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any of the revolutionary ones which had | dual, who squanders in the profusion of preceded it, was stable and regular. It a few years the savings of past centuries, seems indisputable that it was the duty and the provision of unborn generations, of government, if it could be done with the government of England threw a out dishonour, to bring to a conclusion a fleeting lustre over its warlike adminiscontest, of which the burdens were cer- tration, by trenching deep on the capital tain and immediate, and the advantages of the nation, and creating burdens little remote, if not illusory, and put the sin- thought of at the time, when the vast cerity of the first consul's professions of expenditure was going forward, but grievmoderation to such a test as might re- ously felt in subsequent years, when the lieve them of all responsibility, in the excitement of the moment had passed event of their being obliged, at a subse- away, and the bitter consequences of the quent period, to renew the contest. debt which had been contracted remained. England lost none of her means of de- But this was not all. England, during fence during the intermission of hostili- those eventful years, drank deep at the ties, and she avoided the heavy respon- fountain of paper currency, and derived sibility which otherwise would have lain a feverish and unnatural strength from upon her to the latest generation, of that perilous but intoxicating draught." having obstinately continued the war, when peace was in her power, and compelled Napoleon, although otherwise Many are discouraged from studying inclined, to continue a contest which the Scriptures, because, as they say, their ultimately brought such unparalleled memories are so treacherous and unfaithcalamities on the civilized world." ful, they can retain nothing. More pains
During this memorable war, from will supply this defect. Memory is the 1791 to 1802, the trade of Great Britain soul's steward; and if thou findest it had prodigiously increased : its imports unfaithful, call it the oftener to account. were one-half more, its exports were A vessel set under the fall of a spring, doubled. Notwithstanding the constant cannot leak faster than it is supplied. A demands of the navy, the shipping and constant dropping of this heavenly docmerchant seamen had increased consider- trine into the memory will so keep it, that, ably. The navy had 135,000 seamen, though it be leaky, yet it never shall be while the merchant service employed empty. If Scripture truths do not enrich 121,000. The army was 197,000, exclu- the memory, yet they may purify the sive of 78,000 militia, 31,000 fencibles, heart. We must not measure the benefit and many thousand volunteers. The we receive from the word according to annual national expenditure had in- what of it remains, but according to creased from sixteen to sixty-nine mil- what effect it leaves behind. Lightning, lions of pounds. Land was much in- you know, than which nothing sooner creased in value, and the profits of com vanisheth away, often breaks and melts merce-so that those classes could well the hardest and most firm bodies in its afford their proportion of the public bur- sudden passage. Such is the irresistible dens; but the agricultural labourer, as force of the word : the Spirit often darts we have seen, had been defrauded of his it through us—it seems like a flash and due increase, and the rise of prices pressed gone, and yet it may break and melt heavily upon him and on the fundholder, down our hard hearts before it, when it as well as on all persons of fixed and small leaves no impression at all upon our income. The national debt was aug- memories. I have heard of one, who, mented from two hundred and forty- returning from an affecting sermon, four millions of pounds to four hundred highly commended it to some, and being and eighty-four—the annual charge of demanded what he remembered of it, which was 21,661,0001., including four answered, "Truly, I remember nothing millions for the sinking-fund. It is to at all; but only while I heard it, it made be remarked, that the resources of Eng- me resolve to live better, and so by God's land had increased during the struggle, grace I will.” To the same purpose. I and her efforts at the conclusion were have somewhere read a story of one who on a scale which, if put forth at the complained to an aged holy man, that commencementwould have at he was much discouraged from reading crushed the opponent, if we may reason the Scriptures, because he could fasten after the manner of men. But, as Alison nothing upon his memory which he had observes, “Like an extravagant indivi- read. The old hermit (for so, I remem
ber, he was described,) bid him take an month. Pollard oaks and young beeches earthen pitcher and fill it with water; retain their withered leaves till they are when he had done it, he bid him empty pushed off by their new ones in spring. it again and wipe it clean, that nothing Towards the end of the month, the leaves should remain in it, which, when the begin to collect in heaps in sheltered other had done, and wondered to what spots, and rustle to the foot of the pasthis tended : “Now,” saith he, “though senger; and there they will lie till the there be nothing of the water remaining young leaves are grown overhead, and to it, yet the pitcher is cleaner than it spring comes with all its benignant inwas before ; so, though thy memory re fluences. As the sapless branches spread tain nothing of the word thou readest, out their innumerable ramifications yet thy heart is the cleaner for its very against the cold grey sky, they show passage through.”—Bishop Hopkins. perhaps the ivy which has mantled over,
and which forms a pleasing contrast to
the bare objects around. APPEARANCES OF NATURE.
