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from the accidental circumstance of his and though the results of their labours having exhibited the microscope made were not immediately applicable to the by Jansen; and as he was a favourite microscope, they essentially promoted its at the court of James vi., where he improvement. Between this period and lived some time, this opinion may have the year 1829, Mr. Joseph Jackson Lister proceeded not only from his own had directed his attention more particurogance, but from the influence of royal larly to this subject, and he was led to favour. Viviani, an Italian mathemati- the discovery of certain properties in cian, also expressly informs us, in his life achromatic combinations which had beof Galileo, that this great man was led to fore been unobserved. A paper on the the construction of the microscope from subject was sent by him to, and published that of the telescope; and, in the year by, the Royal Society.* To the practical 1612, he actually sent a microscope to optician the investigations and results of Sigismund, king of Poland. Dissatisfied, Mr. Lister proved to be of the highest however, with the performance of this value -- the progress of improvement instrument, he appears from his letters to was, in consequence, extremely rapid, have been much occupied about 1624 in and since that period, owing to the energy bringing it to perfection, but we have no and exertions of Messrs. Ross, Pritchard, information of the result of his labours. Powell, Smith, and other well-known In the year 1618, Fontana, a Neapolitan, London opticians, every year has served made a microscope of two double-convex to bring this instrument nearer to perlenses, and wrote an account of it in a fection. Nor must we forget to bear work* which, however, was not published testimony to the exertions of the Microtill some years afterwards. As there is scopical Society, which was founded some no reason to believe that the microscopes few years since, with the express object invented by Jansen consisted of two con- of rendering the microscope more availvex lenses, the honour of this improve- able as an aid to scientific research, by ment seems due to Fontana, who distinct- introducing improvements into its conly assumes the merit of it, and we may struction. Many of the papers which add that no other person has laid claim have been read before this Society are of to it.
the most interesting description; and it For a long period, curious as the fact may safely be affirmed, that the exertions may now appear, the single microscope and researches of its members, amongst was that generally in use, the compound whom are some of the most celebrated instrument, as we have already remarked, men of the present day, in the various being regarded as a mere philosophical departments of zoology, botany, physiotoy. Soon after the year 1820, a series logy, and geology have tended to give a of experiments was begun in France by vast increase to our knowledge in this M. Selligne; and simultaneously by fascinating branch of physical science.”Frauenhofer, at Munich; by Amici, at Westminster Review. Modena ; by Chevalier, at Paris; and by the late Mr. Tulley, of London. In 1824, the last-named artist, at the instigation of Dr. Goring, and without knowing what had been done on the continent, made an The art of printing was known to the attempt to construct an achromatic object- Chinese nearly a thousand years ago. glass for a compound microscope, and It has been thought by some that Tungproduced one of 9-10ths of an inch focal taou, the first ruler of the Tsin dynasty, length, composed of three lenses, and A.D. 937, was the inventor, and that he, transmitting a pencil of eighteen degrees. being a time-serving man, intended to This was the first that was made in Eng- appropriate it to his more private ends; land. While these practical investigations but it appears from Chinese history, that were in progress, the subject of achro- in 926, the ruler Tang ordered the nine matism engaged the attention of some of classics to be engraved, printed, and sold the most profound mathematicians in generally. There seems to be no differEngland. Sir John Herschel, professorence of opinion as to the art being then Airy, professor Barlow, Mr. Coddington, in use; the only question discussed was and others, contributed largely to the whether books should be sold, or gratuitheoretical examination of the subject; tously distributed, on account of the
millions that would be in demand. * “Noves Terrestrium et Celestium Observationęs."— Neap. 1646.
* Philosophical Transactions, for 1830.
THE INVENTION OF PRINTING,
The mode of printing adopted by the with his right hand, and passes it over the Chinese, is more simple, less expensive, paper once or twice very rapidly, and the and till recent improvements more ex- impression is produced. Immediately peditious than
Stereotype, the printed sheet is removed, another is or block printing, is still almost entirely laid on, and another, and another, in practised by them, and their language, rapid succession, until the whole number consisting principally of arbitrary cha- to be printed are thrown off. A Chinese racters, they have not deemed it neces- printer thus without wheel, screw, lever, sary either to cut or cast an assortment of or even a wedge, will produce no fewer types, to distribute or recompose as other than three thousand impressions in nations do, but have in preference cut the day. The process being thus far comcharacters for each separate page of each pleted, the pages are folded exactly in the separate work.
middle, then collated, adjusted, stitched, The first part of the process is, to write cut, and sewn, and for the whole the out the page in the square form of the printer receives but ninepence a thousand.
