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The river Elbe, though thus maintain- | pointed, still prevails in the towns and ing a high and interesting position in the hamlets around; while many experimentancient history of our nation, possesses ally enjoy the hope of their fathers. few, if any attractions for the tourist. Its Many of the best seamen of northern entrance is indistinct, and hemmed in Europe come from this district, and are by dangerous sandbanks; its shores are trained from their youth at the port of low, and the habitations of its people not Cuxhaven. The stream of commerce discernible for some time after you are continually rushing past, from all parts within its waters. It is not till you have of the world; the number of pilots always sailed fifty or sixty miles up the river that required-to Hamburgh inland, and to you obtain a view of any objects worth the deep water seaward, together with regarding. Even then, there is nothing the difficulty and danger of the navigathat can for a moment bear a comparison tion between the Elbe and Heligoland with the Tay, or the Clyde, or the Thames. westward, and to the Eyder and Cattegut
Cuxhaven is a small town at the northward, makes this spot one of the mouth of the river, on its southern bank, best nurseries for a seafaring life in at which place all the ships bound up- Germany. wards call to obtain a pilot. It is a mere From Cuxhaven the north shore of the suburb of Ritzebuttel, a lordship belonging Elbe is scarcely visible, the river being to Hamburgh; and has a little harbour, six or eight miles wide at its mouth. In and some trade with the surrounding sailing up, Braunsbuttel, on the north country. The castle of Ritzebuttel, situ- shore, is the first place that attracts atated about a mile from the water side, is tention. It is a large fishing village, a high, square, red brick building, of poor and a great refuge for pilots. The river appearance, where a governor resides, now contracts its banks, and is here who is always one of the senators of about two miles wide. The roof of a Hamburgh. The place is much fre- farm-house may now and then be seen quented in the bathing season, by the behind the strong sea-wall, or perhaps a burghers of the city and the inhabitants village church spire, or an occasional of the neighbouring towns, and every clump of trees; but there is nothing species of gaiety and dissipation is carried worth remarking till you reach Gluck
stadt, which is a small fortress on the The stationary population of Ritze- north bank, belonging to his Danish buttel, and its dependencies, I found far majesty. It is a neat, compact little more respectable than the giddy multi- town, of great antiquity, surrounded with tude that visited them. Sedate, cautious, strong walls, and showing a rather imand industrious; generally in comfort- posing front towards the river. able circumstances, and many of them About fifteen or eighteen miles above devout in their religious character, I had Gluckstadt the town of Stadte is found, much pleasure in conversing with the laying a mile or two south of the river, few to whom I had access. They lived in the Hanoverian dominions. Opposite greatly secluded in their houses, and ap to Stadte there is a small guard-ship peared to take no part in the gaiety stationed, where every foreign vessel must around them. The deeply-ingrained be cleared before she proceeds farther. German self-respect, united with the ut- To prevent delay, the ship's papers are most attention to the duties of their creed, entrusted to the examining-officer coming admitted, as far as I could see, no laxity on board; they are then sent after the of morals. There were Bibles, and trea vessel to Altona or Hamburgh, where tises on Calvinistic theology, found in the dues are paid, at so much per ton for various houses. Indeed, the people all the ship, and an ad valorem duty on the about this province of East Anglia re cargo.
This forms a considerable branch minded me more of the serious and en of the revenue of king Ernest, who tried lightened peasantry of Scotland than a few years ago to double these dues, but those of any other part of Saxonyfailed. This impost is exacted, profesBremen, the neighbouring free city, about sedly to maintain the sovereignty of forty or fifty miles off, has preserved its Hanover over the navigation of the orthodoxy since the period of the Re- river; but Holstein claims it also; and formation to the present day; and, the matter is compromised, by all Danish doubtless, the influence of truth, in all ships being free from these dues. that regards reverence for the word of Between Stadte and Blankenese the God and attention to the means ap- banks gradually rise, the river again
widens; but it is nearly filled up with owners there is this difference between low woody islands, which can scarcely be them and the English, so also there is a distinguished from the main. Blankenese difference in the disposition of the visitors. is a beautiful village, about ten miles be- In England, the visitors of parks and low Hamburgh. It is chiefly the abode gardens, such as Richmond and Hampof the most expert salt-water fishermen ton-court, are, with difficulty, kept upon of the Elbe, whose immense boats, some the gravel walks, or from trampling on of them fifty or sixty feet long, with one the green grass, or from plucking the tall mast, and high-beaked prow, line flowers, or carving their names on the the beach. The cottages of the fisher- trees, or from injuring heedlessly, in a men are scattered without order up the variety of ways, the property around acclivity, which is here tolerably steep, them; while, in Germany, a multitude amidst trees and flowering shrubs, and from the middle ranks of life, or even have a very pretty appearance. All from the lowest purlieus of their cities, along the bank above, which rises to may be safely trusted amidst flowers and nearly one hundred and fifty feet, there fruits of all descriptions, in the most are some large and beautiful pleasure- valuable pleasure-grounds of the country. grounds and gardens, belonging to the Not a stem will be injured, nor a tree rich merchants of the adjacent imperial notched, nor a flower plucked, nor a leaf city. They are open to the public, and disarranged, nor a greensward trod on, hundreds of the citizens of Altona and nor a stone of gravel displaced, if they Hamburgh, unhappily, avail themselves can help it, through a summer day's of the day of sacred rest to parade sojourn, of all that multitude. There around this spot. From some of the seems to exist a kind of tacit agreement eminences in these grounds the prospects between the owners and their visitors, are enchanting. You can see far down that, on the one hand, every means shall the Elbe to the west, studded with vil- be used to please those who may visit lages and islands; and, directing the eye their grounds, and, on the other hand, towards the east, in a clear evening, you that such kindness shall be repaid with can discern the towers of Lunenburgh, every mark of decency and attention. forty miles distant.
