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or ladder, he mounted, may be excused graves we see thus carefully planted over quoting it. It may be well to premise, and adorned in the cemeteries of Gerthat it is firmly believed that the steps many. of Pontius Pilate's house, which our “ There," said our guide, “is Luther's blessed Lord descended, and traced with oak." his blood, are preserved at Rome. No “ How ! " we exclaimed. “ Luther's one must ascend these sacred stairs but oak? It looks very young. on their knees.

“ It is six years old," said the German, The pope,

while Luther was at Rome, gravely. had promised an indulgence to those who “Six years ! and we understood that ascended the sacred stairs. Wishing to it had lived in Luther's time!" merit this indulgence, “the poor

Saxon "Oh! there have been ten oaks since monk climbed these steps, which they then," he answered. " The French cut told him had been miraculously trans down the first, and the one that was ported from Jerusalem to Rome. But planted instead died; the next that they while he performed this meritorious act, planted the French cut down also in the he thought he heard a voice at the bottom

This one was planted six years of his heart, crying, as he had heard it at ago, and it grows well.' Wittenberg and Bologna, * The just We turned precipitately back, murmurshall live by faith. He arose affrighted; ing in English, “What nonsense!' But he was ashamed to see how low supersti further inquiry rendered us more satisfied tion had abased him; he fled from the with the young oak, though it was not scene of his folly. That powerful word the contemporary of Luther. It marks had a mysterious influence on the life of the spot where Luther burned the pope's Luther. It was a word which created bull; and German gratitude, or pride, the Reformer and the Reformation. It was perpetuates the memory of the deed in by it that God said then, 'Let there be perpetuating the existence of an oak, light, and there was light.' Thus it was which, whatever accidents befall it, is in Rome that God gave to Luther that renewed or cherished on that memorable clear view of the fundamental doctrine of soil. Christianity. He had come to seek in I must finish this brief account of my the city of the pontiffs the solution of short visit to Wittenberg with the descripsome difficulties concerning a monastic tion of Luther's departure from that town, order; he brought from it in his heart the when summoned by the emperor Charles salvation of the church. Luther quitted v. to appear at the Diet of Worms, to give Rome, and returned to Wittenberg, his account of the doctrine and of the books soul filled with sorrow and indignation." which he had published:

We will return there with him. The “The 2nd of April had arrived, (1521.) man who conducted us through the Luther was to take leave of his friends. town, (for all such places are beset Having said adieu to his colleagues, he with guides and persons who live really turned to Melancthon :- If I do not reon the memories of the past,) spoke turn,' said he to him with emotion, and a barbarous sort of German-French, if my enemies put me to death, oh! my which rendered both languages almost brother, do not cease to teach ; and stand unintelligible. He told us about “Luther's fast in the truth. Labour in my place, Oak," and though not quite clear as to since I can no longer labour in the

world; his meaning, the idea of seeing an oak if you live, what matters it if I perish.' that was contemporary with Luther stimu Thus remitting the care of his soul to lated us, tired and heated though we Him who is faithful and true, Luther were, to walk quite through the long mounted his car, and quitted Wittenberg. rough-paved town, and beyond its gate, The town council had supplied him with under the noon-tide ray of a fervent sun, a very humble carriage, covered with a to visit the memorable oak.

stuff curtain which might be put on or When we came out upon the road, and removed at pleasure. The imperial herald, had walked a short way, we approached (sent to convey him to Worms,) covered a very pretty fresh-looking tree, set round with decorations, and bearing the eagle with a paling, inside which sundry plea of the empire, was on horseback gosant flowers were planted, quite in Ger ing before, followed by his attendant. man taste, recalling to one's mind the The friends of the gospel, the citizens of

Wittenberg, invoking God with emotion, * On his road to Rome.

melted into tears. Thus Luther set out.'

THE MANHOOD OF CHRIST.

As long as Wittenberg shall retain one | troubled; but it affects him as much. stone upon another, Luther shall have Nay, it possibly affects him more. His there a monument; and one at least of human soul is now "made perfect;" its the pilgrims who have visited that place, powers are enlarged. Its compassion may recalls

with pleasure the sensations that consequently be increased. Nothing aswere experienced, when sitting for a few suredly is gone from it but its pain and minutes in the chair of the monk of Wit- weakness. It is a father's pity, without tenberg.

its imperfection; it is a mother's love, The just shall live by faith.” That softened and heightened by the love of sentence, directed to the heart and under- heaven.-Bradley. standing of the reformer, was an emanation from the Fountain of Light, which

MYSTICAL INTERPRETATION. not only set his own struggling soul free from the darkness and bondage which

How ingenious soever the detection of had enthralled it, but left to the new

the mystical under the simply historical born church a test, whereby in all ages may be, and whatever piety may be asof its existence to test its verity. *

sociated with the ingenuity, I cannot S. B.

