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they thus obliged the renters of houses feelings of men, especially in the agriculand possessors of property to pay a part tural districts, have hitherto interfered of the wages of their labourers. The with the fair and right working out of the consequences were very injurious to all, law, and its amelioration in such points especially to the receiver of the parish as upon trial were found defective, and dole, who thus was made a pauper, and, thus no fair estimate can be formed of instead of the feelings of honest in the proper result. But it is ever to be dependence being, encouraged on the remembered, that the fraud and evil conone hand, and his having a common sequences of the abuse of the law, introinterest with his employer on the other, duced at the period now under considerahe now felt it to be his interest to do as tion, was hurrying the land to destruction, little, and get as much, as he could. Thus and, with the cruel and oppressive enforceencouragement was given to idleness, ment of the game laws, has been the deception, and vice ; and the degraded main cause of lowering the character and pauper was further taught that he might destroying the happiness of the English extort a maintenance from his unwilling labourer, which, up to that period, had superiors, while he was no longer ready gradually improved from the time of the to give a fair return by honest and right- Reformation in the sixteenth century. minded exertions. On the other hand, Of the game laws much need not be said; the pay being proportioned to the num- they were, in principle, derived from the ber, it acted as a strong inducement to cruel and oppressive laws of the feudal the labourer to present as many claimants times; they tended, on the one hand, to as possible, and to make his case appear oppress the cultivator, and tempt the as miserable as possible ; thus he was no labourer to evil, while they made the longer encouraged to foresight and self- proprietor a persecutor and oppressor, if denial. If such virtues still appeared in a strict game preserver; and the only any one, he or she was laughed at for return for these mischiefs, was the motheir folly, in sparing the parish purse. mentary gratification of an evil passion in The rapid increase of the pecuniary bur- the heart of man, personally to torment dens thus occasioned, caused the rate and destroy the wild animals around him payers to be equally ingenious and active for pastime. Even the gratification of in staving off demands; and one miserable the appetite and luxurious indulgence, fault in the law of settlement, making evil as that is, was not promoted by the any one chargeable where they had last game laws. lived servant for a year, caused the farmers In noting the events of 1798, it must to engage no one, unless for a shorter be stated, that Pitt disgracefully fought period, and thus the kindly feelings and a duel with Tierney, whom he had proimportant relations of master and servant voked by some severe personalities during were broken. Much more might be said a debate in the House of Commons, the of the evils that resulted from the resolu- speaker having allowed the altercation to tion passed at a meeting of Berkshire be stopped without requiring from the magistrates, which was speedily imitated parties that it should not be renewed through the south and midland districts elsewhere. It was a sad spectacle to see of England. These evils went on increas- the chief ruler of the land thus breaking ing. The annual sum raised by the poor the commands both of God and man, and rates in 1801 was 4,017,8711., in 1832 it choosing the Lord's-day for this wicked had increased to 7,036,9681.
act. Wilberforce had the Christian firmThe result was, that in some parishes ness to call, though in vain, for public the land was actually thrown out of cul- rebuke of this act of the prime minister, tivation, the sum demanded for the poor- wbile even the highest ecclesiastics unrate from all under cultivation being more faithfully passed it by. than the rent, and thus no one would rent The principal measure of this year was or till the soil, and many others were the trebling the assessed taxes. Pitt saw falling into the same state. In such cases the necessity of efforts to raise a larger the poor were ground down to the lowest proportion of the supplies within the year; pittance, and that amount was wrung but this measure failed; it caused many from the adjacent parishes, so that the to reduce their establishments, while evil was rapidly increasing, when it was those wealthy persons who lived in frugal stayed by the new poor-law in 1834, style were scarcely touched by it. Anreturning to the principles of the reign of other measure to support the funds, was queen Elizabeth. Unhappily, the selfish to allow the redemption of the land-tax,
according to the price of the three per | made, troops were collected on the seacent. annuities of the day; but even to coast, and a number of flat-bottomed the present time this measure has been boats and other vessels prepared. He only partially effected.
