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and orchards, and gardens of flowering we had lodged with the people of Hawand fruit trees, it fully sustained the con- árah during the preceding night, he beceptions which he had previously formed gan to curse them, and declared that they of its beauty and loveliness. The Jew, were fit for every evil deed, being known Mordecai, who had hitherto been much throughout the country as

" sellers of disappointed with the land of his fathers, water." and who was always contrasting its naked Our host was much disappointed to asperities with the grandeur and fertility find that we had strong doubts about the of Western India, was forced to admit propriety of ranking the Bene-Israel of that this part of the country, at least, Bombay among the Samaritans. That seemed to flow with milk and honey. we might make no mistake in forming a

Nábulus lies principally along the judgment of them, he would repeat, he eastern base of Gerizim. We were im said, the articles of the Samaritan creed, patient to enter it, from our desire to find which he did in the following terms: out the remnant of its oldest inhabitants, 1. Allah Wahid-God is one. the Samaritans, with whom, if possible, 2. Músá Nabíyah-Moses is the prowe were anxious to take up our abode, phet. that we might learn as much as possible 3. Et-Toráh hí el-Kutáb—The law is from them of their creed and condition. the book. We asked for them at the gate, first by 4. Karízím el-Kiblah-Gerizim is the the name of the Samaratání; but by this Kiblab. cognomen they were unknown by the 5. Yakún yom el-keiámat wa ed-deinArabs, to whom we addressed our in- únat-There will be a day of resurrection quiry. That of the Hebrew Shomeronim and judgment. was equally unintelligible. As soon as He also repeated some Arabic verses, I stumbled upon the Sámarah, several in which this creed was given at greater voices exclaimed, “Yes, the Sámarah! length, but without any addition to its We shall soon show you where they substantial meaning. When we said that live.” A young man politely volunteered the Bene-Israel did not view Gerizim as to be our guide to their abodes. Con- a Kiblah, he said, "Then, most assuredly, ducting us through the bazaar, he directed they are not Samaritans." This concesour attention to a venerable native trudg- sion, however, he made only to ourselves. ing along, and distinguished by a white To some of the members of his flock, turban and nearly as white a beard, who had begun to collect around us, he whom he introduced to us as their priest. said, “These gentlemen have brought me This proved to be the very person of tidings of the Samaritans of Bombay.” whom we were in search. “I am, in We felt much interested in the avowal deed,” he said, after receiving our saluta- of the doctrine of the resurrection by the tions," the priest of the Samaritans, Samaritans. When I asked the priest, Salamah Ibn Tobíah, the veritable cor- in what passage of the Law he found respondent of the learned Frenchman, this important tenet, he quoted the verse, the Baron de Sacy. Whence do you “See now that I, even I, am He, and come?"

“From Hind, from Bombay.” there is no god with me: I kill, and I “ Have you brought a letter from the make alive," with a great air of confidSamaritans there?” “I have brought," ence in the correctness of his interpretaI said, in reply, "a communication from tion, and asked us, you

think that the Bene-Israel of Bombay, whom you men are to remain in their graves after suppose to be Samaritans."

« This," they are made alive again?” In answer to a cried he, “is what we have long wanted. question which we afterwards put to him, Come along to my dwelling.” Leading he supplemented his creed, by declaring the way through the narrow streets, he his belief in the existence of Satan, as a conducted us to a small conglomeration malignant and injurious spirit having acof houses on the north-western part of cess to the souls of men, to tempt and the town, and close on the gardens lying allure. When we asked him to point along the base of Gerizim; and, after out the authority in the Pentateuch, the passing through a darkish vault, we standard of his faith, for this doctrine, he ascended a staircase, which led to his said, “The Nábásh which addressed Eve residence directly over the synagogue. was evidently more than a serpent. It “This is your own house,” were the was Satan who spoke within that anisimple terms in which he welcomed us to mal.” True,"we said; “but, have we its hospitalities. When we told him that no more direct proof for the personality

" Do

ye

of Satan in the books of Moses?” “Verily, / particularly object to its use. We still we have,” he replied with great emphasis; expect a great instructor and guide, whom “look at these texts : Certain men, the we call Hathab, to appear in the world." children of Belial, are gone out from The conversation, on this avowal, of among you;', 'Beware that there be not the Samaritans, proceeded as follows: a thought in thy heart of Belial.””

We W. Upon what passage of the law do could not but be much struck with his you found this hope? application of these passages of holy writ. Priest. Upon the words of Moses, With all due deference to Gesenius and The Lord thy God will, from the midst others, I am more than inclined to be of thy brethren, raise up a Prophet, like lieve, that the translators who rendered unto me; unto him shall hearken." Belial as a proper name, have better au W. What do you think of the passage, thority for so doing, than those who And I will put enmity between thee and render it abstractedly, “worthlessness," the woman, and between thy seed and evil,” and so forth. It remains to be her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and proved, that it is either a late or New thou shalt bruise his heel ?" Does this apTestament usage merely, which sets it ply to the Messiah? forth in a personal sense.

