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they are governed, brings out with as- now! All men, by reason of sin, lie tonishing grandeur the wisdom and mercy “in the same condemnation !” How difof Him who is a wonderful in counsel and ferent the destiny of the pardoned from excellent in working;" for the inspired that of the impenitent! The view they book which records this event, takes care take of Calvary determines it. The “great to inform us that it was the death of the gulf” is related to the cross.

The story just for the unjust; and thus the very of Calvary gives heaven its bliss, and event which at first sight would seem to deepens the gloom of hell. prove an exception to the equity of the II. Behold on the three crosses the Divine rule, invests that rule with beauty, issue of sin-death! The holy Sufferer attractiveness, and glory. On the prin- dies, for he is the substitute of sinners. ciple of substitution, the death of the His death is vicarious : "Christ, our passsinless Jesus is reconcilable with the rec- over, is sacrificed for us.” The pardoned titude of Divine government, but not sufferer dies; but he is “ complete in otherwise. On this principle, Calvary Christ, and enters paradise with his has moral significance which eternity Redeemer that day. The impenitent shall not exhaust ; but on none other can sufferer dies, and is driven from the it be made to harmonize with correct presence of the Lord whom he reviled ideas of holiness. Death is the wages of and rejected. Sad death! By the side sin. Jesus was put to death “ by the of the cross, and within sight of the determinate counsel and foreknowledge Saviour! Now here, if I mistake not, is of God." Either, therefore, Jesus was a a forcible illustration of the equity of the sinner, or the substitute of sinners. That Divine procedure. The law exacts its he was without sin, God himself re- penalty from the holy Sufferer as the peatedly declared. It follows, therefore, substitute of the guilty. " It was ex that he “ died for us." Let us, then, acted, and he was made answerable." read the lessons which the three crosses “ The Lord hath laid on him the teach.

iniquity of us all.” He took the sinI. Behold on the three crosses the re- ner's place, and bore the sinner's doom. presentatives of all known characters! To have relaxed the law would have deThe holy—the pardoned—the impenitent stroyed the idea of substitution. Three -are there. I'o one or other of these things were essential ;—first, the personal classes of mind all intelligent beings sinlessness of the Substitute; secondly, must belong. There is no conceivable the voluntariness of the sacrifice; thirdly, fourth division. The guiltless, the for- independent existence. These essentials given, and the guilty, embrace all. Strange met in Christ. He was sinless as a man; that they should all meet on Calvary! “he gave himself” as a sacrifice; he Stranger still that the representative was “ equal with God” as an independent of each should be nailed to a cross ! Being. The sacrifice was without spot, But it was not accidental. God intended and there was self-surrender of the body to read a lesson to the world—say rather prepared for him “who was God." He to mind in all worlds—by this memorable had power to lay down his life; he chose coincidence. The central sufferer is the to lay it down; he undertook to pay the Son of God! He occupies the place penalty incurred by the guilt of other which belonged to Barabbas; but the beings: there was, therefore, equity in murderer escapes, and the Restorer of exacting that penalty. life is crucified. Two of the banditti are The law exacts its penalty from the also crucified with Jesus. One of them penitent sufferer. He looks to Jesus, is awakened from the stupor of guilt, the who has magnified the law and made it death of sin, confesses his crimes, believes honourable, and for his sake he is justified, on Jesus, cries for mercy, and is saved; acquitted, saved! The law is satisfied; —the pardoned man represents the its claims having been fully met by the church. The other rails on and rejects the blessed Redeemer, “with whom the Messiah, until exhausted nature forbids poor man was considered as “dead," further utterance, and he dies in his sins; and with whom, therefore, he shall "live." -the impenitent man represents the un- Here also there was equity; grace trigodly. Their feelings towards Jesus de- umphs, but not at the expense of law; termined their destiny. They were alike faith does not make it void; God is just guilty when fastened to their crosses; in justifying this sinner. how vast the difference between them T'he law exacts its penalty, in like

THE INDIAN PASS.