visited the coast from Boulogne to AntThe successes of the French in Italy werp—this occupied only a few days; have been already stated. The peace with but his able mind easily mastered the Austria did not in the least repress the subject, and he came to the conclusion, cupidity of the ruling party in France. that such an attempt would be too hazardEarly in 1798 they took possession of ous. A number of troops might be pushed Switzerland, overturning all the existing across; bụt, if successful in landing, and governments under the pretence of bene even in some battles, they would not fiting the people. This was followed soon become masters of England, while immediately by occupying the country the difficulties in supporting such an with troops, levying large contributions, army, and in maintaining the communirevolting the minds of the people against cation, were insuperable. The days of their oppressors, and massacring the few Harold and William of Normandy were mountaineers, who preferred their own not returned. He therefore resolved to democracy to that of France. This head an expedition to Egypt. This was occupation of Switzerland was very bad the first measure of a deeply-laid plan policy. The country, when independent, against the British possessions in India. was far more efficient as a protection to It would procure that éclat to his name the French frontier; but the lust of power which he desired to maintain, and thus made the revolutionists eager to subject beneficially occupy the time which must all the neighbouring nations, while the pass before matters would be ripe for his opportunity for plunder and exactions seizing the supreme power at home. The was eagerly embraced. In one small Directory also were well pleased with the town, more than 400 of the inhabitants, project, which, while it fed the vanity of including 100 women, were massacred. the nation, and increased its power, would Numerous orphans were left to wander remove Buonaparte from Paris, and emwithout friends. Many children were ploy the army of Italy. As to the justice, received and sheltered by Pestalozzi, who or rather the injustice, of thus invading was thereby induced to carry out his Egypt, that was not allowed to enter into improved plans of education. The op- consideration. pressive conduct of the French in Rome Buonaparte exerted all the energies of caused a popular movement; it was tri- his powerful mind in hastening the prefing, but was designedly provoked, to parations for this expedition. He obtained give pretext for plunder and dethroning a supply of above a million sterling of the pope. A tree of liberty was set up money, by plundering the public treasury in the ancient forum, and a nominal of Berne. More than 30,000 of the best republican government established. Pope soldiers were assembled at and near TouPius vi. was carried to Tuscany, where lon; and on May 19th, the French armathe old man died soon after, his death ment sailed, the British squadron having being accelerated by the harsh treatment been driven from its station. Malta was he had undergone; while Rome was the first object; it was most strongly plundered like all other places that came fortified, and still remained in possession under the French power.
of the knights of the half-military, halfThe most important events of 1798 religious order of St. John. That body, were connected with Buonaparte. . On however, had degenerated, and had only his return from Italy to Paris, he found a few mercenary soldiers in garrison ; but public affairs in a very disordered state, even these were not employed to defend all tending to the result which usually the place. Some months previously, attends popular revolutions, namely, des- Buonaparte had begun negotiations with potism. He determined, if possible, to the knights, several of whom were easily be supreme, but saw that, as he expressed bribed, and others terrified; and on being it, “The pear was not yet ripe." Know- summoned to surrender, the grand master ing that nothing but some adventurous at once consented. The French were and successful efforts would keep up his allowed to enter the fortress, one of Buoreputation with the people of Paris, he naparte's companions telling him, as they first animated them to an invasion of passed the almost impregnable defences, England. This had long been threatened, that it was well they found the gates and by this time large preparations were ready opened for them; for, if merely
fastened, though not defended, entrance such punishment was especially deserved would have been difficult. The first for its sins. Buonaparte now took meaproceeding was to plunder the churches, sures for inducing the Turks to forward and seize all the public property. Malta bis ulterior plans, especially by pretendwas garrisoned ; and in ten days from ing a regard for the Mohammedan faith, its arrival, the French fleet sailed for even telling of the late dethronement of Egypt.
the pope as a proof of their disregard for Buonaparte now became anxious, for Christianity. he knew there was a British squadron in A sudden blow stopped the visions of the Mediterranean. Earl St. Vincent this enterprising commander. When he had sent à part of his fleet from Cadiz, marched for the interior, it was found under Nelson, and it had been joined by that the large ships of war could not enter other ships from England in the whole, the port of Alexandria. Not wishing to thirteen ships of 74 guns, and one of 50. part with the fleet, he told admiral Brueys There were some frigates, but they had to remain on the coast, if he could find a separated from the fleet in a storm, and safe position. The Bay of Aboukir seemed had not rejoined. From the want of to afford this; there was space for the such vessels to look out, the English fleet French ships of war to anchor in a line, actually passed the French fleet in the so that they could not be easily assailed; night of June 22nd; thus Buonaparte and to the protection of sand-banks was avoided an action which might probably added that of batteries at the extremities have at once stopped his career. But he of their line. The admiral wrote to had a mission of chastisement to accom- Buonaparte, that he considered his posiplish, as the rod of God's anger, and he tion secure from attack. was now spared to effect it. No certain Nelson examined the north coast of intelligence of the destination of the Asia Minor, and then returned to SyraFrench fleet had been received by Nelson; cuse, where he hastily refitted, and sailed but supposing it was Egypt, he hastened again to the eastward. In a few days he thither. On arriving off Alexandria, he learned that the French had been seen found that port in its usual state, and some weeks before in the course for steered to the northward. Scarcely had Egypt. He hastened thither, and on the he lost sight of the coast when the French morning of the 1st of August, coming in fleet came in view from the west. Buo- sight of Alexandria, he saw that the port naparte heard of this narrow escape, and was now crowded with shipping. As he fearful of the return of his enemy, he neared the coast, the French fleet was hastened to land his troops the next seen at anchor in Aboukir Bay. morning. Alexandria was at once taken, sisted of an equal number of ships of the and the inhabitants tasted of French line to the British; but four were much mercies. Buonaparte then issued a pro- larger, and could not be approached clamation, declaring that he came to without great risk to the assailants. The rescue Egypt-that he was friendly to line was also supported by frigates, gunthe sultan, and had especial regard for boats, and a battery. Nelson determined Mohammedanism and its lying book, the on an immediate attack, and his ships has Koran.