The furze now displays its flowers, like little gleams of sunlight, on the
broad cold common; the moles ply their “Autumn is dark on the mountains," night-work in the meadows; the green says a writer, the sombre imagery of plover “whistles o'er the lea;” “the snipes whose style is peculiarly applicable to the haunt the marshy grounds; the wagtails season ; grey mist rests on the hills.
twinkle about near the spring heads; the The whirlwind is heard on the heath. larks get together in companies,” and Dark rolls the river through the narrow seem to talk, instead of pouring forth plain. The leaves whirl round with the their notes, as is their wont; the thrush wind, and strew the grave of the dead." occasionally utters a plaintive sound, as To use the words of Bryant :
if half afraid of its own voice ; while the hedge-sparrow
and titmouse appear as if “The melancholy days have come, the saddest of
they were trying to sing, to keep up their Of wailing winds, and naked woods, and meadows drooping spirits. So true is it, that
brown and sere; Heap'd in the hollows of the grove, the wither'd -“Congregated thrushes, linnets, larks, leaves lie dead,
And each wild throat whose artless strains so late They rustle in the eddying gust, and to the rab Swell'd all the music of the swarming shades, bit's tread.
Robb'd of their tuneful souls, now shivering sit The robin and the wren are flown, and from the On the dead tree, a dull despondent flock, shrub the jay,
With not a brightness waving in their plumes, And from the wood-top calls the crow, throughout And nought save chattering discord in their
the gloomy day. Where are the flowers, the fair young flowers, that Though the swallow no longer "twitters lately sprung and stood,
on the straw-built shed," the sparrows In brighter light and softer airs, a beauteous
are chirping on the eaves, and the twitAlas! they all are in their grares,-a gentle race
terings of a thousand birds in the hedges Are lying in their lonely beds, with the fair and remind us that there are many of the good of ours :
feathered race who will not forsake us The rain is falling where they lie, but the cold
during the winter months. Our old friend Calls not from out the gloomy earth the lovely the robin, too, who had forsaken us when ones again.
he could support himself on the produce The wind-flower and the violet, they perish'd long of the field and garden, returns to the farm
ago, And the briar-rose and the orchis died amid the house for the winter, with his lively and
summer glow; But on the hill the golden rod, and the aster in the wood,
“And pecks, and starts, and wonders where he is," And the yellow sunflower by the brook, in autumn's beauty stood,
while his full dark eye, his “scarlet stoTill fell the frost from the clear cold heaven, as falls the plague on men,
macher,” his confident, sidelong, and And the brightness of their smile was lost from sprightly turn of the head, makes him a upland, glade, and glen.”
favourite with all. His trustiness is, The trees now rapidly lose their leaves ; however, one reason why he is regarded the walnut begins; mulberry, horse-chest as a friend; for, when we desire the nut, sycamore, lime, ash, follow; and then, welfare of the different members of the after an interval, the elm, beech, and oak, feathered family, we do not like to have and apple and peach-trees cast their foliage; our intentions unreasonably suspected. but this may not be till the end of the His whole deportment displays a confid
ence in himself and in others, as is suffi-| this belief, as a long flight would be inciently indicated by his rapid hop, the dicated by proportionate wasting consequick intelligence of his eye, and the quent on the exertion. quiet tossing of his head. His courage The snipe is also a bird pursued by has been apparent during his whole his the sportsman, and it may be described tory; for though, when building his nest as indigenous to this country. It breeds he selected some lonely copse or lane, or in small numbers in most of the counties a cavity in the bark at the root which along the southern line of the coast of would defy a steady search, yet the beha- England, but goes higher in the breeding viour of the parents was never indicative
In addition to the native birds, of timidity. They were generally flitting however, great flights come annually from about the nest, and, though careful enough Norway, and other parts of northern to be out of the way of danger, they did Europe, arriving in Northumberland in not appear agitated, nor did they fly away the greatest numbers at the commencewhen observed, but were ever satisfied ment of this month. They seldom remain with the screen of a hedge between them- long in one place, moving from spot to selves and that by which they were dis spot, according to circumstances. The turbed. Nor must the wren be forgotten, nest consists of the simplest materials, and though his modesty prevents his intrusion the young have some resemblance to the on our notice, a tendency which his plain chicken of our poultry yards, but the garb is only calculated to encourage. long beak of the snipe prevents any Yet the most illiterate do not fail to ad mistake. mire the beautiful contrivance of a wren's The brooks are now brimful, and the nest.