There is something interesting in this There is a marked difference obsery- trait of German character. It appears able between the English and German to make property, or, at least, the encharacter, as to the privacy of the gar- joyment of it, change hands for the time dens of the gentry on the one hand, and being, and to place the pleasures of the the respect with which this kind of property rich in the possession of the poor, to be is treated by visitors on the other. In resumed by their owners, only when the England the grounds and gardens of the parties borrowing have neither inclination nobility and gentry are generally kept nor ability to make any further use of shut up from the public : their owners them. Such were the beautiful grounds would be almost as much astonished to and gardens of Blankenese. see half a dozen groups of persons, with
G. D. M. as many sporting children around each of them, parading their retired walks, without especial permission, as they would be to behold two or three African lions, A young man, of eighteen or twenty, a or a royal tiger or two from Bengal, student in a university, took a walk one amusing themselves beneath the oaks of day with a professor, who was commonly their ancestors. In Germany, on the called the students' friend, such was his contrary, scarcely a garden, or well-laid- kindness to the young men whom it was out pleasure-ground can be found, which his office to instruct. While they were is not open to all comers; yea, the owner walking together, and the professor seems to take pleasure in it only in ad was seeking to lead the conversation to ministering to the taste of the public, grave subjects, they saw a pair of old rather than in satisfying his own. He shoes lying in the path, which they supseems to regard his grounds as a mere posed to belong to a poor man who was trust for the amusement of the million, at work in the field close by, and who and to acquire their approbation is all he had nearly finished his day's work. The appears to care about, in placing his young student turned to the professor, seats, erecting huts, or arranging his saying, “Let us play the man a trick: plantations. As in the disposition of the we will hide his shoes, and conceal our
THE POOR SHOULD BE TREATED WITH
see no one.
selves behind those bushes, and watch to while an entire change of administration see bis perplexity when he cannot find had taken place. Pitt, having found them.” "My dear friend,” answered much difficulty in carrying into effect the professor, we must never amuse the union with Ireland, had made some ourselves at the expense of the poor. But promises to relieve the Roman Catholics you are rich, and you may give yourself from their remaining disabilities, or, ás a much greater pleasure by means of this it was termed, to grant " Catholic emaripoor man,
Put a dollar into each shoe, cipation, an unhappy term, involving a and then we will hide ourselves.”. The concession which never ought to be student did so, and then placed himself made to the professors of the Romish with the professor behind the bushes faith; for it is meant by them to estaclose by, through which they could easily blish the claim that theirs is the univerwatch the labourer, and see whatever sal faith-whereas it is notorious, that, wonder or joy he might express. The without reference to Protestants, there is poor man had soon finished his work, a far greater number of nominal Chrisand came across the field to the path tians who refuse to admit the supremacy where he had left his coat and shoes. of the pope in his claims to be lord over While he put on his coat, he slipped one God's heritage. foot into one of his shoes; but feeling On proceeding with his measures resomething hard, he stooped down, and sulting from the union, Pitt found himfound the dollar. Astonishment and self stopped, by the decided refusal of wonder was seen upon his countenance; the king. George . was firmly set he gazed upon the dollar, turned it round, against the "emancipation," considering and looked again and again; then he that it was contrary to the oath taken at looked round him on all sides, but could his coronation to maintain the Protestant
Now he put the money in religion unaltered. Pitt urged that no his pocket, and proceeded to put on the injury thereto would ensue, and that such other shoe; but how great was his aston a measure was necessary to tranquillize ishment when he found the other dollar. Ireland. The king being firm against His feelings overcame him; he fell upon any concessions, Pitt resigned early in his knees, looked up to heaven, and ut- February, thus concluding his memorable tered aloud a fervent thanksgiving, in administration of seventeen years, during which he spoke of his wife sick and help- which it had fallen to his lot to be conless, and his children without bread, cerned with events more important perwhom this timely bounty from some un haps than those of any like period in the known hand would save from perishing. history of the world. It was, however, The young man stood there deeply af- evident that Pitt's measures were to bé fected, and tears filled his eyes. “Now,” pursued, for the successor appointed in said the professor, “are you not much his place was Addington, the speaker of better pleased than if you had played the House of Commons, a personal friend your intended trick ?” “Oh, dearest sir,' of Pitt, afterwards viscount Sidmouth, a answered the youth, "you have taught man of respectable character, but of me a lesson now that I will never forget. moderate abilities. In the midst of these I feel now the truth of the wo which changes the king was again in a state of I never before understood, 'It is better mental aberration, apparently brought on to give than to receive.' We should by his anxiety about the emancipation never approach the poor but with the question ; but in a few days the paroxysm wish to do them good. The Christian passed away, before any public arrangeCitizen.