tened forwards. The Calloden grounded In a few days the French army moved upon a shoal, out of gun-shot; two others forward for Cairo. It was harassed by were also at a distance, having been at the Turkish force, but suffered more from first sent towards Alexandria. The action the march over the sandy desert, which began at seven in the evening, Nelson thoroughly disgusted the troops with attacking the centre and western end of Egypt. On approaching the pyramids, the French line, some of his ships passing they were encountered by the Turkish in, and engaging them on the side next force. The only formidable portion con the shore. The French admiral was in sisted of the Mamelukes, forming a body the centre, in a ship of 120 guns, which of 5000 well-armed cavalry. But the at first disabled her assailants; but the steadiness of European discipline, and English prevailed. Some of the French the artillery with them, prevailed. The ships struck, the admiral's huge vessel surviving Mamelukes fied to the interior, caught fire, the flames could not be exleaving Cairo open to the French, who tinguished, and, about ten o'clock, she entered it on July 23rd. Thus Egypt blew up. The explosion destroyed most was among the nations which this rod of of her crew, a few only being saved by God's anger was sent to chastise, and the English boats, or received on board
the ships that assisted in destroying their itself upon the skin, effects which I shall mighty opponent. It was an awful mo now proceed to detail will follow. ment; the battle ceased for a short In the first place, the pores will be interval, but was soon resumed ;-the obstructed, and in consequence, transpirFrench ships, one after another, struck ation impeded, and the influence of the their colours. In the morning, two of skin, as a respiratory organ, entirely the line and two frigates only remained prevented. In the second place, the skin untaken; these made sail, and got off will be irritated both mechanically and only one of the English ships being in a chemically ; it will be kept damp and state to follow after them.
cold from the attraction and detention of It was, as Nelson said, not a victory, moisture by the saline particles, and, but a conquest. He gratefully acknow- possibly, the matters once removed from ledged the Divine providence by a thanks- the system may be again conveyed into giving through the fleet, and began his it by absorption. And, thirdly, foreign official despatch in the same spirit, stating matters in solution, such as poisonous that Almighty God had blessed his ma gases, miasmata, and infectious vapours, jesty's arms. The admiral was wounded, will find upon the skin a medium favourone of his captains fell, and about 900 able for the suspension and subsequent men were killed or wounded. Of the transmission into the body. These are French, more than 5000 perished ; 3000, the primary consequences of neglected including the wounded, were sent on ablution of the skin ; let us now inquire shore, under an engagement not to serve what are the secondary or constitutional till exchanged; but Buonaparte, with his effects. usual disregard of engagements, compelled If the pores be obstructed and the them to join the army. Nelson sailed, transpiration checked, the constituents with his prizes, for Naples and Sicily, of the transpired fluids will necessarily. where he became the dupe of the flatteries be thrown upon the system; and as they and temptations of that luxurious and are injurious, even poisonous, if retained, sinful court.
they must be removed by other organs The particulars of this battle have been than the skin. Those organs are, the thus fully recorded, because of the im- lungs, the kidneys, the liver, and the portant results. They were, indeed, of bowels. But it will be apparent to every the utmost importance, both as establish- one, that if these organs, equally, or one ing the naval fame of the British, and more than another, which is generally staying the onward career of the French the case, be called upon to perform their towards the east, by shutting up the own office plus that of another, the army, without the possibility of its receive equilibrium of health must be disturbed, ing succours. Yet how incalculable are the oppressed organ must suffer from exthe evils of war, and the blessings of haustion and fatigue, and must become peace!
