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in nineteen, r in geven! Some of these phonetic alphabet, with remarkable precombinations are amusingly extravagant; cision. for if that word were spelt schiesourrhce, According to the same plan, those who it may be replied that it is justifiable, the can read on the ordinary system will be different parts being found in the words able to learn the phonetic style in a few schism, sieve, as, honour, myrrh, sacrifice. minutes. Nor are these the only advanTruly, if there is system in our ortho- tages; the spelling of words will be as graphy, it is a system of blunders. easy and as certain as the reading of

If, however, we are satisfied that the them; no doubt will be experienced as to present plan of orthography is thus defec- the proper accentuation of any word, tive, and are convinced that change is while foreigners will be able to read as necessary, the question arises, In what correctly, though not with as much manner can it be accomplished? It may facility, as ourselves, which will render be answered, that a system termed Pho- the English language, one of the simplest notypy has been prepared, through the in its grammatical structure, accessible to persevering efforts of Mr. Isaac Pitman, the world. of Bath, assisted by the “ The Phonotypic Such are some of the benefits arising Council.” The principle acted on is, that from the introduction of the Phonetic the primary object of spelling is, to give system, and it will be well next to notice the sounds of words as they are uttered. the objections which naturally arise in It is, therefore, necessary, that every the mind to its adoption. It may, perprimary sound should have a representing haps, be truly said, for example, that the character, which shall be inseparable literature now in use would be rendered from it, and that it should be used in no useless. But when we consider the magmodified form. It has been found that nitude of the advantages to be gained, forty characters will perform this office, the years of time and labour that are so that while superfluous letters are saved, and the expense that is avoided, omitted, every simple sound has its repre- this objection cannot be successfully sentative. Thus the sounds ch, sh, gh, urged, especially when it is remembered zh, th, ng, and among the vowel sounds, that it is ordinarily estimated that the au, oo, and ah ought to have single forms, whole literature of the present day will as they are simple, primary sounds. By soon have passed into a new edition; and this arrangement there is certainty instead such is the progress of the nation, that of vagueness, and a plain, straight road a book of ten years standing on many instead of a devious and rugged passage. subjects, is regarded as one of doubtful So great are the advantages afforded by authority. Only let readers be obtained, this plan, that children of six years of and the interest of publishers will induce age can learn to read in a week, thus them to furnish a sufficiency of books. reducing the arts of reading and writing Publications in phonotypy are already to a subsidiary position; so that they may abroad in considerable numbers, and a be regarded as containing no learning in large part of the New Testament has been themselves, and as being the commence- printed in the Phonetic characters on the ment, and not the end of education, as it same plan, while the sale of the periodiis with so many.

cals testifies that there are both purchasers A short time ago, it was stated in the and readers. public papers, that an interesting attempt If the inconsistencies of the present to teach a class of unlettered adults to orthography are as glaring, and the adread by means of the new system of pho- vantages of the proposed system are as notypy was made by Mr. Benn Pitman, great as have been represented, the cause in connexion with the City of Westmin- of phonotypy is worth helping. It is ster Temperance Society. The class con- calculated, indeed, greatly to influence sisted of about forty, thirty of whom were the education of the million of children unable to read. After receiving fifteen who, in Great Britain and the United hours' instruction, those members of the States, annually appear on the stage of class who, previously to its commence- life, and for whom knowledge must be ment, could not read at all

, read simple provided. Shall these be furnished with language with tolerable fluency. At the the rudiments of education by wandereighteenth lesson, an examination took ing and tedious path-shall they grapple place, when the members of the class with false and contradictory notions, or went through the elementary sounds rapidly proceed over a plain and conand articulations of language, forming the sistent course? There are tens of thou