waters hurry along the courses, laden With this month the sport of woodcock with masses of foam, or pour their waters shooting begins. The woodcock is a over the meadows on either hand :nocturnal bird, seeking its repose by day in the dry grassy bottoms of brakes and “ Then comes the father of the tempest forth,
Wrapt in dark glooms. First joyless rains, obscure, woods, and seldom or ever moving unless
Drive through the mingling skies with vapour it is disturbed. Towards night it sallies foul, forth on silent wing, pursuing a well
Dash on the mountain's brow, and shake the
woods, known track through the cover to its That, grumbling, wave below. Th’unsightly plain feeding-ground. These tracts, or open
Lies a brown deluge; as the low-bent clouds
Pour flood on flood, yet unexhausted still glades, in woods are sometimes called
Combine, and, deepening into night, shut up cockshoots, and it is in them that nets The day's fair face. The wanderers of heaven,
Each to his home retire; save those that love were formerly suspended for their cap
To take their pasture in the troubled air, ture, for which the gun has now been Or, skimming, flutter round the dimply pool.” generally substituted. A few may still be caught with nooses of horsehair, set Warton's translation of the antiquated up about the springs or soft ground where Scotch verse of Gawain Douglas, the the birds leave the marks of the borings bishop of Dunkeld, gives so good a deof their beaks in the pursuit of worms. scription of the season, that we cannot
This bird appears in the greatest num refrain quoting from it :bers in hazy weather, with little wind, “ The fern withers on the miry fallows, and that blowing from the north-east, the brown moss assumes a barren mossy and it is probable that it then finds the hue; banks, sides of hills, and bottoms upper region of the atmosphere, in which grow white and bare; the cattle look it flies, freer from counter-currents of air hoary from the dark weather, the wind than in more open weather. After a night makes the red reed waver on the dike. of this description, woodcocks have fre- From the crags and the foreheads of the quently been met with in great numbers yellow rocks hang great icicles in length on the edges of plantations, in hedges, like a spear. The soil is dusky and grey, and even in turnip-fields; but on search bereft of flowers, herbs, and grass. In being made for them on the following day, every hold and forest, the woods are not a single bird has been found, the stripped of their array. Boreas blows his whole having taken flight during the bugle horn so loud, that the solitary deer night. They are supposed to come from withdraws to the dales; the small birds Norway and Sweden, a continued flight flock to the thick briars, shunning the of eight or ten hours being sufficient to tempestuous blast, and change their loud accomplish the transit; and the good con notes to chirping; the cataracts roar, and dition in which these birds arrive confirm every linden-tree whistles and brays to
the sounding of the wind. The poor | is more appreciated as her little arrangelabourers, wet and weary, draggle in ments come more under observation. It the fen. Warm from the chimney side, may not be thus delightful with all, but and refreshed with generous cheer, I steal it is so with many, and the number to my bed, and lay down to sleep, when I might be greatly increased. Only let see the moon shed through the window knowledge and pure religion spread their her twinkling glances and wintry light. genial influence around, and this will be I hear the horned bird—the night-owl, the picture of thousands of families, while shrieking horribly with crooked bill from many a heart will beat for joy which is her cavern; I hear the wild geese with now depressed by insensibility or wickedscreaming cries fly over the city through ness. the silent night. I am soon lulled to Those who pursue pleasurable employsleep, till the cock, clapping his wings, ment will not now fail to dwell with satiscrows thrice, and the day peeped.” faction on the hours they have profitably
Still the cold increases, and this gradual spent in the pursuit of those beauties augmentation is of great value in prevent- which the spring, the summer, and the ing the indisposition, and perhaps serious autumn displayed; for memory affords injury of the body; for if the heat that many joys, on the condition that our time we experience during the summer months is appropriately employed. We may call were suddenly exchanged for the cold to mind the scenes, blending perhaps ness of winter, alarming results might sublimity and beauty, which we have ensue. But it is otherwise; and the inter- beheld; the soft melody of the birds, as it position which has thus been made for floated on the air, or the more powerful the convenience and comfort of man is song of the thrush or the black bird, as it but another indication of the goodness of thrilled so loud and clear from the fir or the God of providence in his arrangement the poplar; the beauties that smiling even of the minor affairs of this lower nature lavished upon us, as we inhaled world :
the fragrant breath of the flowers, or saw
their beauteous colours spread out richly “ Thus wears the month along, in chequer'd moods,
Sunshine and shadows, tempests loud and calms before us; while the gentle breeze fanned
and the clouds were dispersing and leav
ing the deep azure of the heaven clear, The occasional gales of wind, and nip- or the sun promised a continuance of his ping frosts, now remind us that winter in
unobscured splendour, and with it were all its severity is fast approaching : blended thoughts of Him “who formed “ What time the fields are frequent strown and decked and still upholds the world:"
With scatter'd leaves of yellow brown;
“Oh, hours more worth than gold, And, touched by frost, the ripen'd sloe
By whose bless'd use we lengthen life, and, free Less crudely tastes; and when the sheep
From drear decays of age, outlive the old.” Together in the valleys keep;
Then, as And all the smaller birds appear
the winds howl, and the In flocks, and mourn the alter'd year;
rain falls, and the snow descends, let The careful rustic marks the signs
the mind dwell on the fact that these
changes of the seasons are essential But though it is November, there is a to the full development of nature. If pleasing side of the case. As the Italians we had constant summer the grass would say, "Every medal has its reverse,”—and become withered, the flocks and herds if the mind has an improper bias it will would in unsuccessful search soon find it. The labourer has now to for food, the brooks would disappear, enjoy some of the advantages which pestilential diseases would result from the arise from the increased toil of the past putrefaction of animal and vegetable months. His little store of winter money bodies; and man himself, enervated and and provision has been hardly earned, debilitated by excess of heat, would and, if he is prudent, and safely lodged, droop. But these evils are all averted by his countenance brightens and his heart the wise ordinations of Providence, by warms with the reward of his labours. which autumn, as it succeeds summer, As the days shorten, and the hours of softens the descent to winter, and brings darkness increase, the family is again to perfection those fruits which are to assembled around the fire; the youngest serve for the good of man and beast child may again be seen on the father's during the remainder of the year. knee ; and the value of “the good wife