it | block, which has already been smoothly consists merely of his gravers, blocks, and planed, and spread over with a glutinous brushes; all of which he may carry on
paper is then rubbed until it is his shoulder, and travel without difficulty quite dry. As much of the paper as can from place to place. · With paper and be got away is now removed, when the lamp-black he does not burden himself, figures it bore are seen adhering to the as he can purchase these articles wherever block in an inverted form ; somewhat dim he may wish to sojourn, and by merely indeed in appearance; but the applica- borrowing a table, he may print his tion of oil brings them out fully and editions by hundreds or thousands, as he vividly. The reader will probably recog- finds a market for them. nise a similar process being applied to the The facilities of the Chinese, too, are transferring of engravings to wood pre- great for printing cheaply; their paper is pared for the purpose, a fashionable thin, ten sheets of demy size cost only amusement among the ladies of England one halfpenny, and the small wages paid a few years ago. After the paper has allow books to be produced for a mere been thus removed, the first operation of trifle. Europeans of course pay double the Chinese engraver is, to cut straight for the same works. It has been said down by the sides of the letters, from that in China there are
more books top to bottom, removing the vacant spaces and more people to read them than between the lines, with the exception of in any other country in the world; the stops. All the strokes that run hori- it would, therefore, be natural to argue zontally are then engraved, afterwards that they ought to be the wisest of the oblique, and then the perpendicular the human race. But while printing ones throughout the entire line. This has enabled them to multiply copies of prevents the necessity for turning the their ancient books, it has rather tended block round for every letter, and the con to discourage the compilation of new sequent loss of time. The workman now works, and to confine them to an imitaproceeds to the central parts, and, very tion of antiquity, thus rivetting the chains shortly afterwards the page, usually con in which superstition and custom have taining five hundred characters, is com held them. But a new day has dawned plete. One hundred characters a-day is on China; the recent edict of the emperor the compliment for an ordinary engraver, gives freedom to a profession of Christianand for this labour his remuneration is ity, the heralds of the gospel may thereonly sixpence.
fore go forth offering, with the living The printing process is no less curious. voice, its rich and precious blessings, The page is placed in the centre of a “without money and without price, table; on one side is a pot of liquid ink while in tracts, and books, and especially with a brush, and on the other, a pile of the Holy Scriptures, the people of that paper. In the front stands a piece of vast empire may read in their own tongue wood, bound round with the fibrous parts all that is needful to make them wise for of a species of palm, which serves for a eternity. rubber. The block being inked with the Europeans are not indebted to the brush, a sheet of dry paper is taken with Chinese for their knowledge of the art of the left hand, and placed carefully on it; printing, for before the passage to the the printer then hastily seizes the rubber, east by the Cape of Good Hope was dis;
covered they had invented it for them- | forty plates, which serve as illustrations selves. The earliest document concern of the sentiments extracted from the ing wood-engraving is given by Papillon, Scriptures, the whole being engraved on who assigned the honour of the invention wood on one side of the leaves of paper, to two noted personages, now familiarly
so that when folded they are placed opcalled the two Cunio. They were twin posite to each other. Each plate, or page, brother and sister, the first children of the contains four busts, two at the top and count di Cunio. Their work was two at the bottom, together with their representation in eight poems of the historical subjects. The two upper busts actions of Alexander the Great, with represent the prophets, or other persons, Latin verses. The date of its execution whose names are always written beneath was about 1285.
them; the two lower busts are anony. The earliest print from a wood block of The middle of the plates, which which we have any certain date, is in the are all marked by letters of the alphabet, collection of earl Spencer. It represents in the centre of the uppermost compartthe father of St. Christopher carrying the ment, is occupied by three historical picinfant Saviour across the sèa. The date tures, one of which is taken from the is 1423. It was found pasted within one New Testament; this is the type, or of the leaves of a Latin manuscript of the principal subject, and occupies the centre year 1417, in one of the most ancient of the page between the two anti-types convents in Germany.
of other subjects which allude to it. The At the end of the fourteenth and the inscriptions which occur at the top and beginning of the fifteenth century, the bottom of the page, consist of texts of Italians, Germans, Flemings, and Dutch Scripture and Leonine verses, the ends of began to engrave on wood and copper. which rhyme to the middle, and are so Books of images, as they were called, named from Leo, the inventor. Of all were now produced, some without text, the ancient “Books of Images," with and some with it. The pages in these text, the one called “Speculum Salutis, books were placed in pairs facing each is considered the most perfect as to deother, and, as only one side of the leaves sign and execution. It is a collection of was impressed, the blank pages came historical passages of Scripture with a few also opposite to one another, which, being from uninspired history, having some placed together, gave the whole the ap relation to biblical subjects. So popular pearance of a book printed in the ordinary was this “Mirror of Salvation," that it way on both sides the paper. Such, even was translated into German, Flemish, and to the present day, is one mode of book- other languages, and very fully pointed. printing in China. In this instance, the Two Latin editions are extant without text corresponding to the figures is some date. The impressions in both are sixtytimes placed below, sometimes on the three in number, and are executed from side, and not unfrequently they proceed the same blocks, but in that which is as a label from the mouth of the person reputed to be the most ancient the explaor figure.