Priest's Son. It may apply to the Among the articles which the priest Messiah, and it may not apply to the first showed to us was a copy of the Messiah. Samaritan Pentateuch, tolerably neatly Priest. It does not apply to the written on paper. At my request he Messiah. explained to me the powers of the Sa W. What do you think of the passage, maritan letters, and slowly read a portion “The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, of Genesis. I endeavoured to mark his nor a lawgiver from between his feet, method of pronunciation, which, of course, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall differed much from that of the Jews, as the gathering of the people be?" To the Samaritans have never received the whom does this apply? Masoretic points, by which the Jews re Priest. Don't say Shiloh, but Shilah. gulate their reading. The notes which I W. Take the word in either form made on this occasion I elsewhere insert. you please. When we told him that the Samaritan Priest. Shalah is equivalent to ShaPentateuch had been printed in England, lamah, (Solomon) [the peaceful one.] he said, " I know that,” and then brought W. How do you make the passage us a few leaves, and afterwards the body, agree with the interpretation ? of the first volume of Walton's Polyglott, Priest. The sceptre did not depart in which it is contained.

from Judah till the days of Solomon, till It was now full time for breakfast, and the days of his son Rehoboam, as you the kind priest who had his table spread | may see even from those unworthy histobefore us, took care that we should do rical books that are in the hands of the justice to all the good things which he Jews. had provided for our refreshment. To W. But how do you make out that do us honour, he produced a considerable the gathering of the nations was to quantity of silver plate, which had been Solomon ? in the family for several generations. He Priest. Why, do you not know that also introduced us to his son, a handsome his kingdom extended from El-'Arish to and agreeable person, about thirty years Damascus, and from the Great Sea to of age. Into the hands of this young man Euphrates? The queen of Sheba came we put a copy of the Arabic New Testa- to visit him, and brought him presents ment; and he read with us the fourth from a far country. He held the birds chapter of John's Gospel, in which is con of the air and the beasts of the field in tained the interesting and affecting nar- subjection. Joseph, and not Judah, has rative of our Lord's interview with the been, and will be, the deliverer. “ From woman of Samaria at Jacob's Well, in our thence is the Shepherd, the stone of immediate neighbourhood. I made the Israel." perusal of this portion of the Divine word The fable with which the priest conthe occasion of examining both father cluded his notice of Solomon, is common and son as to the views and expectations to the Jews, the Mohammedans, and the of the present Samaritans relative to a Samaritans. Messiah. “ The Messiah," they said, We all felt much interested in this “ is not one of our terms; but we do not conversation; and I defended the Christ

THE CHESTNUT-TREE.

ology of the passage as I best could. Il to have been considered sacred, as the was quite convinced, from the keenness oak was formerly in Britain. This diswith which my views were impugned, tinction is in most countries awarded to that the prophecy respecting Shiloh is a the most magnificent species of tree which very sore one in the eyes of the Samari- it produces. In Palestine, for instance, tans, and that they feel that their inter- where the plane does not appear to have pretation of it is a very unnatural one. been very common, the tereberith seems

to have possessed pre-eminence. No one is ignorant of the celebrated story of Xerxes arresting the march of his grand

army before a noble plane-tree in Lydia, The chestnut-tree is named only thrice that he might render honour to it, and in the Scriptures. It occurs among the adorn its boughs with golden chains, “speckled rods,” which Jacob placed in bracelets, and other rich ornaments; an the watering-troughs before the sheep, action misunderstood and egregiously misGen. xxx. 37. Its grandeur is indicated represented by Ælian. in Ezek. xxxi. 8; as well as in Eccles. The oriental plane endures our own xxiv. 14. It is noted for its magnificence, climate well, and grows to a fine tree; shooting its high boughs aloft. This de- but not to the enormous size which it scription agrees well with the plane-tree, sometimes attains in the east. Several which is adopted by all the ancient grand old plane-trees have been mentranslators, to which the balance of cri- tioned. Pausanias notices a noble plane tical opinion inclines, and which actually in Arcadia, the planting of which is grows in Palestine. The beech, the ascribed, by tradition, to Menelaus; so maple, and the chestnut, have been that, if this tradition were entitled to adopted, in different modern versions, as credit