F. S. W.
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SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATION. ing the worms, or to climate or soil, still Matt. xvii. 24; translated literally: remains to be ascertained. " And when they came to Capernaum, The trees, or rather bushes, are planted those who received the didrachms (or in rows, the banks of the canals being a money for the tribute] came to Peter favourite situation, and they are not and said : Doth your Teacher pay the allowed to grow more than from four to didrachms?” And further on,
six feet in height. The natives set to hook, and take the first fish that cometh work with a pair of strong scissars, and up; and on opening its mouth, thou wilt cut all the young shoots off close to the find a stater, [a coin worth two di- stump; they are then either stripped of drachms,] take that and give to them for their leaves, or taken home in bundles, me and thee.” These Greek coins are and stripped afterwards. Before this opewell known to all collectors; and the ration takes place the plants seem in a stater is nearly equal to the Jewish high state of health, producing vigorous shekel, and of course the didrachm to shoots, and fine, large, and thick shining half a shekel. Hence the question na leaves. After the leaves have been taken turally arises, whether the Romans, in off, the bushes look like a collection of levying a poll-tax of half a shekel on dead stumps, and in the middle of sumthe inhabitants of Judea, were imposing mer have a curious wintry appearance; a new tribute, or seizing the well-known but the rain, which falls copiously, and temple tax, which, by the Levitical law, the fertility of the soil, soon revive a sucevery male above the age of twenty-one culent plant like the mulberry. was ordered to pay towards the mainte The Chinese seem very particular in nance of the services. Commentators have stirring up the earth amongst the roots of been divided on the question, though we
the bushes immediately after the young think it might have been settled by re
branches and leaves bave been taken off, marking, that at this time the temple ser and the plantations appear to have great vices were maintained by a voluntary attention paid to them. The farms are gift, or corban, in the place of the old tax. small, and are generally worked by the And that the two taxes were the same, is family and relatives of the farmer, who proved by a coin which commemorates not only plant, graft, and cultivate the its repeal under Nerva. The coin proves mulberry, but also gather the leaves, feed that the Roman tribute, like the Leviti- the silkworms, and wind the silk off the cal tax, was payable by every Jew, cocoons. During my progress through wherever he lived, not by those in Judea the silk district, I visited a great number only, and that it was thought not only of cottages where the worms were feedan injustice, but a disgrace, as we mighting. They are commonly kept in dark suppose the Jews would feel the appro- rooms, fitted up with shelves placed one priation of their sacred temple tax to the above another, from the ground to the service of their pagan masters.
The roof of the house. The worms are kept words on Nerva's coin are, “Judaici fisci and fed in round bamboo sieves, placed calumnia sublata.”—Eclectic Review. upon these shelves, so that any one of
the sieves may be taken out and examined at pleasure. The poor natives were greatly surprised when they saw a foreigner coming amongst them, and
generally supposed that I intended to The mulberry-trees, says Mr. Fortune, rob them of their silkworms. In all the are all grafted, and produce very fine villages which I visited, they uniformly thick leaves. I obtained a plant, which denied that they had any feeding worms, is now alive in England, in order to de- although the leaves and stems of the multermine the particular variety, and whe- berry about their doors told a different ther it is different from the kinds which tale; and they never failed to direct me to are used for the purpose in Europe. It go on to some other part of the country, is not yet, however, in a sufficiently ad- where, they assured me, I should find vanced state for this to be ascertained. them. Before we parted, however, they One thing, however, is certain, that the generally gained confidence, and showed silk produced in this district is considered me their collections of worms, as well as as being amongst the finest in China;, the mode of managing them. but whether this is owing to the particular variety of mulberry-tree used in feed
MULBERRY-TREES IN CHINA.