" Who

manner, from the third sufferer. He classes : the holy, the pardoned, and the continues impenitent, rejects Jesus, and impenitent! The pardoned, “purified and is “sent to prison.” Here, also, there is made white" in the blood of the Lamb, perfect equity. Mercy is rejected in the shall hear addressed to them the glorious only way in which it can be honourably invitation, "Come, ye blessed of my extended, and law must take its course. Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for There is no alternative. He who refuses you from the foundation of the world." mercy offered in harmony with justice, The impenitent, who trifled away the must have justice without mercy. Love accepted time, and neglected the great and law concur in saving the soul that salvation, shall be compelled to listen to flies to the atoning Substitute ; but if the terrific sentence, " Depart from me, Jesus be rejected, law takes its course. ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared The penitent robber has “a right to the for the devil and his angels." These tree of life," through the merits of his widely-different issues, it may be reSaviour ; the impenitent robber rejected peated, spring out of the different imJesus, and must “die the death" of a pressions made by the doctrines of the transgressor.

cross in this world. How fearful the The gospel, then, proclaims a just result of unbelief! How glorious the God and a Saviour." The angels who issue of faith! How precious the great kept their first estate shall not be able to salvation! And how earnestly should challenge the privileges of the redeemed men examine themselves! May the in heaven ; for they are there in conse- Spirit of grace lead to the work ! quence of their union to Christ. They

W, L. are there honourably on the part of God. For the same reason, the lost shall not be able to find fault with the arrangement wbich secures bliss to the saved.

HEADLEY, of America, in his “ Letters shall lay anything to the charge of God's from the Woods," says: elect !" But, in conjunction with this The famous Indian Pass is, probably, exhibition of justice, behold the trium- the most remarkable mountain gorge in phant career of Divine mercy! Mark this country. On Monday morning a the race of love! What affluence, what council was called of our party, to deterexpansion, and what adaptation to the mine whether we should visit it. A state of man! “ In this was manifested teamster from the settlements had agreed the love of God towards us, because that to come for us this day, to take us out God sent his only begotten Son into the the next; but some of our number, fearworld, that we might live through him. ing his inability to get through the woods Herein is love, not that we loved God, in one day, proposed we should abandon but that he loved us, and sent his Son to all further expeditions, and make our way be the propitiation for our sins."

homeward. But the Indian Pass I was III. Behold on the three crosses a fore- determined to see, even if I remained shadowing of the last judgment! Jesus behind alone; and so we all together shall occupy the centre again, but not on started off, some of us quite lame from

" Then shall he sit upon the our excursion to Mount Tahawus. throne of his glory.”

It was six miles through the forest,

and we were compelled to march in That groaned on Calvary !-yet he it is ;

single file. Now skirting the margin of That man of sorrows! Oh, how chang'd! What

a beautiful lake, now creeping through pomp! In grandeur terrible all heaven descends;

thickets, and now stepping daintily across And gods, ambitious, triumph in his train !"

a springing morass, we stretched forward He shall again occupy the centre be- until we at length struck a stream, the tween two opposite classes of character, bed of which we followed into the bosom the penitent and the impenitent, the re- of the mountains. We crossed deer paths deeined and the lost, “the precious and every few rods, and soon the two hounds the vile.” “Before him shall be gathered our hunter had taken with him parted all nations; and he shall separate them from us, and their loud deep bay began one from another, as a shepherd divideth to ring and echo through the gorge. The his sheep from the goats; and he shall instincts with which animals are endowed set the sheep on his right hand, but the by their Creator, on purpose to make goats on the left.” Again the three them successful in the chase, is one of

a cross.