ments for a regency were necessary. During this interval the financial arrange
ments for the year were announced, A TREATY was signed at Petersburgh, including a loan of twenty-five millions ; on June 17th, by lord St. Helen's, in the sinking fund being considered as a which some explanations were given of sure mode of relief. These had previthe laws of blockade and neutral trade. ously been brought forward by Pitt. Thus the northern confederacy was at The new ministry was in office in the once dissolved by the death of Paul and middle of March. Directly after Addingthe success of Nelson at Copenhagen ; ton's appointment, it was reported that and the mighty schemes Buonaparte he was inclined to enter into negotiations had formed, including an overland expe
It has indeed been stated dition to India, were done away. Mean- that the resignation of Pitt was intended
to facilitate the making peace, by the | Belliard, the commander there, agreed substitution of one acting upon his prin to surrender, on condition that the French ciples, but not so committed as himself with him, 13,000 in number, should be to the continuance of the war. Whether conveyed to France. The English army this was the case, and the emancipation was soon after joined by Baird, from question was merely used as a pretext, India, by the Red Sea, with an army of is not clear ;-in this, as in many other about 5,000 men, who much surprised matters, there may have been a mixture the other forces by the extent and magof motives. It was evident that Pitt nificence of the equipments of an Indian was not in opposition to the new ministry, army. or to their negotiations for peace with On Hutchinson's returning to AlexanFrance.
dria, the French there, after some attempt Many of those detained in prison under at bravado, agreed, also, to evacuate the suspension of the Habeas Corpus act Egypt. Those who survived to return were now discharged, but martial law exceeded, in the whole, 24,000; thus was continued in Ireland. The desires proving that the French in Egypt had of the British Government for peace were been overcome by an inferior force. It forwarded by the altered state of affairs is worth noting, that the French generals in the north, which alone was enough to agreed to surrender many antiquities and incline Buonaparte to a short interval of articles of scientific research ; but their rest. This was also furthered by the savans threatening to destroy these rather successes of the British army in Egypt, than give them up, the British comto which country, the troops, so long mander, desirous they should not be lost beating about in the Mediterranean, had to the world, consented to their being now proceeded, under the command of retained—a striking contrast to the pracsir Ralph Abercromby. This force was tice of late constantly pursued by the the best yet sent out from England, and French invading armies. One memoconsiderable improvements had been rable article, however, was taken possesmade in the discipline of the soldiers, sion of by the British, as a trophy of the and especially in the training of the campaign-it was the sarcophagus in officers. The landing was well managed, which the body of Alexander the Great though in the face of the enemy; and had been originally deposited, though the army, in the whole about 15,000 long since removed. This interesting men, advanced towards Alexandria. A relic of antiquity is now in the British severe but partial action was fought on Museum. The final result of the Egyptian March 13th, and if followed up, the expedition was not known in England English might have entered Alexandria ; till some time after ; but the successful but the general was cautious, for as yet progress had much influence in promoting the English land forces had been usually peace. Twice did Buonaparte send forth unsuccessful in this war.