but regard the ingenuity as perverse, and the piety, though ever so well-meaning, as mistaken. I may admire the wish to

find Christ everywhere, and I may have Few of us think enough of the real much more allowance for the man who and complete manhood of the Lord Jesus finds him where he is not, than for the Christ. We are told that he " was made man who obstinately fails to find him man,” and we believe the amazing fact; where he is. I may censure, with a but then we generally confine our view far keener severity, the interpreter who of his manhood to the mere form he took carnalizes the spiritual, than the interon him, to the body in which he suffered preter who spiritualizes the carnal: but and died. But the Scripture goes much still, the one legitimate object of all infarther. It speaks of him as man within vestigation of the Scriptures should be as well as without: as possessing a

to find, and of all exposition of the Scriphuman soul as well as a human frame; tures to unfold, what the Holy Spirit of as being as truly and experimentally God intended, in every portion of them, acquainted with human feelings, sin only God of salvation ; it is true, that this is

It is true, that God is the excepted, as any one of ourselves.

It tells us, too, why this human soul the most interesting relation in which he and these human feelings were given stands to our fallen and guilty world ; him. It was for a most wonderful and and it is true, that to reveal him in this gracious purpose—that he might carry

relation is the primary object of his them up with him to his lofty throne, inspired word. But God is the God of and feel, like a brother, in heaven, for providence, as well as the God of salvathose whom he has left in tribulation on

tion; and his administration in the one earth. Tbis is St. Paul's account of the relation is so closely connected and intermatter; " It behoved him to be made in

woven with his administration in the all things like unto his brethren, that he other, that, in regard to our world, they might be a merciful and faithful high

can hardly be contemplated apart. Lespriest :” “For in that he himself hath sons relative to his providence are thus suffered being tempted, he is able to suc- enhanced in value and interest by their cour them that are tempted.”

connexion with the system and the purWe lose nothing, then, by the high poses of his grace. And in few parts of exaltation of the Son of man. Our misery the sacred oracles are more important can reach him at the right hand of his and striking lessons to be found on the Father, just as quickly as the widow's subject of providence, than those conreached him when he was by her side at tained in the narrative which we have Nain; it can move his heart as deeply.

now closed.*
Here are the "wheels

various It cannot indeed disquiet his soul, as the within wheels.” Here are sight of misery disquieted him in the days and conflicting passions of men working of his flesh; he no longer weeps and is out Divine ends, while they “mean not

so, neither do their hearts think so." * The doctrine of justification by faith, revived Here is “the wrath of man” praising and promulgated by Luther, has been said to be the test of a standing or a fallen church.

* The History of Joseph.

450

VISIT TO THE CHALK-PITS OF GRAVESEND AND NORTHFLEET.

the Lord, and the "remainder of wrath” | nothing. --much by the man of enlightened restrained. Here are the counsels of or inquisitive mind, who is eager for the wicked " turned to foolishness,” their information, and lets no opportunity, plans frustrated, and, by unforeseen but however apparently trivial, pass by withDivinely interposed impediments, made out endeavouring to profit by it, and to work against themselves. Here are learn what it can teach, -nothing by him events of the greatest magnitude, and who, viewing these rude and almost pregnant with the most important results, unsightly excavations, (which, however, both of evil and of good, produced and art has, in one instance, contrived to modified by incidents intrinsically the render almost picturesque,) turns away, most trivial, undeserving in themselves exclaiming " All is barren !”—and so to not only of formal record, but even of him it is. He sees the men busy, some passing notice. Here is Jehovah, mani- | with their pickaxes, and various instrufesting his faithfulness to his covenant ments, in the quarry, and others loading engagements, when to human view all vessels with the material. He knows things appear to be against them,-en that chalk is burned into lime, or used couraging thus the confidence of his for manuring certain soils, and lie walks people, and preparing confusion for his away satisfied. Let us, however, arrest our enemies. I ask, are lessons such as steps, and enter into a few reflections. these not worth the learning ? Are No one who visits Kent can fail to they not important enough to justify observe the extension of the great chalk the inspiration of "holy men of God" deposit, which again shows itself on the to teach them? Are they not rather opposite coast of Boulogne. Above the lessons of the deepest and most bene chalk lies a deep bed of plastic clay, and ficial interest ? And why, then, should above this the London clay-of which we not be satisfied with them, as the latter the hills of the Isle of Sheppy conspecial lessons of this particular section sist, and also Shooter's Hill, which is about of the oracles of God? For other les. four hundred and forty feet in height. sons let us seek elsewhere. There is a Near Pegwell Bay this London clay fulness in the Divine word, which those immediately covers the chalk, spreading persons would greatly and mischievously över a-tract of no great extent. impair, who would force the same de parts, as, for example, a strip from the scription of instructions out of every part valley of the Darent to below Gravesend, of it. Granting, and rejoicing to grant, the overlying clays have been more or the paramount importance of redemption, less completely washed away; the chalk