“ How unlike the man

the most curious things in nature. I ever, we came where the fallen rocks watched, for a long time, the actions of had made an open space amid the forest, one of these noble hounds. With his and spread a fearful ruin in its place. nose close to the leaves, he would double Near by was a huge rock, that, in some backwards and forwards on a track, to former age, had been loosened from its see whether it was fresh or not; then high bed, and hurled, with the strength abandon it at once, if he found it too old. of a falling world, below. It was a preAt length, striking a fresh one, he started cipice of itself, from which to fall would off; but the next moment, finding he was have been certain death. This was "the going back instead of forwards on the church” our guide had spoken of; and track, he wheeled, and came dashing it did lift itself there like a huge altar, past on a furious run, his eyes glaring right in front of the main precipice, that with excitement. Soon his voice made rose in a naked wall, a thousand feet the forest ring, and I could imagine the perpendicular. The top of this “church" quick start it gave to the deer, quietly could be reached on one side; and thither grazing, it might have been, a mile away. we clambered, and lay down to rest ourLifting its beautiful head a moment, to selves, while from our very feet rose this ascertain if that cry of death was on his awful cliff, that fairly oppressed me with track, he bounded away in the long chase its near and frightful presence. Majestic, and bold swim for life. Well; let them solemn, and silent, with the daylight pass. The cry grows fainter and fainter; from above, pouring all over its dread and they, the pursued and pursuer, are form, it stood the impersonation of but an emblem of what is going on in strength and grandeur. I never saw but the civilized world from which I am one precipice that impressed me so, and severed. Life may be divided into two that was in the Alps, in the Pass of the parts—the hunters and the hunted. It Grand Scheideck. I lay on my back, is an endless chase, where the timid and filled with strange feelings of the power the weak constantly fall by the way. The and majesty of the God who had both swift racers come and go like shadows on framed and rent this mountain asunder. the vision, and the cries of fear and of vic- There it stood, still and motionless in its tory swell on the ear and die away, only grandeur. Far, far away heavenward to give place to another and another. rose its top, fringed with fir trees, that

Thus musing, I pushed on, until at looked, at that immense height, like mere length we left the bed of the stream, and shrubs; and they, too, did not wave, but began to climb amid broken rocks, that stood silent and moveless as the rock were piled in huge chaos up and up as they crowned. Any motion or life would far as the eye could reach. My rifle have been a relief-even the storm ; for became such a burden, that I was com- there was something fearful in that myspelled to leave it against a tree, with a terious, profound silence. How loudly mark near it to determine its locality. I God speaks to the heart, when it lies had expected, from paintings I had seen thus awe-struck and subdued in the preof this Pass, that I was to walk almost sence of his works. In the shadow of on a level into a huge gap between two such a grand and terrible form, man mountains, and look up on the precipices seems but the plaything of a moment, to that toppled heaven-high above me. But be blown away with the first breath. here was a world of rocks, overgrown

Persons not accustomed to scenes of with trees and moss, over and under and this kind would not at first get an adebetween which we were compelled to quate impression of the magnitude of the crawl and dive and work our way with precipice. Everything is on such a so much exertion and care, that the gigantic scale; all the proportions so strongest soon began to be exhausted. vast; and the mountains so high about Caverns opened on every side, and a it, that the real individual greatness is more hideous, toilsome, break-neck tramp lost sight of. But that wall of a thousand I never took. There was a stream deep feet perpendicular, with its seams and down somewhere; but no foot could fol. rents and stooping cliffs, is one of the low it, for it was a succession of cas- few things in the world daguerreotyped cades, with perpendicular walls each side, on my heart. It frowns on my vision in hemming it in. It was more like climb- my solitary hours, and with feelings half ing a broken and shattered mountain of sympathy, I think of it standing there than entering a gorge. At length, how- in its lonely majesty,

[graphic][merged small]

DECEMBER,

APPEARANCES OF NATURE.

ciate in flocks; the thrush utters an occasional note, in a manner which might

induce the belief that it was ashamed of Winter has now arrived, and in the sound of its own voice; the hedgecreases in intensity as time passes. If sparrow and titmouse seem as though we look abroad, we see that

trying to sing and keep the robin com

pany ; blackbirds nestle together in Fast falls the fleecy shower; the snowy flakes banks where the hedge-fruit is plentifully

Descending, and with never-ceasing lapse found; larks find shelter among the
Softly alighting upon all below,
Assimilate all objects;"

stubbles, and tribes of small birds visit

the stack-yards in search of sustenance. reminding us of the words of the psalmist, The yellow-hammer and the chaffinch

are seen near houses, while the redwing “ He giveth snow like wool:

and others frequent the sides of the streams that remain unfrozen.

The ringWho can stand before his cold?"

dove seeks the ivy-berries; the water

fowl are seen in the neighbourhood of On the common may be seen the ponds and marshy ground;

and seabright yellow flowers of the furze; the birds leave the shore, and frequent the inmoles ply their night work in the drier land rivers. Fieldfares are now seen in meadows; the green plover "whistles great numbers, and the young sportsman, o'er the lea;" the snipes haunt the who shoulders a gun for the first time, marshy ground; the wagtails collect considers this bird a prize, if he succeed around the spring-heads; the larks asso- in adding it to his bag of sparrows and

DECEMBER, 1847.