, (and it claims little,) it must, representing the Hebrew armon; but when he wrote, although in a sound scarcely any one now doubts that it state, have been about one thousand means the plane-tree. It may be re three hundred years old. Pliny, in nomarked, that this tree is, in Genesis, asso- ticing this tree, mentions one in Lycia, ciated with others, the willow and the in the trunk of which had been gradually poplar, whose habits agree with it: they formed an immense cavern, eighty feet are all trees of the low grounds, and love in circumference. L. Mutianus, thrice to grow where the soil is rich and humid. consul and governor of the province, This is strikingly illustrated by the fact, with eighteen other persons, often dined that Mr. Russel expressly names the and supped commodiously within it. If plane, the willow, and the poplar, along nothing more were known of this L. with the ash, as trees which grow in the Mutianus, we should like him for the same situations near Aleppo.

pleasure, not unmingled with regret, In those situations which are favour- with which he records the satisfaction able to its growth, huge branches spread which he occasionally derived from hearout into all directions from the massive ing the rain patter on the leaves overtrunk, invested with broad, deeply di- head, while he and his company sat dry vided, and glossy green leaves. This and safe within : it was the music of body of rich foliage, joined to the smooth their feast. Caligula, also, had a tree of ness of the stem, and the symmetry of this sort at his villa near Velitræ, the the general growth, renders the plane- hollow of which accommodated fifteen tree one of the noblest objects in the persons at dinner, with a proper suite of vegetable kingdom. It has now, and had attendants. The emperor called it his also of old, the reputation of being the nest; and it is highly probable that his tree which most effectually excludes the friend Herod Agrippa may occasionally sun's beams in summer, and most readily have been one of the fifteen birds who admits them in winter; thus affording nestled there along with him. Modern the best shelter from the extremes of travellers also notice similar trees. La both seasons.

Roque and others mention the groves For this reason it was planted near of noble planes, which adorn the plain public buildings and palaces—a practice of Antioch; and the last-named traveller which the Greeks and Romans adopted; records a night's rest which he enjoyed and the former delighted to adorn with it under planes of great beauty in a valley their academic walks and places of public of Lebanon. That they are among the exercise. In the east, the plane seems principal trees in the plantations near

THE REFORMERS BEFORE THE

REFORMATION.

No. XXI.

Aleppo has already been observed, on the presidency to the emperor. But by the authority of Russel. Buckingham avoiding one difficulty, he fell into annames them among the trees which line other. On the one hand, it was never the Jabbok. Evelyn seems to ascribe the intended that the acts prior to the last introduction of the plane-tree into Eng- convocation should be invalidated; and on land to the great lord Bacon, who planted the other, it was not desirable that it some which were still flourishing at should be said that the emperor had preVerulam in 1706. This was, perhaps, sided in a session of an universal council. the first plantation of any note ; but it ap- Therefore, it was settled that this should pears from “Turner's Herbal," published not have the sacred character of those in 1551, that the tree was known and which had preceded it, most of the relicultivated in this country before the gious services with which those had comchancellor was born.---Kitto.

menced being omitted on this occasion.

Things being thus arranged by both parties, with extreme attention to the just claims of all, the session opened under the direction of Sigismund." The emperor was seated, with the altar in full

view, having on his right hand Charles de Of the three pontiffs between whom Malatesta, the agent of Gregory, and on the nations of Christendom had been his left the cardinal of Ragusa, one of his divided, and whom the council had re- legates. Some hymns were sung, then solved to reduce or to depose, one only two bulls of Gregory xii. were read. One had submitted, being conquered for the of these authorized the prelates and great most part by the fear of the punishment officers to recognise the assembly of Condue to his crimes. The downfal of John stance as a general council, when it should XXIII. removed an obstacle to the abdica- be again called together by him; the tion of Gregory xi. Perhaps this aged second gave to Malatesta full power to man, who was almost ninety years old, act and decide as he should judge most felt aware that he was too weak to resist suitable to his own interests and those that formidable assembly which had at of the Church. The bulls being read, the its disposal imperial and kingly power; messenger of Gregory arose, and said, “I, perhaps, also, on the borders of the grave, John, cardinal of Ragusa, by the authority he was willing, by a considerable, though of my so-called sovereign lord the pope, a tardy sacrifice to the peace of the as far as he is concerned in it, assemble world, to make expiation for the offences the sacred general council, and authorize and the miseries which his obstinacy had and confirm all that may be done in it occasioned, and after contesting before for the union and reformation of the the world with his rival, Benedict xul., church and for the extirpation of heresy," during eight years of pride and ambition, The archbishop of Milan next spoke, he allowed himself to think that he should and in the name of the council approved at least be his superior, in being first to this new convocation in these terms: humble himself before God,