-we have it, in all its Divine perfection, being covered with a mixture of sand in all its plenitude of glory and blessing, and vegetable soil. Of the thickness of unfolded to us in those portions of the the chalk some idea may be formed, from inspired volume of which it forms the the cliffs which abruptly crop out, and immediate and proper subject. But is overhang the sea, or the estuary of the providence unworthy of our study, be Thames. The hill on which Dover Castle cause redemption is superior ? — Nay, (of great antiquity) stands, is four hunwhat is redemption itself but "a special dred and sixty-nine feet in height; in act of providence ?”—what, but the other parts, near Dover, the cliffs are highest department of God's providen about four hundred feet high; and those tial procedure towards our fallen world ? of the North Foreland are from one hunAnd is it not, I further ask, one of the dred to two hundred feet. These are, of very evidences of the supreme import course, only the measurements of the outance of this branch of providence, that cropping cliffs ; but the actual thickness all the rest of the Divine dispensations

of the stratum of chalk itself is conare made subservient to it ?--that its siderably more. Sir W. De La Beche estiintroduction, development, and comple mates its average thickness at seven huntion, are the great ends of the govern dred feet. Dr. Conybeare considers it to ment, and even of the preservation, of range between six hundred and one thouthe world ?-Wardlaw.

sand feet. From causes which have operated since its deposition, producing the abrasion or removal of its upper surface, and also, very probably, from ori

ginal local causes influencing its deposiWhat is to be seen in the chalk-pits tion in different places, the thickness of of Gravesend or Northfleet? much, or the chalk is variable. The height of the

In some

VISIT TO THE CHALK-PITS OF
GRAVESEND AND NORTHFLEET.

VISIT TO THE CHALK-PITS OF GRAVESEND AND NORTHFLEET.

451

cliff at Beachy Head, Sussex, which at | mountain limestone ; and our dress began the summit includes a portion of the to show innumerable marks of white, and flinty chalk, and goes down very nearly we rapidly assumed a party-coloured apto the upper green sand, (the next stra- pearance. Prudence whispered, Stop—50 tum,) is only five hundred and thirty-five we stopped and considered, not liking to feet; this flinty section averages at Do lose our anticipated specimens. At this ver three hundred and fifty feet; taking moment a troop of young urchins, incithis as an average standard, the total pient quarrymen, came up, and vocifethickness of the chalk on the Sussex rously demanded if we wanted “fossils.” coast may be estimated at about eight “Yes," we answered, somewhat surprised hundred feet. On the other hand, at at their use of a scientific word, with a Diss, in Norfolk, the thickness of the definite meaning attached to it. "Oh, chalk, as ascertained - by boring, is but then,” responded one of the group, five hundred and ten feet.

come to our house down in the

quarry, We shall not here enter into the range we have plenty for sale.” So, following of the chalk stratum, and its underlying the sturdy and intelligent little fellow, green sand-beds, in our island, or on the we went to his father's cottage, and were proximate parts of the continent, for we there shown à considerable number of are not going to expatiate on the minutiæ specimens. Of these, for the moderate of geology; we may however observe sum of twopence or threepence apiece, that the chalk is a marine deposit, proving we purchased several, which are at this that once a sea existed where hills and moment, while we write, spread out bevalleys now alternate—where the shep- fore us. Let us pass them under rapid herd drives his sheep, and the reaper review. We have six specimens of echini, bends over the waving grain. The chalk, very perfect; of these, three belong to in fact, abounds with marine organic the genus spatangus, and three to the remains.--corals and sponges imbedded extinct genus galerites; besides these, in flint, thin sections of which show the we have a singular club-shaped rough structure of the organic material with sponi, evidently belonging to some speexquisite distinctness --encrinites, star cies of the group of echini. Among the fishes, echini, shells, crustacea, fishes, other specimens is a portion of one of and tortoises; to which marine plants the jaw-bones of a large fish,-a fragmay be also added. Sir W. De La Beche ment of the body of a fish, thickly covered observes, “Organic remains are in gene with large scales, and having the verteral beautifully preserved in the chalk ; bral column in its original and proper substances of no greater solidity than position, very distinct; a large plate or common sponges retain their forms; convex scale, minutely tuberculous, prodelicate shells remain unbroken; fish, bably a part of the integumentary covereven, are frequently not flattened ; and ing of a fish. There are two specimens altogether we have appearances which of branches, or portions of what appear justify us in concluding that, since these to be encrinites, or crinoidea, both disorganic exuviæ were entombed - they tinct forms; and several bivalve shells, have been protected from the effects of very perfect. There are, also, the teeth pressure by the consolidation of the rock of extinct species of sharks, called by around them, and that they have been the quarrymen birds' tongues, and revery tranquilly enveloped in exceedingly garded by them as such in reality. fine matter, such as we should consider Such were the relics of once living would result from a chemical precipi- creatures which we obtained, and which tate.”