He scattereth the hoar-frost like ashes.
He casteth forth his ice like morsels :

2 M

larks, as it is difficult to approach. They little while occasionally. Squirrels, rats, arrive in large flocks in pursuit of food and field-mice shut themselves up, with from the north ; and if the weather their winter stores; and the dormouse is mild, spread themselves over pas- betakes itself to slumber. When the ture-lands, in pursuit of worms, slugs, hedges are bare, numbers of old birds’ and other soft-bodied animals ; but on nests are visible; and when they are the occurrence of frost or snow, they be near the dog-rose, they are found full of take themselves to the hedges, and feed the seeds of the hips, the field-mice greedily on haws and other wild fruit. being in the habit of climbing up the Should the weather become very severe, hedges for this fruit, and using the nests the fieldfare will proceed more south- as stations where they may sit and eat.” ward, and will be seen again on its re Other animals have migrated, and, in turn. The call-note of the bird is harsh, more genial climes, escape the threatenbut its song is soft and melodious. At ing severities of the winter season, while night it frequents evergreens and thick their places are supplied by hardy species plantations ; but it has also been known to of the feathered races, which have left the roost among the heath and furze of com storms and rigour of the northern regions mons, and other bushy places. The red- to enjoy the more temperate cold of our wing is another winter visitor to the own winter, shores of Britain, coming, like the field There is a greenness about the meafare, from the northern and north-eastern dows produced by the late rains which parts of Europe. It frequents parks and is pleasing; the corn-fields display the pleasure-grounds that are ornamented young autumn-sown corn, and the with clumps of trees, and, like the thrush, hardy primrose and violet are seen near which it much resembles in external ap- the hedgerows, where the fallen leaves pearance, seeks its subsistence in milder have thickly collected. The laurustinus, weather in pasture lands and moist mea- holly, and other evergreens which appear dows. Linnæus, several times, in his near the home-enclosures, have lost the tour in Lapland, notices this bird, “whose sombre hue with which they have been amorous warblings from the top of the distinguished, and by contrast with the spruce fir were delightful. Its high and faded leaves and bared trees around, look varied notes rival those of the nightingale gay and cheering, herself."

The farmer has still a sufficiency of But we look in vain for vast numbers employment, though the particular busiof the animal creation, and ask, “Where ness of his men greatly depends on the are they all ?" Many have availed them- state of the weather. The live-stock now selves of the threatenings of the last se- requires a regular supply of food, and the vere weather, and have accommodated thresher is busily engaged, if the horse themselves to the peculiar circumstances or steam threshing machine is not emin which it is intended they should be ployed. Ditches are cleared, fences replaced. Some have burrowed in the paired, plantations of fruit and timber earth, where they will remain until the trees finished, turf collected, earths carted genial influences of spring encourage from ditches and old banks; the water them to reappear; many of the insect meadows are flooded, and land-draining tribes are hidden in the crevices of the attended to. bark of trees and shrubs, or have found The heavens present at this period of shelter in the holes of rocks, dived below the year a peculiar beauty of appearthe surface of the water, and are im- ance. The transparent purity of the movably fixed in the sides or bottom of frosty atmosphere gives an extent of the stream banks. “The frog sinks to vision, and a richness and intensity of the bottom of ponds and ditches, and colour to the high concave, over which buries itself in the mud. The lizard, the are studded the bright stars; the moon badger, the hedgehog, creep into holes in sails among the glittering galaxies with the earth, and remain torpid till spring. a more than usual queenly grace, while Bats get into old barns, caves, and de- the light clouds that cross her track serve serted buildings, where, suspending them- but to increase her radiance. But when selves by their hind feet, and wrapping the mind seeks to understand the magnithemselves in the membranes of their tude of the scene, it finds its incapacity, fore feet, they sleep winter away, except and after exercising its utmost power, some unusual intervals of mild weather falls back with the conviction of the imshould awake, and call them out for a mensity of the task, and seeks repose for

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