the prey of disease. Thus, obviously and plainly, habits of uncleanliness become the cause of consumption, and
other serious diseases of the vital organs. The searf-skin is being constantly cast Again : if the pores be obstructed, reoff in the form of minute powdery scales; spiration through the skin will be at an but these, instead of falling away from end, and, as a consequence, the blood, the skin, are retained against the sur deprived of one source of its oxygen, face by the contact of clothing. More one outlet for its carbon, the chemical over, they become mingled with the changes of nutrition will be insufficient, unctuous and saline products of the skin, and the animal temperature lowered. As and the whole together concrete into a a consequence of the second position, thin crust, which, by its adhesiveness, cutaneous eruptions and diseases will be attracts particles of dust of all kind, soot engendered, the effects of cold manifested and dust from the atmosphere, and par on the system, and the re-absorption of ticles of foreign matter from our dress. matters once separated from the body So that, in the course of a day, the whole will be the exciting cause of other injubody, the covered parts least and the un- rious disorders. The third position offers covered most, becomes covered by a results even more serious than those which pellicle of impurities of every descrip- precede. If a pellicle of foreign subtion. If this pellicle be allowed to re stance be permitted to form on the skin, main, to become thick, and establish this will inevitably become the seat of
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN.
detention of miasmata and infectious va- God, and she had just views of the guilt pours. They will rest here previously to and danger of living without God in the being absorbed, and their absorption will world. She saw, with sorrow, that her engender the diseases of wbich they are friends were living for the world only, the peculiar ferment.— Erasmus Wilson. that they passed all their days without
thinking of God, or the slightest desire to know and do his will. She spoke to
the parents, as well as to the young THE PROUD MADE LOWLY.
people, on the duty of personal religion.
By some of the family her remarks were A few years since, a family in the mid- received with cold indifference, and by dling station of society, were residing in others with positive contempt; while one one of the suburbs of our great metro- young man in the circle was so averse to polis; and the father, mother, sons, and the subject of religion, that he almost daughters, lived together in a comfort- forgot the courtesies of society, and the able and pleasant home. Of this family respect due to the sex of his friend, and it might be said that they were moral turned away, with a sneer, from the and respectable. No vice would have gentle remonstrances she offered. But been allowed in the circle. Drunken- this lady estimated the value of the soul ness or swearing, or wicked conduct of too highly to be deterred from speaking. any description, would have been highly Ah,” said an infidel to a Christian, offensive to their cultivated and refined who timidly forboré to speak any word minds. It is true, that with all the of rebuke to sinners, “ah, you do not observance of the moralities of life, nei- yourself believe in the doctrine of eterther parent went often to a place of nal punishment." “ Indeed I do," was worship on the Sunday. The father con the reply. “Oh no," said the reasoner, sidered, that amid the cares of business, “if you really heartily believed it, you but one day of leisure was left to him; would not, with your benevolent feelings, and he regarded the Sunday as a holiday, have any peace, until you bad warned to be spent over his books or in his all whom you love of their danger of garden. On this day the young men of incurring it. You would long to snatch the family were all at home, and the them from perdition.”. Who shall say household business was greater than on that this infidel argued unjustly? ordinary days, and the mistress of the It is the subsequent history of the house considered that her superintend. youth before alluded to which I am ence was more than usually necessary; about to present to my readers. William or if the weather was fine, she could find
was a young man of great talents; he time on that day to walk out a little ; had obtained a situation in an office and if it rained, the rain prevented her under government, and adding to a going to church. Owing to one thing or knowledge of his employment both inanother, the parents were seldom seen in dustry and punctuality, he made rapid the family pew, though the younger progress in life, and early attained a high members of the circle usually attended position for so young a man. Pride, the morning service. Not one of the which had ever been his ruling passion, party ever thought, that by slighting now became so prominent in his characGod's house, they were sinning against ter and manner, as to render him quite God, who enjoined that all should re unamiable; and a selfishness, which had member the sabbath-day to keep it holy, before been less remarkable, seemed to and directed us that we should "not develope itself daily. A painful reverse forsake the assembling of ourselves toge- had happened in the circumstances of ther, as the manner of some is,” Heb. his parents. His sisters could no longer X. 25.
Both parents looked on their appear as they had been used to do, steady and orderly family, and rejoiced elegantly dressed; and so hard-hearted that they had brought them up so well, was William, that now, when he met and that they were not idle or profligate, them in the streets, he would, if with his as were some who were known to them.
companions, pass them by unnoticed, During the years in which this family ashamed to acknowledge, as members of were growing up, they were occasionally his family, any whose appearance did visited by a lady, who had, in early life, not bear the indications of wealth. been an intimate friend of the mother. Alas! there are many ways of walking This lady was one who loved and served the downward road! Truly has the