the quarryman had såved, while hunHere, then, open upon ús reflections dreds of others were destroyed by his which in a short paper like the present instruments of labour, as he pursued his it would be useless to attempt to follow task. “ Curious things, sir,” (said the out, but which while we were exploring man to us) “have I turned up; but you the chalk-pits in question crowded upon we cannot help breaking them to our mind. So the at last we said, here pieces, and we have not time to collect are fossil relics to be found, let us search all we might;" and he afterwards added, for themwe had searched for fossils in that sometimes for a considerable space the mountain of limestone of Derbyshire, few or no “ fossils

met with, a prior formation, and were well accus while on the other hand they sometimes tomed to clambering; but, alas! at the came upon them in considerable abundoutset, we found the soft chalk not like

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Surely it was worth while not to leave will again supply. A like explanation the chalk-pit too hastily—at all events may be offered of the use of the long and we were gratified with our acquisitions ; curious appendages of the head and neck and we have here, we flatter ourselves, of various kinds of humming-birds, which, completely proved, that an inquisitive however feeble, are a pugnacious race. mind may gain knowledge and experi Among the birds of our own country, ence pleasure even by a visit to a chalk- the bittern (Ardea stellaris,) the pheasant, pit. Let us remember the inspired words and common cock, are, in a less degree, of the psalmist : "The works of the Lord examples of the same strategy in defence; are great, sought out of all them that and, besides the terror they infuse, are have pleasure therein.” Yes, whether instruments of protection, in offering an we look to the organic relics of by-gone uncertain mark to a combatant. time, or to the forms of animal or vege The song of birds has ever been a table life that now occupy the surface of theme of poetic admiration, and a subject our planet, they all speak of design, of of interest to every lover of nature ; but wisdom, and of power inscrutable; they the precise character of these sounds, all proclaim the existence of God-a God with those of animals in general, and eternal, immutable, the Lord of life more especially the ideas which the creathe Creator of all things visible and in- tures may be supposed to express in these visible, whose name the naturalist, and modulations, have been little studied by especially the Christian, cannot pronounce naturalists. without awe and reverence. M. It is obvious to a listener that, in the

utterance of song, birds are intensely occupied by their feelings; and that they

are listened to by others of their race ANIMAL INSTINCTS.

with an intelligence and earnestness The tail of the peacock is of a plain which proves that they possess an underand humble description, and seems to be standing of the meaning of what is utof no other use besides aiding in the erec tered. A thrush, blackbird, or redbreast tion of the long feathers of the loins ; may be seen to stretch forward the head, while the latter are supplied at their in- and direct the ear, to catch the notes sertion with an arrangement of voluntary which come to it fro some distant songmuscles, which contribute to their eleva- ster of its own species ; nor will an effort tion, and to the other motions of which be made to return a sound, until the comthey are capable. If surprised by a foe, petitor is known to have ended his lay. the peacock presently erects its gorgeous In such cases, the contest is one of rivalry, feathers; and the enemy at once beholds and not of imitation; for the series of starting up before him a creature which notes is in no case the same, nor is the his terror cannot fail to magnify into the beginning or ending of each portion at bulk implied by the circumference of a all taken up from one bird to another. glittering circle of the most dazzling And it is still more remarkable, that the hues, his attention at the same time being responses proceeding from those of the distracted by a hundred glaring eyes same species are continued with distinctmeeting his gaze in every direction. A ness, and without distraction, their attenhiss from the head in the centre, which tion never being diverted by the multiin shape and colours resembles that of a plicity of sounds that strike the ear from serpent, and a rustle from the trembling birds of another species, which are loudly quills, are attended by an advance of the singing close at hand. I have marked most conspicuous portion of this bulk; three cocks, of superior size and majesty, which is in itself an action of retreat, engaged in answering each other from being caused by a receding motion of the distant quarters in regular succession; body of the bird. That must be a bold but when at last a host of inferior indivianimal which does not pause at the sight duals were led to join their voices to the of such an object; and a short interval chorus, the crowing ceased in those that is sufficient to insure the safety of the began it, as if disdaining to mix their bird; but if, after all, the enemy should voices with the puny efforts of the others. be bold enough to risk an assault, it is The sympathetic feeling which is thus most likely that its eagerness or rage known to exist between animals of the would be spent on the glittering appen- same species, and the knowledge they dages, in which case the creature is di- display of the sounds of kindred voices, vested only of that which a little time to the general exclusion of others, though

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