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sands, who, if the present system is per- | reign, the God of Zion. “ Come unto severed in, will never learn to read; me, all ye that labour and are heavy while if the facilities now descanted on laden; and I will give you rest.” “Inare afforded, they will delight to avail cline your ear, and hear, and your soul themselves of them. Only let the pho- shall live; and I will make an everlastnetic schoolmaster proceed to enlighten ing covenant with you, even the sure their minds, and it will not be the fault mercies of David." « The Spirit of of the system, if there is a man or woman Jehovah is upon me, because he hath in the country who cannot read. The anointed me to preach good tidings unto causes of civilization and of religion, de- the meek; he hath sent me to bind up mand that this subject should have a fair the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty and candid examination by all, and the to the captives, and the opening of the result must be beneficial. With ourselves prison to them that are bound.” “I it lies, to give to all some of that treasure will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul of knowledge which we enjoy, and which, shall be joyful in my God; for he hath while it blesses them, will but augment clothed me with garments of salvation, he our own possessions.


hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and a bride adorneth herself with jewels.”

Every messenger of good news is, of

course, desirable and lovely in the eyes Christ, in publishing the gospel to of those who are deeply interested; and mankind, appears invested with supreme a part of that lustre, belonging to the amiableness and beauty. No attribute tidings themselves, is, by a natural assowhich forms, no action which becomes, ciation, diffused around him by whom the perfect character, is wanting in him. they are borne ; especially because he is With all things in his hands, with all regarded as voluntarily announcing good excellence and enjoyment in his mind, to us, and as rejoicing in our joy. How he pitied us, miserable worms of the glorious, how lovely, then, does Christ dust; descended from heaven, became appear, when coming with all the inheman, lived, and died, and rose again, rent splendour and beauty of his characthat we might live for ever. With his ter, and the transcendent dignity of his own voice he proclaimed the very things station, to proclaim to us tidings infiwhich he has done and suffered, and the nitely desirable, of good infinitely necesinfinite blessings which in this manner sary and infinitely great! Men to him he has purchased for mankind. There were wholly unnecessary. Had all their is now, he cries, “glory to God in the millions been blotted out of the kingdom highest,” while there is peace on earth, of God, they would not even have left and good-will towards men.' In this a blank in the creation. With a word he ruined world, so long enveloped in dark- could have formed, of the stones of the ness, so long deformed by sin, so long street, other millions, wiser, better, and wasted by misery, where guilt, and sor- happier; more dutiful, and more desirrow, and suffering have spread distress able. How divinely amiable does he without control, and mourning without appear, when the tidings which he brings hope ; where war and oppression have are tidings of his own arduous labours on ravaged without, and remorse and despair our behalf, and of his own unexampled consumed within; where Satan has “ex- sufferings ; labours and sufferings, withalted his throne above the stars of God," out which good tidings could never have while its sottish millions have bent before reached us, and real good never been him in religious worship; in this ruined found in this miserable world! How world, where, since the apostasy, real divinely amiable does he appear, when, good was never found, and where tidings notwithstanding the apostasy and guilt of such good were never proclaimed ; of the race of Adam, he came, of his even here, I announce the tidings of ex own accord, to publish these tidings of piated sin, a pardoning God, a renewing immortal good to rebels and enemies ; Spirit, an opening heaven, and a dawn- and, while proclaiming them, “rejoiced ing immortality. Here peace anew shall in the habitable parts of the earth,” and lift her olive branch over mankind. Here found “his delights with the sons of salvation from sin and woe shall anew be found; and here God shall dwell and What, then, must be the guilt, what


the debasement, of those who are re- of that happy world has been already gardless of the glorious declarations, hos- renewed over your repentance.

The tile to the benevolent designs, and insen- Spirit of truth conducts you daily onward sensible to the perfect character of this in your journey through life, and in your Divine herald ! How blind, and deaf, way towards your final home. Death, and stupid must they be to all that is your last enemy, is to you deprived of its beautiful, engaging, and lovely! How strength and sting, and the grave despoiled grovelling must be their moral taste! of its victory. Your bodies will soon be How wonderful their neglect of their own "sown" in the "corruption, weakness, well-being! How evidently is their in- and dishonour," of your present perishgratitude “as the sin of witchcraft, able nature, to be "raised in the “inand their stubbornness as iniquity and corruption, power, and glory" of immoridolatry!" Were these tidings to be tality. Your souls, cleansed from every proclaimed in hell itself, one can scarcely sin, and stain, and weakness, this Divine fail to imagine, that all the malice, im- Messenger will present before the throne piety, and blasphemy in that dreary of his Father, "without spot, or wrinkle, world would be suspended, that fiends or any such thing," to be acquitted, apwould cease to conflict with fiends, that proved, and blessed. In the world of sorrow would dry the stream of never- light, and peace, and joy, enlarged with ending tears, that remorse would reverse knowledge, and refined with evangelical and blunt his stings, that despair would virtue, he will unite you to "the general lift up