Gantheaume and a squadron, with orders The French general, Menou, now to throw succours into Alexandria, at arrived with his main body from Cairo, any hazard; but each time the French and attacked the British on the 21st. The admiral avoided the result of an action, contest was severe, but the French were when he found he could not otherwise thoroughly beaten ; one body, named the communicate with the besieged force. Invincibles, was almost wholly cut off. The important results to Britain from the The forces in the battle were about 10,000 successes in Egypt may be given in the on each side; but the French were words of Alison :-“Nothing but the reveterans of the army of Italy, and nearly collection of this decisive trial of strength all concentrated against one part of their could have supported the British nation opponents, who were as yet untried, or through the arduous contest which awaited unsuccessful in the field. Abercromby them on the renewal of the war, and was mortally wounded, and died in a induced them to remain firm and unfew days after. The command then de- broken amidst the successive prostration volved upon general Hutchinson, who of every continental power, till the dawn proceeded with steadiness and great cau. of hope began over the summit of the tion. He was now joined by a Turkish Pyrenees, and the eastern sun was redforce, and leaving a part of his army dened by the conflagration of Moscow. before Alexandria, he moved towards The continental neighbours, accustomed Cairo, taking Rosetta and some other to the shock of vast armies, and to regard places while on the way. On June 27th, the English only as a naval power,
attached little importance to the contest | tober 1st, when the London public disof such inconsiderable bodies on a distant played joy in no measured degree. It shore; but the prophetic eye of Napoleon was not less in Paris. The terms were at once discerned the magnitude of its advantageous to France, as they not consequences, and he received the intel- only gave Buonaparte an opportunity to ligence of the disaster at Alexandria strengthen himself, but in several repects with a degree of anguish equalled only to weaken his enemies. His promptness by that experienced from the shock of was shown by his sending a large fleet Trafalgar. He never allowed those and army to the West Indies for rearound him to know the extent to which covering St. Domingo from the negroes, he was afflicted by this reverse. To one, who then possessed it, under the governhowever, he said, “My projects, alike ment of one of their number, Toussaint with my dreams, have been destroyed by l'Overture. The treaty of peace was England.” He had indeed dreamed finally signed at Amiens, by lord Cornforgetful that he was only an instrument wallis, on March 27th, 1802, after proin the hand of the Most High; and tracted negotiations. By it England though repeatedly shown that his power consented to restore all her colonial was limited by the Divine permission, conquests—Guadaloupe, Martinique, St. he proudly persisted in his arrogance. Lucia, St. Eustatia, Surinam, the Cape
In the Mediterranean, sir James Sau- of Good Hope, Pondicherry, Minorca, marez attacked a French squadron at and Elba. The only concessions from Algesiras in July, but only a part of his France were, that her forces should be ships could get into action, and he had withdrawn from Portugal and Naples, to retire, leaving a ship of the line to and some compensation made to the surrender. But the enemy, having been prince of Orange. Malta was to be rejoined by a Spanish squadron, sailed stored to the knights, under the guaranfrom Cadiz in a few days. The British tee of some neutral power, afterwards commander followed, though with only intended to be the king of Naples. half the force of his opponents. A desul This was a peace, of which, as Sheritory action followed, in which two Spa- dan said, every one was glad, but no nish ships, of 112 guns each, took fire one proud.” So far as such humiliation and blew up, and another ship of the goes it cannot be objected to—and peace, Jine was taken.
under any circumstances, is preferable France now stirred up Spain to invade to war. It was, however, but too appaPortugal. England was unable to aid rent, that this could not be a lasting her ally, and the latter submitted to a peace; and that while Buonaparte's disadvantageous peace—but this was not rapacity was notorious, he would be the enough for Buonaparte. He caused a great gainer, by repossessing the French body of his troops to enter Portugal, and colonies, and having an interval to conreluctantly allowed peace to be pur- solidate and increase his strength; but it chased. Prussia was offered Hanover, gave a great moral lesson; the result but honourably declined the proposal. showed the impossibility of satisfying The preparations for an invasion of Eng- or keeping quiet, oneland were now made on a very large
" Who enlargeth his desire as hell, scale, all along the Dutch and French And is as death, and cannot be satisfied, coast, Boulogne being the chief place of But gathereth unto him all nations,
And heapeth unto him all people." rendezvous. Nelson was put in command, to attack the flotilla in that port. It also was now evident that a great He made the attempt, though not heartily political as well as a moral mistake had approving the measure; but the French been made by Britain, in joining the vessels were chained to the shore, and to unprincipled efforts and designs of the each other, and surrounded by strong first coalition, instead of contending only netting, which prevented the entrance of for her own integrity, with means strictly the assailants, and the enterprise failed. lawful, on Scripture principles. Still the
By this time negotiations for peace remarks of Alison appear to be just;were nearly completed. They were con- they are to this effect: “Such was the ducted in London through a French termination of the first period of the war, agent, named Otto, who was there osten- and such the terms on which Great Brisibly to negotiate an exchange of pri- tain obtained a temporary respite from soners, and begun in March, but the its perils and expenses.
The governpreliminaries were not signed until Oc ment of the first consul, compared to