nations of twenty-five not in very regular of all the works printed from wooden succession, are printed from entire wooden blocks, the “Biblia Pauperum,” or “Poor blocks; while the remaining thirty-eight Man's Bible,” is perhaps the rarest as well and the five leaves of preface, are wholly as the most ancient; and is a specimen executed with type. of the books of Images without text. It The great step made towards perfecting is a manual, or a kind of catechism of the the art of printing is traced to the year Bible for the use of young persons, and, 1456. To the honour of its completion as its name denotes, of the common the claims of different individuals have people, who were thus enabled to obtain, been advanced. The Dutch historian, at a comparatively low price, an imper- Hadrianus Junius, traces it to Laurentius fect knowledge of some of the events Coster, an inhabitant of the city of Haarrecorded in the Scriptures. Being much lem. The story is, while walking in the in use, and the copies being scarce, those wood near the city, according to the genenow extant in the libraries of the curious ral custom of the citizens and men of are in a bad condition; but who can cast leisure on holidays, he cut out letters on his eye upon one of these mutilated the bark of the beech, and stamped marks volumes without feelings of the liveliest on paper," in the manner of a seal,” uninterest?
til at length he formed a few lines for his This "Poor Man's Bible" consists of own amusement, and for the use of the
children of his brother-in-law. It is also time; and very probably this circumsaid, that by the aid of a relative, he in- stance led to the story of Faust's selling vented a thicker and more adhesive ink, the first printed Bibles for written ones, and with it he was able to print blocks in Paris, and of his being charged with and figures, to which he added letters. magic, in producing them so rapidly, so But the pretensions of Coster rest on cheaply, and so exactly alike.
The simithe narrative of Junius. The authors larity to the manuscript works of the time who have written in favour of Haarlem was much favoured by the circumstance, being the birth-place of printing have that all the capital letters were left to be not a single contemporary document by delineated with the pen, and decorated by which their statement can be sustained. the process of illumination,-a fashion
Trithemius lived near to the time in generally practised by the most ingenious which this art originated, and as he was artists on books then known. careful in deriving his intelligence from The collection of types possessed by the purest sources, his statements are en even the first-rate printers at this time titled to particular respect. Referring to were very defective, and far from includ. the year 1450, he says, that about this ing the necessary varieties for ordinary time the art of printing and casting single purposes. Abbreviations in spelling, and type was found in the city of Mentz, by blanks left to be filled up with the pen John Guttenberg, who, having spent his were very common; Greek characters, whole estate in the discovery, received particularly, were of much later introthe advice and assistance of John Faust duction than the original types, which and others. “ Having begun,” he con were in rude Gothic, mixed with the tinues, “ with cutting characters of the letter called “Secretary.” The first points letters upon wooden planks, in their right used were only the colon and the full order, and completed their forms, they stop, as still retained in some of the old printed a vocabulary, but could make no versions of the Psalms; the appearance farther use of these forms, because there of the hyphen, where words are broken was no possibility of separating the letters at the end of lines, and even the spacing which were engraved on the planks. To out of the lines themselves to an equal this succeeded a more ingenious inven. length, are indications of improvement in tion; for they found out a way of stamp- the art. An intermixture of rubrics or ing every letter of the Latin alphabet, in red letters was very common at an early what they called matrices, from which period. The character now called Italic they afterwards cast their letters either in invented by Aldus, a Venetian copper or tin, hard enough to be printed printer, and called from him Aldine; it upon, which they first cut with their own was used in printing quotations, until hands. It is certain that this art met set aside in this respect by the double with no small difficulty from the begin- commas, or Guillemets, so termed after ning of its invention, as I heard thirty their inventor, a French printer. years ago, from the mouth of Peter The introduction of this art into EngSchoeffer de Gernsheim, citizen of Mentz, land and the labours of Caxton must form and son-in-law to the first inventor of the the topic of a future paper. S. art. For when they went about printing the Bible, before they had worked off the third quire, it had cost them
already more than four thousand florins. But the aforesaid Peter Schoeffer, then servant and afterwards son-in-law to the first inventor,