his pale front with a commencing assembly of the first-born,” and “to the smile, that the prisoners of wrath (then innumerable company of angels;" will “prisoners of hope”) would shake their make you “sons, and priests, and kings -chains with transport, and that all the to God,” and cause you to “ live and gloomy caverns would echo to the sounds reign with him for ever and ever." of gratitude and joy. In our own world, “All things" will then be “ yours;" you once equally hopeless, these tidings are will be Christ's, and Christ” will be actually proclaimed. What must be the “God's.” Anticipate, and by anticipaspirit of those who refuse to hear ! tion enjoy to the full, this divine assem

But, oh, ye followers of the Divine blage of blessings; they are your birthand compassionate Saviour, infinitely right. But, while you enjoy them, deeply different is the wisdom displayed by you! pity and fervently pray for your foolish, When this Divine Messenger proclaims guilty, and miserable companions. to you peace and salvation; when he Dwight. informs you that he has died, that you may

when he demands of you cordially to embrace his atonement, and accept his intercession; you cheerfully hear, believe, and obey. Conscious of How much good may be done by visits! your own guilty character and ruined It would be well to make a rule that they condition, you have yielded yourself to should be useful, even if they were made him with all the heart, in the humble, only for politeness or pleasure: it is easy amiable, and penitent exercise of faith to take the occasion of dropping a word and love, and finally chosen him as your

or two which may tend to edification. own Saviour. On your minds his image This rule may be observed in the visits is instamped; in your life his beauty we receive, as well as those we make. shines with real, though feeble, radiance; Peter Martyr, having passed many days in your character his loveliness is begun; in the house of Bucer, declared that, durin your souls his immortality is formed. ing the whole time, he had not risen from On you his Father smiles, a forgiving the table without having learned someGod. On you his Spirit descends, with thing. his sanctifying and dove-like influence. To you his word unfolds all his promises, his daily favour, his everlasting love. To you hell is barred, and all its seducing and destroying inhabitants confined in EXCELLENCE is providentially placed chains. Heaven for you has already beyond the reach of indolence, that sucopened its "everlasting doors ;” and cess may be the reward of industry, and "the King of glory" has “entered in, that idleness may be punished with obto “prepare a place for you.” The joy scurity and disgrace.---Cowper.

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streets; and to crown all, with the waves DUBLIN AND ITS ENVİRONS.

of the Irish sea rolling almost up to the Every visitor to the "Emerald Isle" quays, girt in on the north by the huge is struck with the admirable taste evinced Hill of Howth, and curving beautifully by the founders of its capital, in selecting towards the south, as far as Dalkey the spot on which it stands as the site of Island, itself overshadowed by the cliffs a great city. Of the three metropolises overhanging Killiney Bay-Dublin fearof the United Kingdom, Dublin unques- lessly challenges comparison with any tionably bears the palm for beauty of of our great cities, both for its natural and situation, and for the judicious grouping artificial attractions. of its chief objects of interest. With a

Its principal streets are Sackvillenoble background of mountains, which street, one of the finest in Europe may be seen from some of the streets of for width, with the Nelson column standthe city; with the Liffey running direct ing in the midst of it, not far from the through the heart of it, dividing the finest Post-office, and terminating with the promenades of the place; the quays, Lying-in Hospital and the Rotunda. on which are found some of the noblest This latter edifice is appropriated to pub public buildings; while over the river lic meetings and exhibitions; and here, are thrown a succession of elegant and until the Repeal movement lately led ornamental bridges, five of them of them to Conciliation Hall, the Irish stone; with its beautiful environs of orators made some of their most elovaried scenery, so retired and rural, that quent displays. At a short distance from it is difficult to conceive of being within this building are the Linen Hall, King's a few minutes' walk of bustling and noisy | Inns, the House of Industry, and the

August, 1847.