“The principle and the mot

being the On June 16th, 1415, Charles Malatesta, chief point on all occasions, the holy lord of Rimini, captain-general and de- council of Constance, lawfully assembled puty of Gregory xil., entered Constance in the name of the Holy Ghost, and with a brilliant escort. A magnificent representing the Catholic church, (having reception was given to him, yet he was for its principle to do all that can be done not deputed to the council. Gregory for the union of the church, that the two did not acknowledge that assembly, not subjections, namely, that which acknowhaving himself summoned it, he addressed ledged John xxiii. as having been pope, his envoy to the emperor only. He and that which acknowledged Gregory made two conditions upon resigning his XII. as actually so, may be united together pontificate; he asked that the council under Jesus Christ, who is their Head,) should submit to be summoned in his will admit in all things this convocation name, and he forbade his deputy to be which has just been made, in the name present in it, unless the president were of him, who is called by those under his one of the cardinals who had been subject control, Gregory xii., as far as the busito him. The council accepted the first ness may concern him; and ordains that of these clauses, and rejected the second; these two subjections may be, and may at this time, only, they preferred offering continue united."

the popes.

The council being thus afresh assem the sentence. Gregory, after having rebled, the cardinal of Pisa celebrated the signed the tiara, appeared to be relieved mass, and all the ceremonies were per- from a considerable weight; in fact, the formed which were usual at the opening crown pressed more heavily on his conof each session; the emperor returned to science than on his brow. When he his accustomed seat, the cardinal de learned what had passed at Constance, he Viviers presided in the assembly, and the assembled his cardinals, his priests, and fourteenth session began.

household, and in their presence laying Several decrees having been read, by aside his mitre and pontifical ornaments, which the council forbade any one what he took an oath that he never would soever to proceed to the election of a new resume them. He was appointed carpope, unless acknowledged by it; it sus dinal bishop of Porto, and two years after pended at this time, all the customs, died at the age of ninety, at Recanati, in rights, and privileges authorized by for the marquisate of Ancona, where he was mer councils respecting the election of legate.

The council reserved for The Italian divines have taken advanitself the regulation of the time, form, tage of the concession which the council and place of this election, decided that it granted to Gregory, to nullify all the would not be dissolved till a pope should former proceedings, and especially the be elected, and entreated the emperor to acts of the fifth session, which established employ himself effectually in upholding the superiority of a general council over and defending it.

the pope. Such an attempt on their part The emperor declared that he should may be understood, but cannot be justiobey the will of the council, and he caused fied. an edict to be published, which threatened In order to invalidate the acts of the the severest penalties against whoever previous sessions, the council must have should attack the security of the council, declared them to be void, at the fourteenth or the liberty of electing the pope. The or some following session; and indeed next act was to ratify what Gregory had these ought only to have been reckoned, canonically done in those places which from the announcement of the new conwere really obedient to him, declaring, vocation. The contrary was done; the that, not on account of incapacity, but for sessions continued to be reckoned in the the promotion of public peace, Gregory same order as before, and eventually, all had been deprived by the twelfth session their acts were confirmed from the lips of the right of being again elected. The of another pope; and, to avoid all pretence council acknowledged his dignity as car- for doubt or equivocation, the clause " dinal, and confirmed the same to the six far as concerns Gregory XII.,” was required cardinals who had submitted to him. to be retained in the decree of that pontiff

Charles Malatesta, then, having risen, for the convocation of the council. harangued the assembly, and in alluding It does not appear that Gregory himto the name of Angelo, which belonged to self, after his abdication, regarded all the Gregory XII., he took for the text of his former proceedings as null,* or supposed, discourse these words from St. Luke, for instance, that, to render valid the “There was with the angel a multitude deposition of John xxII., it was needful of the heavenly host." Then, placing again to depose him. Doubtless, Gregory himself on a raised seat, prepared as if would allege what was due to himself, to for Gregory himself, he solemnly declared excuse his long-continued resistance; he that his master renounced the sovereign also desired, as far as they were in his pontificate, not being influenced by any power, to preserve unsullied the privileges other motive than the desire of procuring of his supreme dignity which his former peace and union to the church.

competitor had abandoned. When conThe council terminated its fourteenth quered, he knew how to derive honour session by the reading of a decree, which from his overthrow. His descent was summoned Pierre de Luna, called Bene- constrained, but it was his aim to make dict xu. to perform his promise of re it appear a voluntary act, and to cover a nouncing the pontificate within ten days, real necessity by an appearance of free under pain of being prosecuted, as a will. Balthasar Cossa was shamefully schismatic, incorrigible, void of faith, thrown down, and resigned his crown as and perjured: in case of his refusal, the a coward. Angelo Corrario yielded his council ordered him to be so prosecuted,

* See a curious letter by Gregory xii., quoted i and the emperor was required to execute Martin's Anecdotes, tome ii. p. 1646.

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