
APPEARANCES OF NATURE.