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hospitals attached to it; the Richmond | the best view in the city. From the Bridewell and Penitentiary, and other King's-bridge, a very handsome strucreformatory places. College-green is dig- ture, not far from the entrance to the nified by the most splendid edifice in Phoenix-park, erected in commemoration Dublin, the Bank of Ireland; which was of the visit of George iv. to Ireland, originally erected for the meeting of the up to Carlisle-bridge, which terminates Irish parliament, previous to the Union. Sackville-street, there is a succession of It is well worthy the minute inspection fine buildings, gracing the noblest proof every one who makes any pretension menade in the United Kingdom. The to architectural taste, and cannot fail to sides of the river, for nearly the whole excite the greatest admiration, by its length from the King's-bridge, are cased beauty and elegance.

with stone, and capped with a fine graOpposite to the bank is Trinity Col- nite parapet, about three feet high. At lege, the seat of the only university of the entrance of the Military-road, and which Ireland can boast. On the right close to Bloody-bridge, an old structure, and left of the quadrangle, as soon as the that has figured in some of the sad transentrance gate is passed, are the Examina- actions of past troublous times, as its tion Hall and the chapel; and beyond name imports, is a handsome Gothic them, on the southern side, is the magni- gateway. On the other side is the very ficent library belonging to the college, extensive range of the royal barracks; containing 150,000 volumes. I spent a and behind them rises the stunted tower delightful morning in strolling through of the Bluecoat-school; further on, on this building, in company with a learned the southern quay, may be seen the friend, a minister in Dublin ; and espe- domicile of the White Quakers, with cially, in looking at some of its rare huge unadorned pillars in front of the manuscripts. The principal one, how- building, which had been a hotel. Beyond ever, that known to scholars as the this, on the opposite quay, is a beautiful “Codex Montfortianus,” which has ac Roman Catholic church, dedicated to quired a great deal of celebrity, because some saint, whose name I forget; and it is considered to be the only manuscript near to that the “ Four Courts,

a noble containing the long-contested passage edifice, and one of the principal “lions” in 1 John v. 7, 8, was not in the case at of Dublin. At the time of my visit to it, the time of my visit. The fellows of this it was thronged with barristers, the great college have a privilege, which is not majority of whom seemed to have nogranted to either of the English univer- thing to do, except to exercise their wit sities, that of retaining their fellowships on every acquaintance they met. On after marriage. This has been awarded the seaward side of Carlisle-bridge lay to them by the permission of our present the shipping; and at a short distance queen, who has also conferred upon this from it stands the Custom-house, a very institution sundry other advantages.

handsome building, with a lofty dome, Opposite to this collegiate pile is Dame- surmounted by a figure of Hope leaning street, along which the visitor passes to on her anchor. It was a very different the castle, a heavy-looking range of scene that presented itself here from that buildings, occupying the sides of two which strikes the visitor to the Customquadrangles. This place is used on state house in London or Liverpool. It seemed occasions, and is, in fact, the Whitehall of as if clerks and porters had little or Dublin, containing the offices of the nothing to do; and one felt a little different governmental departments. The startled with the ominous stillness of Birmingham tower is the most ancient such a place. looking part of the structure. Not far The squares in Dublin are not many; from this is the Royal Exchange, a hand- Merrion, Rutland, Mountjoy, Fitzwilliam, some and imposing building. South- and St. Stephen's-green, are the prinward and westward of the exchange are cipal. The latter is nearly a mile in the two cathedrals of St. Patrick and extent. There are some handsome garChristchurch, neither of them at all dens : those near Leinster House, now remarkable for beauty or grandeur, and occupied by the Royal Dublin Society in both situated in or near the “Liberties Kildare-street; the grounds of Trinity of Dublin,” where filth and squalid College; the Botanic Garden of the felwretchedness abound to a most fearful lows, south-east of the city; the Botanic extent. Turning northwards, and arriv- Garden at Glasnevin, two miles from ing at the quays, there is obtained by far Dublin-a beautiful spot, with a ceme

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