REIGN OF GEORGE III, 1793 to 1801, John Faust, being a person of great in An important period now comes under genuity, discovered an easier way of consideration-one of the most momencasting the letters, and perfected the art tous, not only in the history of England, as we now have it.” On Guttenberg, but of the world—and during which the therefore, rests the honour of originating annals of Britain are connected with the the art of printing with separate types; history of the whole earth. The lesser to Schoeffer is due the credit of improv- manifestations of evil which usually agiing what he accomplished, while Faust tate men are lost in the outbreak that may be regarded as the patron of both. devastated all nations. Although half a
In these efforts thus made, the object, so century has since passed, the Christian far as possible, was to resemble the cha- historian is not yet able clearly to disracters used by the scriveners of that cern the immediate causes, while he feels
that their results are not yet fully ascer- shall thy proud waves be stayed." The tained. Like the prophet of old, he has believer may from hence learn to look to yet to stand upon the mount before the the Most High with greater confidence, in Lord; and though the stormy wind and any future hour of darkness—but at that the earthquake may have passed, he time all was confused; neither the long hears not as yet, the still, small voice; he line of causes, nor the probable results cannot but apprehend that the fire is yet to which they led, could be traced. Men behind. But he looks forward in faith-he could only see what was immediately believes it is, and will be, a purifying fire before them, and they could only act on -that the Lord will sit as a refiner and what they knew. Even the small body purifier of silver, (Mal. iii. 2, 3)—that of real Christians then in England had his people will be cleansed, that they may only indistinct views; but Newton, Rooffer to him an offering in righteousness, maine, and other believers then living, pleasant and acceptable unto the Lord, expressed in their writings their trust in and that all shall not be utterly consumed. almighty wisdom and power. Having this principle for his guidance, The former observed, in a private the historian may proceed to contemplate letter, written at that time, “The French the horrible scenes of confusion of which affairs have taken an unexpected turn, we are about to take a brief survey; he but as their plan is founded in atheism, thereby has a clue to guide him, and he and defiance of God, and is in many will be more than ever led to adore the parts of it contrary not only to Scripture Most High, who still, as of old, “ruleth but to nature, and as they have taken a in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to strange delight in murders and maswhomsoever he will, and setteth up over sacres, I think when they have as instruit the basest of men,” Dan. iv. 17. He ments effected his purposes, which are will see one spring up, as Nebuchadnez- probably very different from anything zar of old, a mighty conqueror, whose they are aware of, a day of account and greatness reached unto the heavens, and retribution will come.
Their attempt to his dominion to the end of the earth. establish a government, in which a reYet, like the Assyrian monarch, this gard to the great God shall have no mighty tree was hewn down, and only place, is, I believe, the first experiment its stump left in the earth, bound as with of the kind that ever was made. The a band of iron and brass. He acknow- heathens have always known that man ledged not the Lord, like the Assyrian, is unmanageable, without some hold and he was left to decay and perish, like upon the conscience; and though their the stump of a newly-cleared allotment. religions were false, they were, as to
The beginning of the year 1793 was, the purposes of civil govern nent, better indeed, an anxious period in England, than the proud schemes of French philoand throughout all the continent of Eu- sophers. Their views are not only imrope. The faces of men already gathered pious, but in the highest degree foolish.” blackness, and, to discerning minds, it It is well, both for ministers and was evident that a spirit was about to private Christians, to have as little to do break forth from France, that would pro- with politics as possible. It is a pit duce most important changes through- that has swallowed up the life and spirit, out the surrounding nations, though none if not the very form of the religion of anticipated the extent of the devastation many professors. The Lord reigneth, that was to follow.
and every issue will be directed by infiWe
may now mark how God had nite wisdom and goodness, without our caused this spirit of revolution to be interference, unless he plainly puts it upon nourished by the efforts to suppress us as a duty. And can we wish to be the doctrines of his word, in several under better management? It is true, countries of Europe, and in all to weaken He usually works by instruments, but its influence—how superstition, prevail- there are some services which are not ing against those truths, had extinguished, good enough for his own children. He or wholly obscured, the light of the Re can employ such men as composed the formation, fostering a spirit of infidelity bulk of the French convention for labourand atheism, which at length overturned ers and scourgers. Sennacherib, with his the whole fabric of superstition, and for subservient blasphemers, executed the a time took its place, and how the Al- Divine will, no less than Hezekiah by his mighty said to that proud flood, “Hitherto prayers. And the proud Assyrians could shalt thou come, but no further : and here do no more; they were thrown aside